Paper Title
An LMI based Robust H? SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System
Authors
Justin Mathew Joy, Ramya R
Abstract
This paper presents the design of an H? (H-infinity) controller to stabilize an uncertain power system using mixed sensitivity approach through an iterative LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) algorithm. Here a robust control methodology is suggested to improve the voltage regulation of a synchronous generator. H? control method is used in this control theory to synthesize controller to obtain robust performance and stabilization. This technique has the advantage over classical control techniques that it is readily applicable to the problems including multivariable systems. The proposed robust controller enhances the performance as well as minimizes the disturbances’ effect more effectively. In this paper the controller is designed and simulated under MATLAB/Simulink for electric generator stabilization studies for an SMIB system.
Keywords
static output feedback, linear matrix Inequality, H? robust controller, loop shaping.
Citation/Export
MLA
Justin Mathew Joy, Ramya R, “An LMI based Robust H? SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System”, May 16 Volume 4 Issue 5 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 141 - 146
APA
Justin Mathew Joy, Ramya R, May 16 Volume 4 Issue 5, “An LMI based Robust H? SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 141 - 146

© All Rights Reserved

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Paper Title
An LMI based Robust H? SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System
Authors
Justin Mathew Joy, Ramya R
Abstract
This paper presents the design of an H? (H-infinity) controller to stabilize an uncertain power system using mixed sensitivity approach through an iterative LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) algorithm. Here a robust control methodology is suggested to improve the voltage regulation of a synchronous generator. H? control method is used in this control theory to synthesize controller to obtain robust performance and stabilization. This technique has the advantage over classical control techniques that it is readily applicable to the problems including multivariable systems. The proposed robust controller enhances the performance as well as minimizes the disturbances’ effect more effectively. In this paper the controller is designed and simulated under MATLAB/Simulink for electric generator stabilization studies for an SMIB system.
Keywords
static output feedback, linear matrix Inequality, H? robust controller, loop shaping.
Citation/Export
MLA
Justin Mathew Joy, Ramya R, “An LMI based Robust H? SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System”, May 16 Volume 4 Issue 5 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 141 - 146
APA
Justin Mathew Joy, Ramya R, May 16 Volume 4 Issue 5, “An LMI based Robust H? SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 141 - 146

© All Rights Reserved

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______________________________________________________________________________________

An LMI based Robust H SOF Controller for AVR in an SMIB System

Justin Mathew Joy Ramya R

Department of EEE Assistant Professor, Department of EEE

SRM University SRM University

Chennai, India Chennai, India

e-mail: jus9660@gmail.com e-mail: rramyame@gmail.com

Abstract This paper presents the design of an H (H-infinity) controller to stabilize an uncertain power system using mixed sensitivity

approach through an iterative LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) algorithm. Here a robust control methodology is suggested to improve the voltage

regulation of a synchronous generator. H control method is used in this control theory to synthesize controller to obtain robust performance and

stabilization. This technique has the advantage over classical control techniques that it is readily applicable to the problems including

multivariable systems. The proposed robust controller enhances the performance as well as minimizes the disturbances effect more effectively.

In this paper the controller is designed and simulated under MATLAB/Simulink for electric generator stabilization studies for an SMIB system.

Keywords- static output feedback, linear matrix Inequality, H robust controller, loop shaping.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

FORMULATION

Power system experiences continuous deviations in

The mixed-sensitivity formulation for the optimization of

operating conditions due to varying generation/load and other

output control effort and disturbance rejection and is explained

factors. The regulation of voltage and stability of system have

in figure 3, where, K(s) is the controller to be designed and

been considered as an important problem for perfect system

G(s) is the open-loop system model. The equation S = (I-GK)-1

operation over the time. The AVR is installed to attain the

gives the sensitivity transfer function from measured output

required voltage regulation and performance.

