Summer Internship Report 2010 LIST OF CO TE TS

DECLARATIO ............................................................................................... 7 ACK OWLEDGEME T................................................................................ 8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................... 9 LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................10 LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................13 CHAPTER-1 I TRODUCTIO .....................................................................14
1.1 1.2 1.3 ABOUT THE I DUSTRY......................................................................................14 SHORTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL....................................................................16 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL FOR COPPER I DUSTRY.....................18

CHAPTER-2 ABOUT THE COMPA Y.......................................................19
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 VISIO 2015.............................................................................................................19 MISSIO ...................................................................................................................19 STRE GTHS...........................................................................................................20 HISTORY.................................................................................................................20 SWOT A ALYSIS.....................................................................................................21 TQM- A WAY OF LIFE.........................................................................................22 TPM JOUR EY AT SIIL.......................................................................................22

CHAPTER-3 OBJECTIVE, SCOPE A D METHODOLOGY..................23
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 OBJECTIVE............................................................................................................23 SCOPE OF THE PROJECTS................................................................................23 METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................23 LIMITATIO S OF THE PROJECT....................................................................23

CHAPTER-4 PROJECT I DETAIL............................................................24
4.1 4.2 DEFI ITIO : TIME EFFICIE CY...................................................................24 FACTORS I FLUE CI G ACTUAL RU HOUSE 4.2.1 CHA GE OVER....................................................................................................25 I G HOURS OF CELL .........24

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4.2.1.1 4.2.1.2 CELLHOUSE PREPARATIO ...........................................................................25 CATHODE STRIPPI G MACHI E (CSM)......................................................26

4.2.1.2.1 PURPOSE...............................................................................................................26 4.2.1.2.2 OPERATI G PROCEDURE OF CSM..............................................................26 4.2.1.2.3 STA DARD MACHI E HOURS REQUIRED................................................27 4.2.1.2.4 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DELAY AREAS I CSM.......................................28 4.2.1.2.5 PARETO A ALYSIS OF THE DEPARTME TS I CSM.............................30 4.2.1.3 A ODE PREPARATIO MACHI E (APM)....................................................31

4.2.1.3.1 OPERATI G PROCEDURE OF APM...............................................................31 4.2.1.3.2 STA DARD MACHI E HOURS REQUIRED.................................................32 4.2.1.3.3 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DELAY AREAS I APM........................................33 4.2.1.3.4 PARETO A ALYSIS OF THE DEPARTME TS I APM.............................34 4.2.1.4 A ODE SCRAP WASHI G MACHI E (ASWM)...........................................35

4.2.1.4.1 OPERATI G PROCEDURE OF ASWM...........................................................35 4.2.1.4.2 STA DARD MACHI E HOURS REQUIRED.................................................36 4.2.1.4.3 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DELAY AREAS I ASWM....................................37 4.2.1.4.4 PARETO A ALYSIS OF THE DEPARTME TS I ASWM........................38 4.2.1.5 CRA ES.................................................................................................................39

4.2.1.5.1 E. O. T. CRA ES...................................................................................................39 4.2.1.5.2 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DELAY AREAS I CRA E-1...............................40 4.2.1.5.3 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DEPARTME TS I CRA E-1..............................41 4.2.1.5.4 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DELAY AREAS I CRA E-2................................42 4.2.1.5.5 PARETO A ALYSIS OF DEPARTME TS I CRA E-2..............................43 4.2.1.6 4.2.1.7 4.2.1.8 4.2.1.9 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 OPERATOR SKILLS A D EXPERIE CE.......................................................44 FORKLIFT AVAILABILITY...............................................................................44 PREVE TIVE MAI TE A CE........................................................................44 LABOUR AVAILABILITY A D SKILLS.........................................................44 STRIPPI G.............................................................................................................45 RECTIFIERS..........................................................................................................45 MISCELLA EOUS................................................................................................45 ABOUT THE FORKLIFTS...................................................................................46 FORKLIFTS I EOU.............................................................................................47 REFI ERY..............................................................................................................48

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4.4.1.1 4.4.1.2 4.4.2 4.4.2.1 4.4.2.2 4.4.3 4.4.3.1 4.4.3.2 TIME CALCULATIO S.......................................................................................48 UTILIZATIO OF FORKLIFTS.........................................................................51 LOGISTICS.............................................................................................................53 TIME CALCULATIO S.......................................................................................53 UTILIZATIO OF THE FORKLIFTS................................................................55 CCR..........................................................................................................................57 TIME CALCULATIO S......................................................................................59 UTILIZATIO OF THE FORKLIFTS...............................................................59

CHAPTER 5 RESULTS A D SUGGESTIO S...........................................61
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 TIME EFFICIE CY CO SOLIDATED STATEME T..................................61 FOKKLIFT UTILIZATIO CO SOLIDATED STATEME T.....................61 SUGGESTIO S......................................................................................................62 SUGGESTIO 1.....................................................................................................62 SUGGESTIO -2.....................................................................................................64 SUGGESTIO 3.....................................................................................................66 SUGGESTIO 4.....................................................................................................70

CO CLUSIO .................................................................................................71 REFERE CES.................................................................................................72

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CERTIFICATE - HEAD OF DEPARTME T

This is to certify that JO ES DAVIS MATHEW (Registration # 0921120 ) is a bona fide student of Christ University Institute of Management (MBA batch 2009-11) and has successfully completed his Summer Internship Project at STERLITE INDUSTRIES INDIA LIMITED, TUTICORIN in Lean Operation & System stream

Place: Date:

……………………… Prof. CKT Chandrashekara Head of Department Christ University Institute of Management Bangalore

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CERTIFICATE –FACULTY GUIDE

This is to certify that this internship report on the title IMPROVI G THE OPERATIO AL EFFICIE CY A D PROFITABILITY OF EXPORT ORIE TED U IT is a bonafide work of Mr. Jones Davis Mathew, REG o 0921120 under my guidance and support .This report is a part of MBA course with specialization in Lean Operation & System stream and the content and the work done is genuine with respect to the information covered and thought expressed.

……………………… Place: MR SUNIL A.K PROFESSOR Date:

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CERTIFICATE FROM THE COMPA Y

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DECLARATIO

I, Jones Davis Mathew, declare that the project entitled IMPROVING
THE OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY AND PROFITABILITY OF EXPORT ORIENTED UNIT (Sterlite Industries India Ltd.), done during the

period from 1stApril to 5thMay is my own effort and work.

This Project is done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION by CHRIST UNIVERSITY, BANGALORE.

Place: Bangaluru Date: 18th june 2010 Signature

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My gratitude is due to Mr. S. SRIDHAR, H.O.D Refinery, who has guided me and given his valuable time & knowledge during my stay at the company. I convey my gratitude to Capt. YOGESH KUMAR GAUR, ASSOCIATE MA AGER, HR, for his guidance and support throughout the project work during my stay at the company. I am deeply grateful to Sri. SU IL A.K, my Faculty Guide, who provided valuable insights and guidance at every stage of the project. I also convey my sincere gratitude to my friends and my family for their encouragement and support extended to me during the course of my project. At the end I would not forget to thank other members of SIIL, TUTICORIN who treated me with respect and helped me in the best of their capacity.

Signature.

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ABSTRACT
This report deals with the improvement of Operational Efficiency and Profitability of the Export Oriented Unit (EOU) of Sterlite Industries India Limited, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu. Process of copper cathode production in the Refinery unit has been studied and the time used for the production has been analyzed by performing the time efficiency study and the various factors that influence time efficiency. The various factors have been analyzed using Pareto analysis and the vital few causes have been pointed out on this report. Use of material handling equipments especially Forklifts have been studied in this report. The various motions that the forklift takes and the time taken for performing a particular activity has been observed. Utilization level for each of the forklifts used in the EOU has been calculated and accordingly suggestions have been provided to the company to improve the utilization level and thus reduce the excess quantity of forklifts used and contribute to the profitability of the company.

