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math

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Arc Length the length of an arc which can be determined by using the proportion ,

where A is the degree measure of this arc, r is the radius of the circle, and l is the arc

length r l A 2 360

Central Angle an angle formed by two rays whose vertex is the center of the circle

Common External Tangents tangents which do not intersect the segment joining the

centers of the two circles

Common Internal Tangents tangents that intersect the segment joining the centers

of the two circles

Common Tangent a line that is tangent to two circles on the same plane

Congruent Arcs arcs of the same circle or of congruent circles with equal measures

Degree Measure of a Major Arc the measure of a major arc that is equal to 360

minus the measure of the minor arc with the same endpoints

Degree Measure of a Minor Arc the measure of the central angle which intercepts

the arc

External Secant Segment the part of a secant segment that is outside a circle

Inscribed Angle an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides contain chords

of the circle

Intercepted Arc an arc that lies in the interior of an inscribed angle and has endpoints

on the angle

Major Arc an arc of a circle whose measure is greater than that of a semicircle

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or

by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission

from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015. DEPED COPY 213

Minor Arc an arc of a circle whose measure is less than that of a semicircle

Point of Tangency the point of intersection of the tangent line and the circle

Secant a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. A secant contains a chord of a circle

Sector of a Circle the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the two radii to the endpoints of

the arc

Segment of a Circle the region bounded by an arc and the segment joining its endpoints

Semicircle an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a circle

Tangent to a Circle a line coplanar with the circle and intersects it at one and only one point

LIST OF THEOREMS AND POSTULATES ON CIRCLES

Postulates:

1. Arc Addition Postulate. The measure of an arc formed by two adjacent arcs is the sum of the

measures of the two arcs.

2. At a given point on a circle, one and only one line can be drawn that is tangent to the circle.

Theorems:

1. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding

central angles are congruent.

2. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding

chords are congruent.

3. In a circle, a diameter bisects a chord and an arc with the same endpoints if and only if it is

perpendicular to the chord.

4. If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its

intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle).

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by

any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from

the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015. DEPED COPY 214

5. If two inscribed angles of a circle (or congruent circles) intercept congruent arcs or the same arc,

then the angles are congruent.

6. If an inscribed angle of a circle intercepts a semicircle, then the angle is a right angle.

8. If a line is tangent to a circle, then it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of tangency.

9. If a line is perpendicular to a radius of a circle at its endpoint that is on the circle, then the line is

tangent to the circle.

10. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle, then the two segments are

congruent.

11. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the angle formed is one-half

the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

12. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the angle formed

is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

13. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the angle formed is one-half

the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

14. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an angle formed is one-half

the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted by the angle and its vertical angle.

15. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the measure of each angle formed

is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc.

16. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures of the segments of one chord is

equal to the product of the measures of the segments of the other chord.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by

any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from

the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015. DEPED COPY 215

17. If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an exterior point, then the product of the lengths

of one secant segment and its external secant segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the

other secant segment and its external secant segment.

18. If a tangent segment and a secant segment are drawn to a circle from an exterior point, then the

square of the length of the tangent segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the secant

segment and its external secant segment.

1. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third Year Mathematics. Module

18: Circles and Their Properties.

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