y(s) to disturbance input d(s). For reducing the effects of

disturbance on the measured output, the minimization of S is

During the past years, many studies have been done on the necessary, i.e. ||S||. For optimizing the control effort of the

designing of an advanced AVR using domain partitioning, controller in a limited bandwidth, the minimization of the H

robust pole placement, adaptive control etc. Recently many norm of the transfer function from the disturbance input d(s) to

methods have been developed coordinating the voltage the control input u(s) is needed. This is equivalent to

regulation and stabilization requirements within a single minimizing ||KS||, where KS is the complementary sensitivity

controller. A desensitized controller designed using LQG transfer function.

approach is given in [3]. Internal Mode Control (IMC) [4]-[5]

is also used to attain a trade-off in voltage regulation and min W1 S (1)

stabilization. Despite all the given approaches uses linear

K S W2 KS

control methods, because of control structure complexity,

various unknown design aspects and neglecting real where S is set of all internally stabilizing controllers K.

constraints, these approaches are not meant to meet the

objectives of multi-machine power system. The performances Both these functions together represent the system. But, it is

of these methods depend on the time of switching. However, impossible to minimize both S and KS together over all the full

using multiple approaches in such highly non-linear structures frequency spectrum. The disturbance rejection is normally

increases the complexity of the designed controllers. needed at low frequencies, so the S needs to be minimized at

low frequencies, whereas KS should be minimized at greater

In this paper, stabilization and voltage regulation frequencies where controlled control action is required. This

considering practical constraints for feasibility are formulated is done by using individual weighting functions W1(s) and

via an H static output feedback (H-SOF) control problem W2(s) for each transfer function. The minimization problem is

which can be easily solved using an iterative liner matrix now transformed according to the transfer function S which is

inequality (LMI) algorithm. The designed controller ensures less than 1 and the transfer function KS is less than 1 .

effective and direct trade-off between regulation and W1 W2

performance. The controller uses the measured signals and has With the inclusion of weights, the problem is reformed as :

small proportional gains; giving adequate surety for

implementation, mainly in an SMIB system. The developed To obtain a stabilizing controller, K, such that

control methodology bridges the gap between the simplicity

and robustness of the system, thus satisfying the constraints. In min W1S (2)

order to explain the effective performance of the controller, it K S W2 KS

is applied to an SMIB (Single Machine Infinite Bus) system.

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_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 5 141 - 146

______________________________________________________________________________________

III. PROPOSED CONTROL STRATEGY d .E 'q K4 1 1

E 'q EFD . (10)

A. Modelling dt T 'd 0 K3T 'd 0 T 'd 0

Substituting for VT in the differential equation for the voltage

The generator is represented by the classical model with all transducer block becomes

the resistances neglected as shown in figure 2 and the

excitation system used for the generator is shown in figure 1.

Here E is the value voltage behind reactance, Xd. Its

magnitude is assumed to remain to remain constant at the pre-

disturbance value. Let be angle by which E leads the

infinite voltage V. As the rotor oscillates during a

disturbance, changes. Only one winding on the rotor is

Figure 1: Block diagram of the excitation system

considered, ie, the field winding as given in [2].

0

jX T

E ' (cos j sin ) V

jX T

where X T X 'd X e .

Figure 2: SMIB system

(3)

The acceleration equation is given by d (X 1 ) K 5 K 1

6 E ' q X 1 . (11)

d w

K D w Tm Te . dt TR TR TR

2H

dt The above state variable equations are represented in state

(4) canonical form as

Linearising equation we get, w A11 A12 A13 A14 w B1

d w

1

Tm K S K D w . (5)

A21 A22 A23 A24 B2

dt 2H E q A A32 A33 A34 E 'q B3

31

The electrical torque equation is X 1 A41 A42 A43 A44 X 1 B4

Te K1 K2E 'q (6) IV. OVERALL CONTROL FRAMEWORK

where K1 and K2 are constants. The mixed-sensitivity methodology, explained before, is

solved here as a generalized H problem. The first step is to

The swing equation is given by form a generalized regulator P as per the the mixed sensitivity

d formulation taking the assumption D = 0. The state-space

w.w . s

(7)

dt formation of the generalized regulator P is given by:

x A 0 B

z C x

The voltage equations for this model are given by 1 I 0

w

pE 'q

1

E 'q X d X 'd I d EFD . (8) z2 0 0 I

T 'd 0 u

y C I 0

Taking the Laplace transform of Eq. 3.13 and rearranging, we (12)

get where x: state variable vector of the system,

EFD 1 sT 'd 0 E 'q X d X 'd I d . y: measured output,

z1,z2: regulated output.