\

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Summer Internship Report 2010 LIST OF TABLES
2.1 CURRENT CAPACITY DETAILS OF STERLITE INDUSTRIES (I) LTD 7 4.1 MAJOR AREAS THAT CAUSE THE FUNCTIONING DELAY FOR CSM AND THE CONSOLIDATED OCCURRENCE FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.2 CONSOLIDATED DELAY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DEPARTMENTS FOR CSM FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.3 MAJOR AREAS THAT CAUSE THE FUNCTIONING DELAY FOR APM AND THE CONSOLIDATED OCCURRENCE FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.4 CONSOLIDATED DELAY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DEPARTMENTS FOR APM FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.5 MAJOR AREAS THAT CAUSE THE FUNCTIONING DELAY FOR ASWM AND THE CONSOLIDATED OCCURRENCE FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.6 CONSOLIDATED DELAY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DEPARTMENTS FOR ASWM FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.7 MAJOR DELAYS OCCURRED IN CRANE-1 IN NOV-09 TO MARCH-10 4.8 CONSOLIDATED DELAY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DEPARTMENTS FOR CRANE1 FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.9 MAJOR DELAYS OCCURRED IN CRANE-2 IN NOV-09 TO MARCH-10 4.10 CONSOLIDATED DELAY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DEPARTMENTS FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.11 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR SHIFTING FRESH ANODES FROM CHIPPING YARD TO DESPATCH YARD 4.12 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR SHIFTING FRESH ANODES FROM DESPATCH YARD TO ANODE YARD BY 5TON AND 3 TON FORKLIFTS 4.13 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR CARRYING THE SPENT ANODE FROM ANODE YARD TO SMELTER YARD 4.14 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR CARRYING THE CATHODE FROM THE CSM MACHINE TO WEIGH SCALE AND FROM THERE TO THE CSM YARD 4.15 UTILIZATION OF 3 TON FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO CSM YSRD 4.16 UTILIZATION OF 3 TON FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO CSM YSRD CONSIDERING CHANGE OVER N STRIPPING TIME SEPERATELY 4.17 UTILIZATION OF 1-3TON AND 2-5TON FORKLIFT FOR APM YARD

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4.18 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR SHIFTING CATHODE BUNDLES FROM THE CSM YARD TO THE WAREHOUSE 4.19 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR SHIFTING OF CATHODE BUNDLES FROM THE CSM YARD TO THE FRONT YARD 4.20 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR LOADING THE TRUCK WITH COILS AND CATHODE BUNDLES FROM THE WAREHOUSE TO THE TRUCK 4.21 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR SHIFTING THE CATHODE BUNDLES FROM FRONT YARD TO THE CCR FURNACE 4.22 UTILIZATION OF THE FORKLIFTS 3TON FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO CSM YARD 4.23 UTILIZATION OF THE FORKLIFTS FOR TRUCK LOADING (COIL, CATHODE) AND CATHODE BUNDLES TO CCR 4.24 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR SHIFTING OF COIL FROM THE CCR TO THE WAREHOUSE 4.25 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR FEEDING THE FURNACE WITH THE CATHODE BUNDLES FROM THE CCR YARD TO THE FEEDER 4.26 FORKLIFT TIMING FOR ACTIVITIES INSIDE THE CCR 4.27 UTILIZATION OF THE 3TON FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO FURNACE 4.28 UTILIZATION FOR 5 TON FORKLIFT FOR SHIFTING COIL FROM CCR TO WAREHOUSE 5.1 CONSOLIDATED TIME EFFICIENCY OF THE REFINERY 5.2 FOKKLIFT UTILIZATION CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT 5.3 RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 70% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS 5.4 RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 30% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 3TON FORKLIFT OF CSM 5.5 RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 100% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS 5.6 RENEWD UTILIZATION FOR 3 TON FORKLIFT OF CCR 5.7 REUTILIZATION OF THE FORKLIFTS FOR TRUCK LOADING (COIL, CATHODE) AND CATHODE BUNDLES TO CCR 5.8 RENEWD UTILIZATION FOR 5TON FORKLIFT OF CCR

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5.9 RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 100% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS 5.10 RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 90% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS

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Summer Internship Report 2010 LIST OF FIGURES
1.1 GROWTH OF PRODUCTION IN COPPER FROM THE YEAR 2004 TO 2008 1.2 COPPER INDUSTRY MARKET SHARE 1.3 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR COPPER BY REGION 2.1 PROCESS OF COPPER CATHODES AND RODS PRODUCTION AT SIIL 4.1 FLOW DIAGRAM OF CSM 4.2 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR CSM FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.3 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR CSM (DEPARTMENT VICE) FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.4 FLOW DIAGRAM OF APM 4.5 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR APM FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.6 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR APM (DEPARTMENT VICE) FROM NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.7 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR ASWM FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.8 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR ASWM (DEPARTMENT VICE) FROM NOV’09MARCH’10 4.9 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR CRANE-1 FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.10 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR CRANE-1 (DEPARTMENT VICE) FROM NOV’09MARCH’10 4.11 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR CRANE-2 FOR THE PERIOD OF NOV’09-MARCH’10 4.12 PARETO ANALYSIS FOR CRANE-2 (DEPARTMENT VICE) FROM NOV’09MARCH’10 4.13 FORKLIFT 5.1 DIAGRAM OF AUTO FEEDER 5.2 DIAGRAM OF NEW RAILED CCR

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Summer Internship Report 2010 CHAPTER-1 I TRODUCTIO
1.1 ABOUT THE I DUSTRY:
The history of Indian copper industry goes back to 1967 with the incorporation of Hindustan Copper Ltd (HCL) and thereafter acquisition of mines from the public sector National Minerals Development Corporation (NMDC). But, the real twist in copper story took with the opening up this sector for private sector players in 1992 which saw the involvement of Indo Gulf Corporation (now a part of Hindalco Industries) and Sterlite Industries into copper smelting and refining through concentrate imports from various mining-rich countries. Copper is a special metal for industrial applications owing to its properties such as electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, ductility, malleability and rigidity. Specific applications of copper include power cables and wires, jelly filled cables, building wires, air conditioning and refrigeration tubings. Telecom, power, construction, transportation, handicrafts,

engineering, consumer durable, defence. The Indian Copper Industry was opened for private Sector investment in 1992. Earlier the industry was dominated by Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL), a public sector undertaking. The Industry currently has just 3 major players (Sterlite, Hindalco and Hindustan Copper Ltd.). Jhagaria Copper (erstwhile SWIL Ltd.), which commissioned its 50,000 tonne plant in Gujarat is reportedly facing acute shortage of raw material. The company approximately two years before initiated the commercial production on its plant equipped with the technology to use copper concentrates and scrap as raw materials. But, of late companied denied procuring scrap from domestic traders and imports remained scary for various reasons. Other players include around 1000 of SSI units but a majority of them closed down due to unviability. These units are primarily involved in converting scrap into ingots. While HCL is the only integrated producer, which mines and refines copper, Hindalco Industries and Sterlite Industries are secondary producers, who process both indigenous and imported copper concentrate to produce end products like copper bars, rods and wires. The fully de-mutualised copper producer is largely managed mainly by bankers. tonnes towards the end of the current fiscal year to go up to 947500 tonnes as against the demand of roughly 5 lakhs tonnes. The demand supply imbalance is unlikely to deteriorate further, as the ongoing boost in the country's infrastructure is expected to appreciate the

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demand in tonnes, thus; taking the total production of beyond one million However, the surplus position in the domestic market is not major concern for the Indian players because the Asian region has a deficit of around 2.6 million tonnes. But it can only threatening call from rising prices which hit the unaffordable level during the last two years. While Japan, India and Philippines a surplus position, deficit regions comprise China, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and parts of Middle East. About 50 per cent of the domestic copper production is routed through secondary market through scrap imports. The domestic generation of copper is negligible as the system is not fully organized to recover copper scrap which is presently either burnt or dumped underground without realizing the resale Production growing at a CAGR of 15%
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Fig1.1

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COPPER INDUSTRY MARKET SHARE
6% 1

%

47%

HINDALCO STERLITE HCL SWIL

46%

Fig1.2 Hindalco and Sterlite accounts for more than 90% of the production.

