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Vibration revision

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You are on page 1of 68

Topic 1

Fundamentals of Vibration

1

Topic Outline

1.1 Preliminary Remarks

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

1.3 Importance of the Study of Vibration

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

1.5 Classification of Vibration

1.6 Vibration Analysis Procedure

1.7 Spring Elements

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

1.9 Damping Elements

1.10 Harmonic Motion

1.11 Harmonic Analysis 2

1.1

Preliminary remarks

3

1.1 Preliminary Remarks

Brief history of vibration

Examination of vibrations important role

Vibration analysis of an engineering system

Definitions and concepts of vibration

Concept of harmonic analysis for general

periodic motions

4

1.2

Brief History of

Vibration

5

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

Origins of vibration:

582-507 B.C.

Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician, is the first to

investigate musical sounds on a scientific basis. He conducted

experiments on a vibrating string by using a simple apparatus called

a monochord. He further developed the concept of pitch.

Monochord

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

Around 350 B.C.

Aristotle wrote treatises on music and sound

In 320 B.C.

Aristoxenus wrote a three-volume work entitled Elements of Harmony

In 300 B.C.

Euclid wrote a treatises Introduction to Harmonics

A.D. 132

Zhang Heng invented the worlds

first seismograph to measure

earthquakes

7

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

From Galileo to Rayleigh:

Galileo Galilei (1564 1642)

founder of modern experimental science

started experimenting on simple pendulum

published a book, Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, in 1638,

describing resonance, frequency, length, tension and density of a

vibrating stretched string

found relation between pitch and frequency of vibration of a string

8

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

From Galileo to Rayleigh:

Joseph Sauveur (1653 1716)

coined the word acoustics for the science of sound

founded nodes, loops, harmonics and the fundamental frequency

calculated the frequency of a stretched string from the measured sag of

its middle point

published his monumental work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia

Mathematica, in 1686, discovering three laws of motion

9

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

From Galileo to Rayleigh:

Joseph Lagrange (1736 1813)

found the analytical solution of the vibrating string and the wave equation

solved the problem of vibration of a rectangular flexible membrane

studied the vibration of a circular membrane

founded Rayleigh-Ritz method, used to find frequency of vibration of a 10

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

Recent contributions:

1902 Frahm investigated the importance of torsional vibration

study in the design of propeller shafts of steamships

Aurel Stodola (1859 1943)

contributed to the study of vibration of beams, plates, and membranes.

developed a method for analyzing vibrating beams which is applicable to

turbine blades

presented a practical solution to the problem of vibration of an

11

unbalanced rotating disk

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

Recent contributions:

1892 Lyapunov laid the foundations of modern stability theory

which is applicable to all types of dynamical systems

1920

Duffling and Van der Pol brought the first definite solutions into the

theory of nonlinear vibrations and drew attention to its importance in

engineering

Introduction of the correlation function by Taylor

1950

advent of high-speed digital computers

generate approximate solutions

12

1.2 Brief History of Vibration

1950s

developed finite element method enabled engineers to conduct

numerically detailed vibration analysis of complex mechanical,

vehicular, and structural systems displaying thousands of degrees of

freedom with the aid of computers

Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp presented the finite element method as

known today

13

1.3

Importance of the

Study of Vibration

14

1.3 Importance of the Study of

Vibration

Why study vibration?

Vibrations can lead to excessive deflections and failure on the

machines and structures

To reduce vibration through proper design of machines and their

mountings

To utilize profitably in several consumer and industrial applications

To improve the efficiency of certain machining, casting, forging &

welding processes

To stimulate earthquakes for geological research and conduct studies

in design of nuclear reactors

15

1.4

Basic Concepts of

Vibration

16

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Vibration = any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time

Vibratory System consists of:

spring or elasticity

mass or inertia

damper

Involves transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa

17

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Degree of Freedom (d.o.f.) =

min. no. of independent coordinates required to

determine completely the positions of all parts of a

system at any instant of time

Examples of single degree-of-freedom systems:

18

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of second degree-of-freedom systems:

19

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Examples of three degree-of-freedom systems:

20

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Example of Infinite-number-of-degrees-of-freedom system:

Infinite number of degrees of freedom system are termed continuous

or distributed systems

Finite number of degrees of freedom are termed discrete or lumped

parameter systems

More accurate results obtained by increasing number of degrees of

freedom

21

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Free Vibration:

A system is left to vibrate on its own after an initial disturbance

and no external force acts on the system. E.g. simple pendulum

Forced Vibration:

A system that is subjected to a repeating external force. E.g.

oscillation arises from diesel engines

Resonance occurs when the frequency of the external force

coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system

22

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Undamped Vibration:

When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other

resistance during oscillations

Damped Vibration:

When any energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other

resistance during oscillations

Linear Vibration:

When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the

spring, the mass and the damper behave linearly

23

1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration

Nonlinear Vibration:

If any of the components behave nonlinearly

Deterministic Vibration:

If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion)

acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time

Nondeterministic or random Vibration:

When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be

predicted

24

1.5

Classification of

Vibration

25

1.5 Classification of Vibration

Examples of deterministic and random excitation:

26

1.6

Vibration Analysis

Procedure

27

1.6 Vibration Analysis Procedure

Step 1: Mathematical Modeling

Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations

Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations

Step 4: Interpretation of the Results

28

1.6 Vibration Analysis Procedure

Example of the modeling of a forging hammer:

29

1.7

Spring Elements

30

1.7 Spring Elements

Linear spring is a type of mechanical link that is generally assumed

to have negligible mass and damping

Spring force is given by:

F kx

F = spring force,

k = spring stiffness or spring constant, and

x = deformation (displacement of one end

with respect to the other)

31

1.7 Spring Elements

Work done (U) in deforming a spring or the strain (potential) energy

is given by:

1 2

U kx

2

When an incremental force F is added to F:

F F F ( x* x )

dF 1 d 2F

F(x )

*

( x ) 2

( x ) 2

...

dx x* 2! dx x*

32

1.7 Spring Elements

33

1.7 Spring Elements

Static deflection of a beam at the free end is given by:

Wl 3

st

3EI

W = mg is the weight of the mass m,

E = Youngs Modulus, and

I = moment of inertia of cross-section of beam

W 3EI

k 3

st l

34

1.7 Spring Elements

Combination of Springs:

Springs in parallel if we have n spring constants k1, k2, , kn in

parallel, then the equivalent spring constant keq is:

keq k1 k2 ... kn

Combination of Springs:

Springs in series if we have n spring constants k1, k2, , kn in series,

then the equivalent spring constant keq is:

1 1 1 1

...

keq k1 k2 kn

35

1.7 Spring Elements

36

1.8

Elements

Mass or Inertia

37

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Using mathematical model to represent the actual vibrating system

E.g. In the figure below, the mass and damping of the beam can be

disregarded; the system can thus be modeled as a spring-mass system

as shown.

38

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Combination of Masses

E.g. Assume that the mass of the frame is negligible compared to the

masses of the floors. The masses of various floor levels represent the

mass elements, and the elasticity of the vertical members denote the

spring elements.

39

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Case 1: Translational Masses Connected by a Rigid Bar

Velocities of masses can be expressed as:

l l3

x2 2 x1 x3 x1

l1 l1

40

xeq x1

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Case 1: Translational Masses Connected by a Rigid Bar

By equating the kinetic energy of the system:

1 1 1 1

m1 x12 m2 x22 m3 x32 meq xeq2

2 2 2 2

2 2

l2 l3

meq m1 m2 m3

l1 l1

41

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Case 2: Translational and Rotational Masses Coupled Together

By equating the kinetic energy of the system:

meq = single equivalent translational mass

x = translational velocity

= rotational velocity

42

J0 = mass moment of inertia

Jeq = single equivalent rotational mass

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Case 2: Translational and Rotational Masses Coupled Together

Equivalent translational mass:

Kinetic energy of the two masses is given by:

1 2 1 2

T mx J 0

2 2

Kinetic energy of the equivalent mass is given by:

x

Since and xeq x , equating Teq & T gives

R

1

Teq

2

meq xeq

2

J0

meq m 2 43

R

1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements

Case 2: Translational and Rotational Masses Coupled Together

Equivalent rotational mass:

1

2

1 2 1 2

J eq m R J 0 or J eq J 0 mR2

2

2 2

44

1.9

Damping Elements

45

1.9 Damping Elements

Viscous Damping:

Damping force is proportional to the velocity of the vibrating body

in a fluid medium such as air, water, gas, and oil.