w: disturbance input,

Taking the Laplace transform of the expression for Id and

u: control input,

substituting it in the above equation, we get after

A, B, C, D: state space matrices.

simplification,

K3 K3 K 4

E ' E . (9)

The developed controller is found out from LTI control

1 K3T 'd 0 s 1 K3T 'd 0 s

q FD

where K5 and K6 are constants.

||Twz|| < where, Twz(s) gives the closed-loop transfer function

from w to z. The state-space equation of controller is given by:

The constants K1 to K6 given in the block diagram in figure 3 x k Ak x k Bk y (13)

represents parameters such as impedance, demagnetizing

u C k x k Dk y

effect etc. The constants K3 and K4 are usually positive.

Dimensionally K3 is an impedance. It takes into account the where Ak, Bk, Ck, Dk are the state space matrices of the

loading effect of external impedance. K4 is a measure of the controller.

demagnetizing effect due to a change in the rotor angle.

From (6), we get The transfer function Twz(s) between w and z is derived as

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IJRITCC | May 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 5 141 - 146

______________________________________________________________________________________

where,

Twz(s) = Dcl + Ccl (sI Acl )- Bcl AT S SA B C C T B T

22 2 2 C D

1 12

D C2

T

C1 D12 D C2 I

A B2 Dk C2 B2Ck

Acl

Bk C2 Ak

The new controller variables are defined as:

A

=Nk + SB2Dk

B

C =CkMT + DkC2R

=Dk

D (17)

To demonstrate the performance of the developed

Figure 3: Simplified block diagram of the augmented

controller, an SMIB system is taken as the test study system

plant including controller

which is given in figure 2. The generator is having excitation

system as shown in figure 1. For simulation 100 MVA is

B B2 Dk D21 considered as the system base MVA.

Bcl 1 A synchronous generator is connected to bus 1 and bus 2

Bk D21

is taken as the infinite bus. The objective is to design a robust

Ccl C1 D12Dk C2 D12Ck controller for the synchronous generator. First of all, a full

Dcl D11 D12Dk D21 (14) order robust dynamic controller with the structure given in

equation (2.2) is designed.

V. LINEAR MATRIX INEQUALITY FORMULATION

The bounded real lemma and the Schur's formula for the Then applying the proposed H-SOF control method,

determinant of a partitioned matrix is equivalent to the optimal gain of the controller is obtained through an iterative

existence of a solution X = XT > 0 to the following matrix LMI approach. The standard practice in H-infinity mixed-

inequality as in [15]. sensitivity design is choosing the weight W1(s) for rejection of

output disturbance and W2(s) for reducing the control effort in

X Acl AclT X Bcl X C clT

(15) the high frequency ranges. In view of that, the weights were

BclT i DclT 0 chosen as constant weights with a value 2.

C cl X i

VII. SIMULATION RESULTS

The design specifications hold for positive semi-definite To explain the performance of the developed method,

matrices X for better feasibility. The controller parameters in simulations were carried out. The robustness of the system

the matrix make closed loop matrices non-linear. The with H SOF controller is tested for voltage deviation and

controller variables are linearized in terms of an unknown system disturbance. The analysis of the damping ratios of

matrix corresponding eigen values is given as plots in table 1.Eigen

R M (16) values represent the state of stability of a system. Table 1

X T

M U gives the details of eigen values of plant before and after

Pre- and post-multiplying the inequality by the linearized applying the controller. The eigen values were more stabilized

R I with the implementation of the developed controller by

matrices

T

and , where T

0

and making them more closer towards the negative infinity portion

M

2 2 1

due to the application of the controller thereby enhancing the

I S , respectively and carrying out appropriate

T

robustness of the system as shown in table 2.