1.2 SHORTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL:
Indian primary and secondary copper industry has been facing tremendous raw material shortage for which the smelters have been importing concentrates from the major mining countries like Peru, Chile, Canada etc and secondary producers have been surviving on low scrap imports. But, today, global industry is facing raw material supply deficit which is likely to persist until 2009. Increase in smelting capacity mainly in India and China and mines facing the problem of low grade, shortages of equipment and manpower have kept the concentrate market in deficit and have put further pressure on TcRc. During the first half of 2007, TcRc declined by almost 15%. The concentrate would continue to be short supply upto 2009; this may affect the TcRc, adversely, in the Spot Market, Debu Bhattacharya, MD, Hindalco Industries believes. Custom smelters are likely to remain under pressure for until new mines come on stream. The TcRc charges have been declining during the past few months due to constraints in concentrate availability. The TcRc charges have in fact declined from 5.64 c/ lb at the beginning of the financial year FY2004 to 2.56 c/ lb in Q4 FY2004, a drop of about 55% due to aggressive buying by Asian Smelters. Towards the end of the first quarter of the current fiscal the TcRc rate further declined to 2.00 c/lb Copper and copper products can be imported at zero duty from Sri Lanka under the Free

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Trade Agreement (FTA) with that country. Duties on copper and copper products have been progressively reduced – for example, customs duty has been reduced from 35 per cent in 2001 to 10 per cent in 2006. On the production front, the last few years have seen significant additions in capacities in India and accordingly the production has increased at a CAGR of 14.8% during the last three years. The domestic consumption, on the other earmarked for exports. Strong demand for copper has resulted in steady rise in copper prices, which had earlier exhibited World demand growth forecast is 4.9 % for 2007 and 4.2% 2008. Per capita during 200708. India’s strong economic growth and key priority for the power sector which is major consumer of copper will support high demand and price in the near term. The Indian copper industry comprises 3% on the world copper map. Of late, India turned into a net exporter of copper from the status of net importer on account of rise in production by three companies for its applications in building, cabling for power and telecommunications, automobiles etc. Two major states owned telecommunications service providers – BSNL and MTNL consume 10% of the country’s copper production. Growth in the building construction and automobile sector is In India the users segment such as winding wire, power cables, transformers industry and continued increased export of downstream products supporting higher demand. However, the industry is greatly disadvantaged as non-value added imports from Sri Lanka under the free trade agreement (FTA) continue to adversely impact the domestic sales. But, the efforts initiated by the Sri Lankan government to curb imports, less value addition and re-exports to India illegally brought positive results. Now, it’s a wakeup call for the government of India to restrict unwanted imports and exports of raw material and finished products from the FTA countries. Under, FTA the re-exports of any goods was permitted with minimum 35% of value addition which was not practiced by the miscreants traders. But, today, the industry is complete safe as all units have already come back to India with their plants. Only three projects still remain in Sri Lanka with a minute production capacity of 200-250 tonnes per annum.

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GLOBAL DEMAND FOR COPPER BY REGION

Fig 1.3

1.3 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL FOR COPPER I DUSTRY

Supplier Power • The country has rich reserves of minerals, ores • Growing, skilled manpower base

Threat of New Entrants • Supportive policy regime • Growing domestic market as well as exports across segments Competitive Rivalry • Number of domestic players • Highly competitive in secondary and downstream segments

Customer Power • User industries experiencing strong growth • Highly demanding customers • Wide range of products, specifications to meet different needs

Threat of Substitutes • Plastics and other substitutes being tried out in some user segments • No viable substitute in a majority of usage areas

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Summer Internship Report 2010 CHAPTER2 ABOUT THE COMPA Y
Sterlite Industries India Ltd. (SLT) is a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources plc, a diversified and integrated metals and mining group. The company engages primarily in the production of copper in India. Its products include copper cathodes; and cast copper rods, including 11 mm and 12 mm rods used in the transformer industry, and 8 mm rods used by the wires and cables industry with applications in housing wires, electrical cables, and telecom cables. The company also engages in the mining of bauxite, and the production of aluminium conductors and various aluminium products, as well as in the mining of zinc ore, and in the manufacture of zinc ingots and lead ingots. In addition, Sterlite Industries produces various chemical products, such as sulphuric acids, phosphoric acids, phospho gypsum, hydro fluo silicic acids, and granulated slag. Further, the company involves in trading gold, as well as in paper business. It markets its copper products directly to original equipment manufacturers and traders. The company is based in Mumbai, India. The company’s main operating subsidiaries are Hindustan Zinc Limited for its zinc and lead operations; Copper Mines of Tasmania Pty Limited for its copper operations in Australia; and Bharat Aluminium Company Limited for its aluminium operations. The company is entering into the commercial power generation business by setting up a large scale 2,400 MW coal based independent thermal power plant in Jharsuguda, Orissa and a wind energy project at Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra, totalling 110.4 MW. Post completion of these projects, the company will have a total wind power capacity of 148.8 MW.

2.1 VISIO 2015
To be the world’s leading copper producer delivering sustainable value to all stakeholders by leveraging technology and best practices.

2.2 MISSIO
• • • • • • • • To build a knowledge and process driven organization through TPM To create sustainable value through safe, clean and green processes To sustain leadership position in domestic and global market through market development and customer delight. To be the best and most respectable corporate citizen To leverage technology to its full potential across the business cycle To harness the profitable and growing CCR/value added product from 240KMT to 600 KMT per annum. To achieve Zero cost and beyond To secure raw material through long term contracts and captive mine

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2.3 STRE GTHS:
Today, our organization is growing by leaps and bounds thanks to our competitive strengths, which include: • High quality assets and resources that make us a low-cost producer of copper and zinc. • Substantial market shares across the copper, zinc and Aluminium metals markets in India. • Extensive experience in operating and expanding our business in India that allows us to capitalize on attractive growth opportunities and resource potential in the country. • Numerous new projects in the pipeline that will enable us to expand our production. • Experience for entry into commercial power generation business in India with our operations of captive power plants since 1997. • Experienced and focused management with strong project execution and acquisition skills. • Ability and capacity to finance world-class project

2.4 HISTORY
• • • • • • • • 1986- Sterlite Cables Limited, acquires the Shamsher Sterling Corporation, changes the name to Sterlite Industries (India) Limited. 1988- Sterlite Industries makes an initial public offering of its shares on the Indian stock exchange. 1991- Sterlite Industries establishes India’s first continuous copper rod plant. 1997- Commissions first privately developed copper smelter in India at Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu. 1999- Acquires Copper Mines of Tasmania Pty Ltd. o Acquires Thalanga Copper Mines Pty Ltd. 2005- Expansion of Tuticorin Smelter to 300,000 TPA and Successful ramp up of ISA furnace in a record period of 45 days. 2006- Expansion on Tuticorin smelter to 400 KTPA through innovative debottlenecking. 2007- Sterlite Industries primary listing on NYSE in June 2007

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Current Capacity Details Particulars Copper Mines - Tasmania – ore mined (Grade - 1.2% Copper) Copper Cathode – Refinery - Tuticorin - Silvassa Copper Rod - Tuticorin - Silvassa Sulphuric Acid - Tuticorin Phosphoric Acid Plant - Tuticorin Captive Power plant - Tuticorin Table2.1 Current Capacity 2.5mn tonnes

205000 tonnes 195000 tonnes 90000 tonnes 150000 tonnes 1300000 tonnes 180000 tonnes 46.5 MW

2.5 SWOT Analysis
STRE GHTS Cost of production stands at 1.8 cents/lb due to better by-product realizations and is in the lowest quartile i.e. 7th and 8th position in terms of global cost of production. Hence, the prices of copper company have a competitive edge despite declining TcRc as it continues to generate positive cash flows. WEAK ESS No significant backward linkages in terms of copper mines, makes the company dependent on global miners and it will not benefit from any upturn in LME

OPPORTU ITIES THREATS Increasing demand in the domestic market Non- availability of copper concentrate would could provide benefits in terms of savings on put pressure on TcRc rates and impact freight cost since billing is based on the landed operating margins cost of metal prices. Exports currently account for 56% of its copper sales volume