Damping force is constant in magnitude but opposite in direction to

that of the motion of the vibrating body between dry surfaces

Energy is absorbed or dissipated by material during deformation due

to friction between internal planes

46

1.9 Damping Elements

Hysteresis loop for elastic materials:

47

1.9 Damping Elements

Shear Stress ( ) developed in the fluid layer at a distance y from the

fixed plate is:

du

dy

where du/dy = v/h is the velocity gradient.

moving plate is:

Av

F A cv

h

A

where A is the surface area of the moving plate and c is the

48

damping constant h

1.9 Damping Elements

If a damper is nonlinear, a linearization process is used about the

operating velocity (v*) and the equivalent damping constant is:

dF

c

dv v*

49

1.10

Harmonic Motion

50

1.10 Harmonic Motion

Periodic Motion: motion repeated after equal intervals of time

Harmonic Motion: simplest type of periodic motion

Displacement (x): (on horizontal axis)

x Asin Asin t

Velocity:

dx

A cos t

dt

Acceleration:

d 2x

2

2

A sin t 2

x 51

dt

1.10 Harmonic Motion

Scotch yoke mechanism:

The similarity between cyclic (harmonic) and sinusoidal motion.

52

1.10 Harmonic Motion

Also, it can be expressed as

X A cos iA sin

X Acos i sin Ae i

Thus,

Aj (a 2j b2j ) ; j 1, 2

bj

j tan 1 ; j 1, 2

aj

Operations on Harmonic Functions:

Rotating vector, X Aeit

53

1.10 Harmonic Motion

We have

Displacement Re[ Aeit ] A cos t

Acceleration Re[ 2 Ae it ] 2 A cos t

2 A cost 180

where Re denotes the real part

Vectorial addition of harmonic functions

54

1.10 Harmonic Motion

55

1.10 Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

equilibrium position

Period of oscillation (T) is time taken to complete one cycle of motion

2

T

Frequency of oscillation (f) is the no. of cycles per unit time

1

f

T 2 56

1.10 Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

external forces

Phase angle () is the angular difference between two synchronous

harmonic motions

x1 A1 sin t

x2 A2 sint

57

1.10 Harmonic Motion

Definitions of Terminology:

used as a notation of various quantities such as displacement, velocity,

acceleration, pressure, and power

P

dB 10 log

P0

X

dB 20 log

X0

where P0 is some reference value of power and X0 is specified reference

voltage.

58

1.11

Harmonic Analysis

59

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Fourier Series Expansion:

representation is given by

a0

x (t ) a1 cos t a2 cos 2t ...

2

b1 sin t b2 sin 2t ...

a0

( an cos nt bn sin nt )

2 n 1

Gibbs Phenomenon:

An anomalous behavior observed from a periodic function that is

60

being represented by Fourier series.

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Gibbs Phenomenon:

As n increases, the approximation can be seen to improve

everywhere except in the vicinity of the discontinuity, P. The error in

amplitude remains at approximately 9 percent, even when k

61

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Complex Fourier Series:

The Fourier series can also be represented in terms of complex

numbers.

e it cos t i sin t

eit e it

cos t

2

eit e it

sin t

2i

62

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Frequency Spectrum

Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram of amplitude (an

and bn or dn and n) versus frequency (n)

63

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

A periodic function:

64

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Representation of a function in time and frequency domain:

65

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Even and odd functions:

Even function & its Fourier series

expansion

a

x(t ) a cos nt

0

n

(1.88)

2 n 1

expansion

x(t ) x(t ) (1.89)

x(t ) b sin nt

n 1 n

(1.90) 66

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Half-Range Expansions:

The function is extended to include the interval to 0 as shown in

the figure. The Fourier series expansions of x1(t) and x2(t) are known

as half-range expansions.

67

1.11 Harmonic Analysis

Numerical Computation of Coefficients

If x(t) is not in a simple form, experimental determination of the

amplitude of vibration and numerical integration procedure like the

trapezoidal or Simpsons rule is used to determine the coefficients an

and bn.

N

2

a0

N

x

i 1

i

2 N

2nti

an

N

x cos

i 1

i

2 N 2nti

bn xi sin

N i 1 68

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