0 N

2

change of variables, the following LMI is obtained A state variable is the one that describes the mathematical

S 11 12 0 state of a system. The state of a system explains more about

21 22 the system and to determine its future characteristics in the

where, case of absence of any external forces affecting the modelled

AR RAT B2 C C T B2T B1 B2 D D21 system. Models which consist of first-order differential

11

coupled equations are in state-variable form.

B1 B2 D 21

T

I

21

A A B D C

2 2

T

SB1 B D21

C1 R D12C D11 D12 D D21

143

IJRITCC | May 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 5 141 - 146

______________________________________________________________________________________

Table 1: Eigen values and damping ratios exhibited more robustness with the inclusion of the developed

Plant with conventional Plant with robust robust H controller. The initial response of the rotor speed

No

AVR AVR and angle deviation is given in figures 4 and 5 respectively.

Damping Damping The settling time of the oscillations is reduced as well by 5-6

Eigen value Eigen value

ratio ratio

sec. Figures 6 and 7 gives the initial responses of deviations in

1 -0.0+0.0007i 0.4793 -0.093+6.54i 0.4789

excitation voltage and terminal voltage respectively which

2 -0.0+0.0007i 0.4793 -0.093+6.54i 0.4789 also exhibits the reduction as explained previously.

3 -0.003+0.001i 0.2051 -0.51 +17.43i 0.2011

Once the design is complete, it is required to verify the

4 -0.003+0.001i 0.2051 -0.51 +17.43i 0.2011

objective constraint. If the designed controller does not satisfy

Figure 4: Rotor speed deviation response Figure 6 :Excitation voltage deviation response

Figure 5: Rotor angle deviation response Figure 7: Terminal voltage deviation response

A perturbation of 0.2 percent was included in the the constraint, then the controller should be redesigned by

designing of the state variables (w, Efd, Vt). The unforced choosing a different set of weighting functions. It is shown

response of the state-space model G, i.e nominal plant and the that improvement in the high speed response of the controller

system including the conventional AVR with the initial was achieved.

condition of the states given in vector form X0 was calculated The mathematical model of a control system gives an

from the constants of the machines. The initial state vector X0 approximate true physical reality of system dynamics. The

typical generation of discrepancy includes the unmodelled

is a [4*1] sized matrix. The response was within the specified (high frequency) dynamics, neglected non-linearities in

limits. The system exhibited more robustness with the modelling, effect of deliberate reduced order models. And

presence of the developed controller. The settling time of the system parameter variations due to changes in environmental,

disturbance was reduced. The amplitude of the oscillations torn-and-worn factors.

was reduced by 5-6%. Also the deviation in terminal voltage

was reduced to a near zero value compared with the case of An uncertainty was inserted in the system model to

the system with the conventional controller. The system ascertain the robustness of the controller. The system

144

IJRITCC | May 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 5 141 - 146

______________________________________________________________________________________

withstood the effect of disturbance effectively. The

disturbance introduced was a parametric uncertainty in the

state space representation of the system. The given uncertainty

was a 50% change in the value of the state matrix elements

{i.e.ureal('p1',a1(2,1),'pe',50)}.The system with conventional

AVR proved to be unstable. The response of system variables

with uncertainty including robust AVR was plotted and is

given in figures 8 11 which explains the initial responses of

rotor speed and angle, excitation and terminal voltages

respectively. The system performance was improved with the

robust AVR.

includes the time evolution of its outputs when its inputs are

step functions. Step response of a system which is dynamic

gives information about its stability, and on its ability to attain

one stationary state after starting from another. Figure 12

shows the step response of system including the robust AVR

along with a disturbance. A disturbance of 20% was inserted

in the reference voltage at t = 80 sec and the disturbed ssignal

was fed to controller. The controller damped the disturbance

oscillations effectively. The iteration of the performance was

done step by step and the best closed loop gain calculated was

0.200909 which is within the standard limit.