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2.6 TQM- A Way of Life:
• • • • • • • First phase launched in 1997. Each phase consists 10 to 15 projects. 15TH phase in progress. 30% employee involvement Projects Completed: 100 + Nos. Sterlite is the only company with three TQM projects got selected in the ASQ 2007 Total cost savings : $ 40 m (till date)

2.7 TPM journey at SIIL
• • • • • • TPM journey started in 2007 Manager Model Plant - CCR Plant Model Office TPM Area - Central Stores CII- TPM Club India supports the TPM implementation process. TPM – Kickoff held on 18Apr’08 at Tuticorin. 5S sustenance and Autonomous Production Rate Maintenance pillar activities are in progress

Process of Copper Cathodes and Rods production at SIIL:

Fig 2.1

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Summer Internship Report 2010
CHAPTER-3 OBJECTIVE, SCOPE A D METHODOLOGY
3.1 OBJECTIVE: To increase the operational efficiency and profitability of the Export Oriented Unit (EOU) at Sterlite Industries India Limited, Tuticorin (TN). To accomplish this objective two major projects undertaken are: 1. Time efficiency and factors influencing time efficiency in refinery unit. 2. Forklift motion study and utilization in EOU. 3.2 SCOPE OF THE PROJECTS: The scope of project regarding time efficiency is to analyse the time used for the copper production in the refinery unit and to find the factors which contribute to the inefficiency of the process. Project regarding the motion study of the Forklifts in the EOU will help to understand the utilization level of the forklifts used and ways to improve the utilization level. 3.3 METHODOLOGY: For the first project related to Time Efficiency, the methodology adopted is to collect data from the Distributed Control System and the employees on the shop floor. The data collected is then analyzed using Pareto analysis and the vital few causes that lead to the 80% of the delay in time utilization is listed out. For the second project related to Forklifts, the methodology adopted is to collect the primary data by observing the forklifts motion throughout the EOU premises and the time taken by each forklift to perform a particular activity. Various combinations of activities for each forklift are tried and then suggestions are provided to improve the utilization of each forklift. 3.4 LIMITATIO S OF THE PROJECT: Some of the information which comes under the confidentiality barriers are not included in this report. Due to the limitation of the time available for the internship detailed research on the technical aspects of the machinery has not been covered in this report.

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CHAPTER-4 PROJECT I DETAIL
PROJECT 1: TIME EFFICIE CY A D FACTORS I FLUE CI G TIME EFFICIE CY 4.1 DEFI ITIO : TIME EFFICIE CY It is the percentage of duration by which the CELLHOUSE are in locked in position so as to deposit copper in cathode plate with respect to the total time available for deposition. Time Efficiency= Time current is applied *100 Total time available STANDARD TIME EFFICIENCY IS SUPPOSED TO BE 97.2% 4.2 FACTORS I FLUE CI G ACTUAL RU I G HOURS OF CELL HOUSE

ACTUAL RUNNING HOURS

CHANGE OVER
FACTORS DETERMINING CHANGE OVER

STRIPPING

RECTIFIERS

MISCELLANEOUS
1. ANODE AVAILABILITY 2. DEMAND IN THE COPPER MARKET

FACTORS DETERMINING STRIPPING 1. CSM PERFORMANCE * 2. CRANE PERFORMANCE *

1. CELL HOUSE PREPARATION 2. CSM PERFORMANCE * 3. ASWM PERFORMANCE * 4. APM PERFORMANCE * 5. CRANE PERFORMANCE * 6. OPERATORS SKILL AND EXPERIENCE* 7. FORKLIFT AVAILABILITY* 8. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE* 9. LABOUR AVAILABILITY AND SKILLS*

3. OPERATORS SKILL AND EXPERIENCE* 4. FORKLIFT AVAILABILITY* 5. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE* 6. LABOUR AVAILABILITY AND SKILLS*

Note: * topics are commonly discussed for both changeover and stripping.

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4.2.1 CHA GE OVER Change over is referred to as the changing of the entire spent anode sets and cathode sets washing of cells, cleaning of bus bars and insulators and changing of electrolyte for starting a fresh chemical refinery process with the new set of copper anodes Change over involves cutting the power supply off from the bank which stops the electrolysis process and reduces the production period for copper cathodes. Thus this leads to the reduction in time efficiency. The major factors that influence the time required for change over are: 4.2.1.1 CELLHOUSE PREPARATIO : In cellhouse preparation for the change over there are many activities that are to be performed so as to complete the change over process: 1. Set up tools for alignment and water hose and necessary tools are brought near the bank which is to go through the changeover process. 2. Bank is locked out of the power supply and initially two cells are decanted of electrolyte. 3. Cathode plates of the cell are taken to CSM for stripping and then the scrap anodes are taken to the ASWM for washing. 4. Cells are washed thoroughly with water to remove slime. 5. Bus bar is cleaned and the insulators are cleaned and fixed. 6. Electrolyte is filled in the cells. 7. Fresh anodes are placed in the cells and aligned. 8. Fresh SS plates are placed in the cells as cathodes and aligned. 9. This process is carried out for all the cells in the bank. 10. The power is logged on to start the electrolysis process. In cell house preparation, the common delays that occur are the delay in slime washing. This delay occurs because sometimes the scrap anode falls inside the cell and it is to be removed manually. Even the draining away of the slime takes time. Also labourer’s inexperience plays a major role in cellhouse preparation. Cleaning and fixing of insulators with acid plays a part in the delay. Broken Insulators are replaced and aligned and alignment of the cathode and anode also causes delay in the changeover process. Delay in the anode and cathode delivery to the cellhouse also causes delay n the changeover process. This delay can occur due to many reasons related to the ASWM, CSM, APM and cranes which will be discussed further in the report.

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4.2.1.2 CATHODE STRIPPI G MACHI E (CSM): 4.2.1.2.1 Purpose: To strip copper from mother blanks and wash copper cathodes. 4.2.1.2.2 Operating Procedure of CSM: Crane places the set cathode plates on the loading beam. Loading wagon picks up a set of plates and transfers into the wash conveyor. The wash conveyor transports the plates through the wash chamber, where acid solution and impurities are washed off the cathode surface. The water temperature is kept high enough to ensure sufficient washing of cathodes. The wash water returned to circulation tanks. After completed washing deposited plates moves up to the end of the conveyor Where transfer device-1 transfers the plate to transverse conveyor. Standing on the transverse conveyor the plate moves sideways to the flexing device. The flexing device consists of two hydraulic cylinders, located, one on each side of the transverse conveyor. These cylinders will one at a time flex the plate sideways & thereby open up the top portion of the deposited copper on the stainless steel plates. After completed flexing operation, the plates continue into the chiselling station. The chisels are moved in to the openings obtained in the flexing operations between the copper plate and the mother blank. This force the copper plates to fall outward app 15 degrees where the plates are gripped by grippers mounted in the cathode downender. The down ender tilts the cathode further 75 degrees and bring into the horizontal position. Meanwhile the empty mother blanks moves sideways on the transverse conveyor to the empty station where it can be inspected for any defect init. After this station it reaches transfer device-2 which transfers the mother blanks on to the discharge conveyor. There after unloading wagon picks up the half load & transports to the unloading beams. After down ender has tilted cathodes into the horizontal position the cathodes are dropped on cathode conveyor. Again down ender returns to vertical position ready to down end new cathodes. The cathode conveyor transports the cathodes towards the cathode stacker, during this transport the cathode plate passes through sampling station &corrugating press. The corrugating press will press a pattern in the cathodes. The sampling press punches out button shaped sample for testing.

