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is a statement that has been proved on the basis of previously established statements, such as

other theoremsand generally accepted statements, such as axioms.

Formal Proof

Theorems are often described as being "trivial", or "difficult", or "deep", or even "beautiful". These

subjective judgments vary not only from person to person, but also with time: for example, as a

proof is simplified or better understood, a theorem that was once difficult may become trivial. On

the other hand, a deep theorem may be simply stated, but its proof may involve surprising and

subtle connections between disparate areas of mathematics .

When two lines intersect to make an X, angles on opposite sides of the X are called vertical angles.

These angles are equal, and here's the official theorem that tells you so.

Vertical angles are congruent: If two angles are vertical angles, then they're congruent.

In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that

do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel. By extension, a line and a

plane, or two planes, in three-dimensional Euclidean space that do not share a point are said to

be parallel.

In three-dimensional geometry, skew lines are twolines that do not intersect and are not parallel. A

simple example of a pair of skew lines is the pair oflines through opposite edges of a regular

tetrahedron.

In geometry, a transversal is a line that passes through two lines in the same plane at two distinct

points. Transversals play a role in establishing whether two other lines in the Euclidean plane are

parallel.

When two lines are crossed by another line (called the Transversal): The pairs of angles on opposite

sides of the transversal but inside the two lines are called Alternate Interior Angles.

When two lines are crossed by another line (called the Transversal): The pairs of angles on opposite

sides of the transversal but outside the two lines are called Alternate Exterior Angles.

When two lines are crossed by another line (called the Transversal ): The angles in matching

corners are called Corresponding Angles.

The same-side interior angle theorem states that when two lines that are parallel are intersected

by a transversal line, the same-side interior angles that are formed are supplementary, or add up

to 180 degrees.

When parallel lines are cut by a transversal line, same-side exterior angles are formed, which are

outside of the parallel lines and on the same side of the transversal line. The theorem states that

when parallel lines are cut by a transversal line, the same-side exterior angles are supplementary.

(1) If two lines are cut by a transversal, pairs of acute angles are equal in measure, pairs of obtuse

angles are also equal in measure, and any acute angle is supplementary to any obtuse angle.

(2) The degree measures of two interior angles on the same side of the transversal will add up to

180.

(3) Also, the sum of the degree measures of any acute angle and any obtuse angle will be 180.

If two straight lines are cut by a transversal, and if

the pair of corresponding angles is equal, then the two straight lines are parallel to each other.

the pair of alternate angles is equal, then the two straight lines are parallel to each other.

the pair of interior angles on the same side of transversal is supplementary, then the two straight

lines are parallel.

Therefore, in order to prove that the given lines are parallel; show either alternate angles are equal

or, corresponding angles are equal or, the co-interior angles are supplementary.

The first is if the corresponding angles, the angles that are on the same corner at each

intersection, are equal, then the lines are parallel. The second is if the alternate interior

angles, the angles that are on opposite sides of the transversal and inside the parallel lines,

are equal, then the lines are parallel.

Triangle Congruence

Triangles are congruent when they have

exactly the same three sides and exactly the same three angles.

Polygons

A polygon is any 2-dimensional shape formed with straight lines. Triangles, quadrilaterals,

pentagons, and hexagons are all examples of polygons. The name tells you how many sides the shape

has. For example, a triangle has three sides, and a quadrilateral has four sides.

Classification of Polygons

TRIANGLES

with all sides equal is called equilateral, a triangle with two sides equal is called isosceles, and a

triangle with all sides a different length is called scalene.

Kinds of Triangle

The median of a triangle is a line segment joining a vertex to the midpoint of the opposing side.

Every triangle has exactly three medians, one from each vertex, and they all intersect each other

at the triangle's centroid.

The altitude of a triangle is a line segment through a vertex and perpendicular to (i.e. forming a

right angle with) a line containing the base (the opposite side of the triangle). This line containing

the opposite side is called the extended base of the altitude.

The angle bisector theorem is concerned with the relative lengths of the two segments that a

triangle's side is divided into by a line that bisects the opposite angle. It equates their relative

lengths to the relative lengths of the other two sides of the triangle.

The definition of the perpendicular bisector of a side of a triangle is a line segment that is

both perpendicular to a side of a triangle and passes through its midpoint.

The ability to reason allows us to use mathematical knowledge and to generate and solidify

mathematical ideas that are new to us. As part of the reasoning and proof process, students

develop their mathematical ideas by making, testing, and refining conjectures. In the middle grades,

students sharpen and extend their reasoning skills by analyzing their assertions, using both

inductive and deductive reasoning.

Conditional Statements

A conditional statement, symbolized by p q, is an if-then statement in which p is a hypothesis and q

is a conclusion. The logical connector in a conditional statement is denoted by the symbol.

The conditional is defined to be true unless a true hypothesis leads to a false conclusion.

Converse

Converse means the "if" and "then" parts of a sentence are switched. For example, "If two numbers

are both even, then their sum is even" is a true statement. The converse would be "If the sum of

two numbers is even, then the numbers are even," which is not a true statement.

Reasoning

Reasoning is the process of using existing knowledge to draw conclusions, make predictions, or

construct explanations.

Kinds of reasoning

Intuition- a phenomenon of the mind, describes the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the

use of reason.

Analogy-is a comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite

different from it.

Induction- is a mathematical proof technique used to prove a given statement about any well-

ordered set.

Abduction- is a form of logical inference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts

for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation .

Drawing Conclusion

Let x be the measure of the complement of the angle. Then, the measures of complementary angles

add up to 90, we have to have

x + 32.7 = 90

x = 90 - 32.7 = 57.3

Now let y be the measure of the angle's supplement. Since the measures of supplementary angles

add up to 180 this means we have to have

y + 32.7 = 180

y = 180 - 32.7 = 147.3

Reflexive Property

A quantity is equal to itself.

Symmetric Property

If A = B, then B = A.

Transitive Property

If A = B and B = C, then A = C.

If A = B, then A + C = B + C.

Subtraction Postulate- if equal quantities are subtracted from equal quantities, then the

differences are equal.

Division Postulate- If equal quantities are divided by equal quantities, the quotients are equal.

Postulates

Geometry consists of a set of theorems, each derived from definitions, axioms, and postulates. A

postulate is a truth without formal proof.

Postulate 2: The measure of any line segment is a unique positive number. The measure (or length)

of AB is a positive number, AB.

Postulate 3: If X is a point on AB and A-X-B (X is between A and B), then AX + XB = AB

Postulate 4: If two lines intersect, then they intersect in exactly one point

Postulate 5: Through any three noncollinear points, there is exactly one plane.

Postulate 6: If two planes intersect, then their intersection is a line.+

Postulate 7: If two points lie in a plane, then the line joining them lies in that plane.

Postulate 8: The measure of an angle is a unique positive number.

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