The gamma value was minimized to a value as possible

and thus it can be concluded that the developed controller gives

maximum performance and enhances stability. It is proved that

the developed robust AVR improved the control over terminal

voltage than the conventional AVR controller.

Figure 9: Rotor angle deviation response

VIII. CONCLUSION

This paper presents an excitation control method using H

SOF method using an iterative LMI approach for enhancing the

145

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_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 5 141 - 146

______________________________________________________________________________________

robust performance of the system. The developed method was [10] LuoYuesheng, Gong Xinping, Luo Yuesheng, Gong Xinping, Robust

applied to an SMIB system, and also the results were obtained Fault-tolerant H2/H Controller Design Based On State Feedback,

Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Automation and

Logistics, August 16-20, 2010.

[11] Ahmed bensenouci, Design of a robust iterative PID controller for

power system stabilizer using H2 norm, IEEE Journal of electrical

systems, 7-1, 2011.

[12] Issarachai Ngamroo, overlapping decompositions-based robust

decentralized tabu search-optimized fixed structure H frequency

stabilizer design in interconnected power systems International Journal

of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Volume 9, Number

6, June 2013.

[13] YANG Chang-wei, CHEN Jie, The Non-fragile Robust Hinfinity

controller design with system uncertainty, IEEE transactions 2013.

[14] Bjarne grimstad, thesis, studies in static output feedback control,

2009, norwegian university of science and technology, department of

engineering cybernetics.

[15] Bikash Pal, Balarko Chaudhuri, Robust control in power systems,

2005.

AVR was found to be satisfactory over a wide range of APPENDIX

operating conditions making an appropriate and effective

trade-off between performance and voltage regulation by not parameters Value

changing the fundamental AVR concepts. The Ease and

flexibility of design to give a good feasible solution, are the 588 MVA

basemva

main pros of the deigned method used in this paper. The

results also proved better performance and robustness in the Vinf 1.0 pu

case of uncertainty (i.e. test of robustness). Therefore, it can

freq 50 Hz

be concluded that the developed method improves efficiency,

enhance dynamic performance of the power system and H 3.07 pu

provides more robustness thus increasing its stability limit. Xq 2.15 pu

Xd 2.35 pu

REFERENCES Tdo 6.0 pu

nd

[1] K R Padiyar, Power system dynamics: stability and control, 2 edition, Xd 0.253 pu

2008.

[2] P . Kundur, A textbook on Power System Stability and Control,1994. Ra 0.0023 pu

[3] Heniche, H. Bourles, and M. P. Houry: "A desensitized controller for Tr 0.02 pu

voltage regulation of power systems", IEEE Trans on Power Systems,

vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1461-1466 (1995) ka 200

[4] K. T. Law, D. J. Hill and N. R. Godfrey: "Robust co-ordinated AVRPSS kd 4

design", IEEE Trans on Power Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1218- 1225

(1994) re 0.1 pu

[5] K. T. Law, D. J. Hill and N. R. Godfrey: "Robust controller structure for

coordinated power system voltage regulator and stabilizer design", IEEE

Xe 0.65 pu

Trans on Control Systems Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 220-232 (1994)

[6] Jayapal Reddy , Mendiratta Jugal Kishore, Real time implementation of

H1 loop shaping robust PSS for multimachine power system using

dSPACE. Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Elsevier Ltd. at

SciVerse ScienceDirect. 2013.

[7] Saptarshi Das and Indranil Pan On the Mixed Loop-Shaping Tradeoffs

in Fractional-Order Control of the AVR System IEEE transactions on

industrial informatics, vol. 10, no. 4, november 2014.

[8] Z. Aghaie, Student Member, IEEE and R. Amirifar, Member, IEEE An

LMI Approach to Robust Controller Design for AVR System 40th

Southeastern Symposium on System Theory MA1.4 University of New

Orleans New Orleans, LA, USA, March 16-18, 2009

[9] Sarath S Nair, Automatic Weight Selection Algorithm for Designing H

Infinity controller for Active Magnetic Bearing, International Journal

of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), Vol. 3 No. 1, Jan

2011.

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