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OTE: Usually the machine is operated in auto mode, but sometimes it can be operated in manual mode by giving pulse for each operation. This operation is carried out for the purpose of ving correcting faults, maintenance, or positioning the cathode plates prior to running in auto mode. One more mode called local mode, which is used for operating traverse conveyor to the required distance. Also downender section can be operated with help of panel box besides downender. FLOW DIAGRAM OF CSM

Fig 4.1

4.2.1.2.3 STA DARD MACHI E HOURS REQUIRED: The machine speed for CSM is 500 plates/hr. Total no of plates in one bank =55plate X 28 cells = 1540 plates Standard time for stripping one bank = 1540/500 = 3hrs 4mins 48sec

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Major areas that cause the functioning delay for CSM and the consolidated occurrence for the period of NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below:
AREAS Wagon downender edge strip miscellaneous Chisel thin deposit Bottom envelope transverse conveyor transfer device Cathode conveyor stacker discharge conveyor weigh scale hydraulic pump wash conveyor total delay CUMULATIVE TOTAL TIME 2146 2042 1716 1554 1512 1147 1084 292 286 266 211 42 27 13 0 12338 PERCENTAGE 17.39341871 16.55049441 13.90825093 12.59523424 12.2548225 9.296482412 8.785864808 2.36667207 2.318041822 2.155940995 1.710163722 0.340411736 0.218836116 0.105365537 0 PERCENTAGE 17.39341871 33.94391311 47.85216405 60.44739828 72.70222078 81.99870319 90.784568 93.15124007 95.46928189 97.62522289 99.33538661 99.67579835 99.89463446 100 100

Table 4.1 4.2.1.2.4 PARETO A ALYSIS:

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.2

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Major delay factor for CSM is the wagon area. Problems faced in the wagon area are: 1. Unloading wagon station sensor not working. 2. Loading wagon down operation not working 3. Loading wagon hoist gear box shaft pin damaged 4. Loading wagon not working in auto-mode 5. plates were jammed at unloading wagon 6. Loading wagon was not placing the plates at wash conveyor. Second major delay area is downender. The faults that usually occur in this area are: 1. L D/E 2 gripper hose punctured 2. R D/E2 gripper hose connector broken 3. R D/E2 tilt cylinder oil leakage Third most significant delay area is edge strip. Major delay factors in edge strip are: 1. plate stucked at chisel 2. plate fallen at chisel 3. Nodule plate jammed in unloading wagon 4. Damaged edge strip plate fallen at chisel 5. more no. of rejects due to damaged edge strip 6. Damaged plates were stucked @ chisel unit The delay problems are also divided among the departments as mechanical, electrical, process, instrumentation and cranes. The consolidated delay distribution of the departments from NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below: TOTAL DEPARTME T process Mechanical Instrumentation Electrical TIME 5641 4303 1371 1023 Table 4.2 PERCENTAGE 45.72053817 34.87599287 11.11201167 8.291457286 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE 45.72053817 80.59653104 91.70854271 100

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4.2.1.2.5 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 80 60 40 20 0 Mechanical Instrumentation Electrical process

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.3 As we see in the Pareto chart, the major delay occurs in the process. Some of the process delays are: 1. Thin Deposit- multi flexing and chiselling done 2. Edge strip- No of rejects were more 3. Wagon- plates were jammed @ unloading wagon 4. Chisel- plates were jammed 5. Bottom Envelope- fallen at chisel unit 6. Transfer Device- Damaged edge strip stucked at chisel and TD1

The second major cause of delays comes under mechanical. Some of these delays are: 1. Downender- L - D/E 1 gripper in/out cylinder hose got punctured 2. Misc- Strapping tool problem 3. transverse conveyor- L flexing unit hose got puncture 4. Cathode Conveyor- Tension got loose and adjusted Under mechanical delays, downender is the critical area where most of the problem occurs.

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4.2.1.3 A ODE PREPARATIO MACHI E (APM):

4.2.1.3.1 Operating Procedure of APM: To attain verticality of the anode in the cell and smooth contact of the anodes with bus bar The anodes to be prepared are transported by the forklift to the receiving station of APM. The anodes are centred on the receiving station by the aligning press and they are moved to the transfer device number (TD1) by the receiving conveyor. The TD1 lifts the anodes one by one from the receiving conveyor to lug press. On the lug press, the lugs of the anodes are pressed horizontally. From the lug press, the TD1 lifts the anodes to the weighing unit. On the weighing unit the anodes are weighed and sorted as rejected and accepted anodes. From the weighing unit, the TD1 lifts the anodes to the beginning of the traverse conveyor. The traverse conveyor moves the anode through the body press and accepted anode is pressed vertically. From the end of the traverse conveyor rejected anodes are lifted to the reject conveyor by the reject feeder. The reject feeder moves the rejected anodes to the reject removing station. From the end of traverse conveyor the accepted anodes are lifted to the milling conveyor by TD2. The milling conveyor moves the anodes through milling unit to the lifting conveyor. In the milling conveyor the lugs of the anodes are milled. The lifting conveyor moves the anodes from the milling conveyor to the spacing conveyor. The spacing conveyor and the spacing devices space the anodes in the spacing conveyor, then the transferring wagon lifts 55 anodes at the time and moves them to the distribution beams. From the beam the anodes are lifted by the over head cranes.

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FLOW DIAGRAM OF APM
ANODES FROM TTK LUG PRESS (FLATTEN THE LUG) WEGHING UNIT

REJECTION STATION (ANODES REJECTED ON THE BASIS OF WEIGHT, CONICAL SHAPES, LUG THICKNESS BODY PRESS UNIT (STRIGHTEN THE BODY, MEASURE ANODE PHYSICAL DIMENSION

LUG SIDE MILLING FOR ACCEPTED ANODES (MILLS THE UNDER SIDE OF THE LUG)

SET OF 56 OR 54 ANODES FOR A CELLHOUSE

Fig4.4 4.2.1.3.2 STA DARD MACHI E HOURS REQUIRED:

The machine speed for APM is 350 anodes /hr. Total no of anodes in one bank =56anodes X 28 cells = 1540 anodes Standard time for producing anodes for one bank = 1540/350 = 4hrs 24mins

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Major areas that cause the functioning delay for APM and the consolidated occurrence for the period of NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below:

CUMULATIVE AREA Milling conveyor TD1 Lifting conveyor Traverse conveyor TD2 Unloading wagon power pack Spacing conveyor reject .conveyor Receiving. Conveyor miscellaneous total TOTLA TIME 830 458 295 280 165 150 150 145 60 40 35 2608 PERCENTAGE 31.8251534 17.5613497 11.3113497 10.7361963 6.32668712 5.75153374 5.75153374 5.55981595 2.3006135 1.53374233 1.34202454 PERCENTAGE 31.8251534 49.3865031 60.6978528 71.4340491 77.7607362 83.5122699 89.2638037 94.8236196 97.1242331 98.6579755 100

Table 4.3 4.2.1.3.3PARETOA ALYSIS:
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 TD1 TD2 Spacing conveyor Milling conveyor power pack Traverse conveyor reject .conveyor receiving.conveyor Lifting conveyor Unloading wagon miscellaneous

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.5

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The major factor for the delay in time is milling conveyor area. Some of the most commonly occurring problems of this area are: 1. Milling conveyor alignment got disturbed 2. Improper milling 3. Anode side milling sensor non sensing The second major problem area in the APM is transfer device. Some of the common problems occurring in the TD1 are: 1. lug bend anode fallen @td1 2. Due to improper chipping anodes fallen in td 1 The third most important area which pools into the major delays in the APM is lifting conveyor. The common problems occurring in this area is anode fallen in lifting conveyor. The delay problems are also divided among the departments as mechanical, electrical, process, instrumentation and cranes. The consolidated delay distribution of the departments from NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below:

TOTAL DEPARTME T PROCESS I STRUME TATIO MECHA ICAL ELECTRICAL TIME 1545 733 330 0 RECENTAGE 59.2407975 28.1058282 12.6533742 0 Table 4.4 4.2.1.3.4 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 80 60 40 20 0 INSTRUMENTA TION MECHANICAL PROCESS ELECTRICAL

CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE 59.2407975 87.3466258 100 100

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.6

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As we observe the Pareto chart we find that In APM the major delay occurs under process. Some of the most commonly occurring delays are: 1. TD1- Anode fallen at TD1 (Frequently) 2. Milling conveyor- Anode stucked at milling conveyor. 3. Receiving Conveyor- Anode lug got broken in receiving conveyor. 4. Powerpack- Cooling water outlet pipe line choke up. 5. Lifting conveyor- Anode fallen in lifting conveyor. The second most common delay is occurring under the instrumentation department. Some of them are as follows: 1. Milling conveyor- home position adjustment. 2. TD1- permissive sensor not sensing. 3. Unloading wagon- unloading wagon home position sensor adjusted.

4.2.1.4 A ODE SCRAP WASHI G MACHI E (ASWM): 4.2.1.4.1 Operating Procedure of ASWM: Before starting the machine, oil in power packs is to be checked. Check wash water temperature, whether wash pump valves are opened or not. Anode scraps are placed on the loading beam by crane. Wagon lifts the set and places it on the receiving conveyor. From the receiving conveyor scrap is transferred to the wash conveyor by a transfer device. Wash conveyor moves through wash chamber that consist two pipelines for washing, one on the topside and one at the bottom side. Each line is having seven nozzles through which water is sprayed on the scrap so that slime adhering to the scrap gets washed and goes to the tank. In the wash conveyor scrap moves horizontally and after washing it passes through dryer so as to wipe water from the scrap. From the wash chamber scrap is moved by stacker and stacks it on the stacking table. The stacking table rotates 900 anti clock wise after every two stack so as to make uniform bundle. Each stack consists of two scraps. After completing the number of stack set in stack selector switch the table goes down. A set of fork comes in and takes away the bundle of scraps from the table to the stack conveyor. From the stack conveyor forklift unload the bundle and keep it scrap yard. The scraps are weighed for individual banks to find out scrap % for the particular bank. Wash water temperature is maintained at 800C for effective washing. Temperature is maintained with help of steam. After one bank washing is over wash water with slime sent to storage tank and tank

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is cleaned. Fresh water is filled for next washing. Machine is usually operated in auto mode. It can be operated in manual and local mode when ever required. FLOW DIAGRAM OF ASWM Scrap anode from cellhouse by crane

Washing

Stacking & bundling

To SMELTER for recasting as anodes 4.2.1.4.2 STA DARD MACHI E HOURS REQUIRED: The machine speed for ASWM is 350 anodes /hr. Total no of SPENT ANODES in one bank =56anodes X 28 cells = 1540 anodes Standard time for washing spent anodes for one bank = 1540/350 = 4hrs 24mins Major areas that cause the functioning delay for APM and the consolidated occurrence for the period of NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below:
CUMULATIVE AREAS WAGO WASH CO VEYOR DISCHARGE CO VEYOR TD STACKER STACK TABLE CO TROL PA EL MISCELLA EOUS RECEIVI G CO VEYOR FLAPPER WASH CHAMBER TOTAL TOTAL TIME 880 580 318 305 290 190 125 100 97 75 35 2995 PERCENTAGE 29.38230384 19.36560935 10.61769616 10.1836394 9.682804674 6.343906511 4.173622705 3.338898164 3.238731219 2.504173623 1.168614357 PERCENTAGE 29.38230384 48.74791319 59.36560935 69.54924875 79.23205342 85.57595993 89.74958264 93.0884808 96.32721202 98.83138564 100

Table 4.5

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4.2.1.4.3 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MISCELLANEOUS CONTROL PANEL STACK TABLE FLAPPER DISCHARGE CONVEYOR RECEIVING CONVEYOR WASH CONVEYOR WASH CHAMBER STACKER WAGON TD

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.7 In ASWM the most common area where the majority of the problems occur is wagon. Of the total delay time wagon has the largest share. Some of the common and frequently occurring problem in wagon area is: 1. Loading wagon hoist not working. 2. Loading wagon trolley damaged. 3. Anode stucked at unloading wagon. 4. Unloading wagon home position sensor malfunctioning. Secondly, the wash conveyor area is more prone to malfunction and cause the delays. Some of the commonly occurring delays in wash conveyor are: 1. Wash conveyor stuck up. 2. Wash conveyor link got broken. 3. Weak scrap stucked @ wash .conveyor.

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The delay problems are also divided among the departments as mechanical, electrical, process, instrumentation and cranes. The consolidated delay distribution of the departments from NOV’09-MARCH’10 is pro MARCH’10 provided below:

CUMULATIVE DEPARTME T PROCESS MECHA ICAL ELECTRICAL I STRUME TATIO TOTAL TIME 1108 977 750 160 PERCENTAGE 36.99499165 32.62103506 25.04173623 5.342237062 PERCENTAGE 36.99499165 69.61602671 94.65776294 100

Table 4.6 4.2.1.4.4 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 80 60 Series1 40 20 0 PROCESS MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION Series2

Fig 4.8 As we see in the Pareto chart, the major delay occurs in the process. Some of the process delays are: 1. Stacker- Week scraps stucked at stack table. 2. Wash conveyor- Week scrap stucked at wash conveyor. 3. Receiving conveyor- Bridge broken scrap stucked at receiving conveyor. 4. Stack Table- Week scrap stucked at stack table. 5. TD- scraps continuous fallen in TD. The second major cause of delays comes under mechanical. Some of these delays are: 1. Wash conveyor- Wash conveyor link got cut. 2. Stacker- Flapper topside guider got bent. 3. Wash conveyor- wash conveyor guider bent.

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4.2.1.5 CRA ES WMI CRA ES LTD., one of the leading manufacturers of Cranes in India, has been pioneers in the manufacture of Material Handling Equipment in the Country. Today WMI`s name is synonymous with heavy lifting. WMI’s equipment can be found in all parts of the Country, helping others get their jobs done faster and easier. An array of WMI cranes have been developed, each crane a creative solution to special handling problem. These cranes are extensively used for handling materials in machine shops, structural shops, chemical plants, fertilizer plants, cement factories, paper plants, stock yards, Dams, and construction sites. All WMI cranes are engineered and built to meet the requirements of all the users. Thus tailormade for the job, these units handle the loads with utmost ease of maintenance efficiency and economy. 4.2.1.5.1 E. O. T. CRA ES These cranes move on the gantry rail fixed to gantry girder. In this crane 3 common motions are incorporated - hoist, cross travel and long travel. In addition to these common motions some time depending on duty, Aux. Hoist is incorporated. Hoist and C. T. Machineries are fitted on common frame called crab which moves on crane girders. In refinery, there are two EOT cranes. These cranes play major role in the overall functioning of the refinery whether it be cellhouse, CSM, APM, or ASWM. Even in regular activities other than processes the crane plays a significant role in the refinery. Any delay caused by the crane causes a major delay in all the machineries and the processes. Some of the major delays occurred in CRANE-1 in NOV-09 TO MARCH-10 are given below:
DELAY AREAS LT MH DSL DRIP TRAY HOOK COMPRESSOR REMOTE PA EL CT AH LI K SPREADER BEAM TOTAL 1292 1105 730 311 145 113 60 40 0 0 0

Table 4.7

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4.2.1.5.2 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 HOOK REMOTE PANEL COMPRESSOR LINK MH CT LT SPREADER BEAM DSL DRIP TRAY AH

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.9 In crane-1 the area which has frequent problem delay is the long travel. Some of the common 1 delays in long travel are as follows: 1. LT got tripped. 2. LT PLC problem. 3. LT slow movement. 4. LT brake problem. 5. LT 2 drives taking delay. The second area which causes the major delay in crane 1 is main hoist. Some of the common crane-1 problems are as follows: 1. MH got tripped. 2. MH not getting down (Due to drip tray L/S activated). 3. MH brake not good. Third most delay prone area is the DSL. Some common problems occurring in DSL are: 1. Remote signal cut off problem.

2. Whole crane got tripped.

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The delay problems are also divided among the departments as mechanical, electrical, process, instrumentation and cranes. The consolidated delay distribution of the departments from NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below:
DELAY AREAS TOTAL

MECHA ICAL ELECTRICAL I STRUME TATIO PROCESS CRA ES Table 4.8 4.2.1.5.3 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 80 60 40 20 0 MECHANICAL PROCESS INSTRUMENTATI ON ELECTRICAL CRANES

1368 3196 12 178 0

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.10 Electrical problems are the major delay causes in the crane-1. Some of the common mechanical problems faced by the crane-1 are as follows: 1. MH- M.H got tripped. 2. DSL- Remote signal cut off problem. 3. Drip tray- Drip tray got tripped. 4. CT- CT got tripped Secondly, mechanical problems cause delay in large number for crane-1. Some of these problems are: 1. LT- abnormal sound in rails. 2. Link- Cathode hook link got broken. 3. Hook- Anode hook struck up problem.

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Some of the major delays oc occurred in CRANE-2 in NOV-09 TO MARCH-10 are given 09 MARCH below:
DELAY AREAS MH COMPRESSOR AH DSL CT LT HOOK LI K SPREADER BEAM DRIP TRAY REMOTE PA EL TOTAL 582 160 145 135 97 80 47 45 20 0 0

Table 4.9 4.2.1.5.4 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 LT HOOK LINK SPREADER BEAM REMOTE PANEL MH COMPRESSOR DSL AH CT DRIP TRAY

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.11 As we see the Pareto chart, it is clear that in crane -2 the major problem causing area is the 2 main hoist. Some of the problems frequently occurring in the main hoist are as follows: 1. MH brake not good. 2. M.H got tripped.

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The delay problems are also divided among the departments as mechanical, electrical, process, instrumentation and cranes. The consolidated delay distribution of the departments from NOV’09-MARCH’10 is provided below:
DELAY AREAS TOTAL

ELECTRICAL PROCESS MECHA ICAL I STRUME TATIO CRA ES Table 4.10 4.2.1.5.5 PARETO A ALYSIS:
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PROCESS MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION CRANES

1268 94 77 0 0

Series1 Series2

Fig 4.12 Electrical problems are the major delay causes in the crane-1. Some of the common mechanical problems faced by the crane-1 are as follows: 1. MH- M.H got tripped. 2. DSL- Remote signal cut off problem. 3. Drip tray- Drip tray got tripped. 4. CT- CT got tripped In crane-2 the second delay causing problem is process delays. Some of the common process delays is Hook- Cathode hook link got broken/bend.

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4.2.1.6 OPERATOR SKILLS A D EXPERIE CE: operators handling the various machines mentioned above are also reponsible for the time efficiency. The higher the skill and experience of the operator the smoother the various activities required to carry out the process takes place. Crane operators and ASWM and CSM operators should be highly efficient and with enough knowledge to understand the critical areas where the usual delay occurs and try to work out ways to tackle them. Regular training and knowledge sharing sessions are essential for them. 4.2.1.7 FORKLIFT AVAILABILITY: Forlifts availability to load the APM machine, to remove the rejected anodes, to shift the spent anodes from ASWM, to bring the fresh anode from the despatch yard, to carry the cathode plates from CSM to the Warehouse/front yard is important for the time efficiency. Due to the non availability of the forklifts the processes linked with it are also affected and this later affects the time efficiency. Proper planning is required for the proper utilization of the forklifts and scheduling the work. This will help in availability of the forklifts for the major activities essential and important to time effieciency. 4.2.1.8 PREVE TIVE MAI TE A CE: For the effective functioning of all the

machinary, maintenanace is a very essential aspect. Scheduled and preventive maintenance is necessary. Time efficiency reduces when the machines are not properly maintained and breakdown occurs. Because of lack of preventive maintenance the machines may malfunction during the process and this will lead to delay. 4.2.1.9 LABOUR AVAILABILITY A D SKILLS: labours are required to perform various activities in the cellhouse preparation and machine functioning. Unavailability of labours during the process of changeover and machine operations leads to delay and affects the time efficiency. Also the skill set possessed by the labour to do the particular job plays a critical role in the time delay. If the labour is new and inexperienced then the cleaning process of the cell house and machinery gets delayed. Willingness of the labour to work also plays a very essential role in the performance of his duties.

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4.2.2 STRIPPI G Stripping is the process of removing the cathode copper plates from the SS plates which were deposited during the electrolysis process. For each bank stripping process is carried out thrice (three crop cycle). For the stripping process the machine used is CSM. For the purpose of stripping each bank in its completion of one crop cycle is logged out and plates carried to CSM. Stripping process on an average takes 4.3hrs which higher than the standard i.e. 3hrs 4mins. This delay in the stripping time iss due to the various factors influencing the process. They are: 1. CSM PERFORMANCE * 2. CRANE PERFORMANCE * 3. OPERATORS SKILL AND EXPERIENCE* 4. FORKLIFT AVAILABILITY* 5. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE* 6. LABOUR AVAILABILITY AND SKILLS* All of these factors have been discussed under the changeover. By improving the performance of each of these factors the time delay can be reduced and the stripping time can be brought close to its standard time and thus increase the time efficiency by logging the bank in the circuit and starting the copper deposition by electrolysis process. 4.2.3 RECTIFIERS In the refinery, there are four rectifiers used for the conversion of A.C to D.C for the entire cellhouse system.rectifiers used here are: One 15KA Rectifier and other 35 KA rectifier. Due to tripping of the rectifier the entire bank gets logged out and this tends to the stoppage in the production of the copper and reduces the time efficiency of the refinery unit. 4.2.4 MISCELLA EOUS There are some factors which are not in control of the refinery unit but affect the output of the unit. Some of these factors are: 1. Anode availability: as per the availability of the anodes the cells can be utilized for the production of copper. Due various reasons in the smelter, the production of anodes fluctuates and thus the availability for the refinery unit also changes. This in turn reduces the number of banks under production and the time efficiency reduces. 2. Demand for copper in the market: according to the market demand the planning for production is done by the higher management. If the requirement fo r the copper is reduced then the production of the copper is also reduced. Thus some of the banks are logged off and no production takes place thus the time efficiency of the unit reduces.

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PROJECT 2: FORKLIFT MOTIO STUDY A D UTILIZATIO
4.3 ABOUT THE FORKLIFTS A forklift (also called a lift truck, a high/low, a stacker-truck, trailer loader, sideloader, fork truck, tow-motor or a fork hoist) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials. The modern forklift was developed in the 1920s by various companies including the transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist

company Yale & Towne Manufacturing. The forklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing operations. The middle 19th century through the early 20th century saw the developments that led to today's modern forklifts. The Pennsylvania Railroad in 1906 introduced battery powered platform trucks for moving luggage at their Altoona, Pennsylvania train station. World War I saw the development of different types of material handling equipment in the United Kingdom by Ransoms, Sims and Jeffries of Ipswich. This was in part due to the labour shortages caused by the war. In 1917Clark in the United States began developing and using powered tractor and powered lift tractors in their factories. In 1919 the Towmotor Company and Yale & Towne Manufacturing in 1920 entered the lift truck market in the United States. Continuing development and expanded use of the forklift continued through the 1920s and 1930s. World War II, like World War I before, spurred the use of forklift trucks in the war effort. Following the war, more efficient methods for storing products in warehouses were being implemented. Warehouses needed more manoeuvrable forklift trucks that could reach greater heights. New forklift models were made that filled this need. In 1956 Toyota introduced its first lift truck model, the Model LA, in Japan and sold its first forklift in the United States in 1967. Forklifts are rated for loads at a specified maximum weight and a specified forward centre of gravity. This information is located on a nameplate provided by the manufacturer, and loads must not exceed these specifications. In many jurisdictions it is illegal to remove or tamper with the nameplate without the permission of the forklift manufacturer. An important aspect of forklift operation is that most have rear-wheel steering. While this increases manoeuvrability in tight cornering situations, it differs from a driver’s traditional experience with other wheeled vehicles. While steering, as there is no caster action, it is unnecessary to apply steering force to maintain a constant rate of turn. Another critical characteristic of the forklift is its instability. The forklift and load must be considered a unit with a continually varying centre of gravity with every movement of the load. A forklift must never negotiate a turn at speed with a raised load,

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where centrifugal and gravitational forces may combine to cause a disastrous tip-over accident. The forklift are designed with a load limit for the forks which is decreased with fork elevation and undercutting of the load (i.e. load does not butt against the fork "L"). A loading plate for loading reference is usually located on the forklift. A forklift should not be used as a personnel lift without the fitting of specific safety equipment, such as a "cherry picker" or "cage".

FIG 4.13 4.4 FORKLIFTS I EOU: Export Oriented Unit (EOU) of Sterlite Industries India Limited has ten Forklifts on contract for its varied usage inside the premises. The allocation of the forklifts is done in the following manner: 1. Refinery -3ton forklifts (2 nos.) 5ton forklifts (2 nos.) 2. Logistics -3ton forklifts (1 nos.) 5ton forklifts (2 nos.) 3. CCR -3ton forklifts (1 nos.) 5ton forklifts (1 nos.) 4. Dore -3ton forklifts (1 nos.) (*not considered in this study)

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4.4.1 REFI ERY In refinery division of EOU, the forklifts core activities are: 1. Brining the fresh anodes from despatch yard to the anode yard. 2. Taking the spent anode from anode yard to the smelter. 3. Taking the cathode from CSM to CSM yard after weighment. Various miscellaneous activities are also performed by these forklifts. They are: 1. Handling and shifting DO Briquette from DO plant to smelter. 2. Spent anode arrangement in the yard. 3. Handling and shifting of DO powder, copper nodules, milling chips. 4. Miscellaneous scarp handling 4.4.1.1 TIME CALCULATIO S Shifting Fresh Anodes from despatch yard to anode yard include one more activity of weighing the anodes this activity starts from chipping yard to weigh scale and weigh scale to despatch yard storing area and from despatch yard to anode yard.
(FRESH A ODE) TOTAL TIME

S. O

LIFTI G TIME

CHIPPI G YARD TO WEIGH SCALE

WEIGH SCALE WAITI G TIME

WEIGH SCALE TO DESPATCH ZO E

LAYI G TIME

DESPATCH ZO E TO CHIPPI G YARD

MI

SEC

1 2 3 4 5

12 10 10 15 20

40 45 50 40 47

15 10 10 15 12

25 35 15 20 25

8 7 15 15 10

35 30 40 35 40 AVERAGE

2 2 2 2 3 2

15 17 20 20 34 21.2

Table 4.11

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5-TO FORKLIFT DESPATCH ZO E TO A ODE LAYI G YARD TIME 70 30 80 15 55 20 50 15 60 17 TOTAL TIME A ODE YARD TO DESPATCH SEC ZO E MI 50 3 45 45 2.5 30 40 2 0 45 2 0 50 2 22 TOTAL 2 19 TOTAL TIME A ODE YARD TO DESPATCH ZO E 40 45 40 50 45 TOTAL

S. O 1 2 3 4 5

LIFTI G TIME 15 10 5 10 15

3-TO FORKLIFT DESPATCH ZO E TO A ODE YARD 60 65 50 70 75

S. O 1 2 3 4 5

LIFTI G TIME 20 10 15 10 20

LAYI G TIME 20 45 45 20 20

MI 2 2.8 2.5 2.5 3 2

SEC 20 45 30 30 40 33

Table 4.12 Presently no weighment is done in the anode yard due to some problem in weigh scale.

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Shifting Spent Anode includes carrying the spent anode from anode yard to smelter yard passing three check posts.
TOTAL TIME SMELTER YARD TO ANODE YARD WAITING TIME IN CHECKPOST-1 WAITING TIME IN WEIGH SCALE WAITING TIME IN CHECKPOST-2 WAITING TIME IN CHECKPOST-3 CHECKPOST-1 TO WEIGH SCALE CHECKPOST-2 TO CHECKPOST-3 CHECKPOST-3 TO SMELTER YARD WEIGH SCALE TO CHECKPOST-2 ANODE YARD TO CHECK POST-1 FORKLIFT TYPE
AVERAGE

S.NO

MIN

MIN 5.8 5

SEC

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5-TON 3-TON

25 22 28 30 20 15 20 20

5 8 7 10 8 10 7 10

30 30 28 32 20 25 27 25

50 55 45 60 45 60 50 40

8 7 10 11 8 10 10 5

25 23 35 25 30 35 30 30

50 47 60 50 40 45 60 45

1 3 1 3 1 2 3 2

30 24 30 28 25 20 20 20

120 106 115 125 105 110 105 105

5.7 5.4 6.0 6.2 5.0 5.5 5.5 5.0

44 25 59 14 2 32 32 2 17 35 .5

Table 4.13 Shifting Cathode includes carrying the cathode from the CSM machine to weigh scale and from there to the CSM yard

3-TON FORKLIFT of CSM WAITING TIME AT WEIGH SCALE 80 90 80 70 65

TOTAL TIME

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5

LIFTING TIME 15 10 10 10 15

CSM TO WEIGH SCALE 10 15 17 20 15

WEIGH SCALE TO CSM YARD 50 45 40 45 50 TOTAL

MIN 2.6 2.7 2.45 2.42 2 2.51

SEC 35 40 27 25 25 30.4

Table 4.14

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SEC

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4.4.1.2 UTILIZATIO OF FORKLIFTS
3-TON FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO CSM YARD MAXIMUM OUTPUT IN ONE STRIPPING(BUNDLES) TIME FOR SHIFTING 1 BUNDLE FROM MACHINE TO CSM YARD NO OF STRIPPING IN A DAY TIME FOR SHIFTING 84 BUNDLES IN EACH STRIP(3) 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLANEOUS 30 MIN PER SHIFT REFRESHMENT TIME 30 MIN PER SHIFT BREAKDOWN TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATION OF FORKLIFT (%) 84 150 3 37800 17280 5400 5400 65880 76.25 HR MIN SEC

10.5 4.8 1.5 1.5 18.3

30 48 30 30 18

0 -8.5E13 0 0 2.56E12

Table 4.15
CONSIDERING CHANGE OVER N STRIPPING TIME SEPERATELY MAXIMUM OUTPUT IN ONE STRIPPING(BUNDLES) AVERAGE SECONDSS USED FOR 2 STRIPPING AVERAGE STRIPPING TIME FOR A CHANGEOVER 10% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLANEOUS 30 MIN PER SHIFT REFRESHMENT TIME 30 MIN PER SHIFT BREAKDOWN TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATION OF FORKLIFT (%) TOTAL TIME FOR 84 BUNDLES OF CHANGE OVER IDLE TIME FOR FORKLIFT DURING CHANGE OVER 84 31680 30600 HR 8.8 8.5 MIN 48 30 24 30 30 43.4 30 0 SEC 2.56E12 0 -4.3E13 0 0 24 0 0

8640 2.4 5400 1.5 5400 1.5 81804 22.72333 94.68056 12600 3.5 18000 5

Table 4.16 During the stripping time the forklift may have to take small delays of one minute or more in multiple chances and these times cannot be utilized for any other purpose and so stripping time has to be taken as complete for the forklift usage even if it is not utilized. In the same way during changeover there are some delays which cannot be utilized but some big delays can be used for shifting cathode from the CSM yard to the front yard or warehouse.

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1-3TON AND 2-5TON FORKLIFT FOR APM YARD SPENT ANODE HR NO OF BUNDLES TO BE SHIFTED IN A DAY 50 YTIME FOR SHIFTING 1 BUNDLE 334 TIME FOR SHIFTING 50 BUNDLES 16700 4.6 FRESH ANODE NO OF BUNDLES TO BE SHIFTED FROM DESPATCH TO ANODE YARD IN A DAY 268 TIME TAKEN FOR SHIFTING 1 BUNDLE 141 TIME TAKEN FOR SHIFTING 268 BUNDLE 37788 10.5 FRESH ANODE WEIGHMENT TIME TAKEN TO WEIGH ONE BUNDLE 140 NO OF BUNDLES TO BE WEIGHED 268 TIME TAKEN FOR WEIGHING 268 BUNDLE 37520 10.4 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLANEOUS 17280 4.8 30 MIN PER SHIFT REFRESHMENT TIME 5400 1.5 30 MIN PER SHIFT BREAKDOWN TIME 5400 1.5 AVERAGE APM RUNNING HRS IN A MONTH 900000 250 AVERAGE APM RUNNING HRS IN A DAY 30000 8.333333 AVERAGE RUNNING HRS FOR ASWM IN A MONTH 900000 250 AVERAGE RUNNING HRS FOR ASWM IN A DAY 30000 8.333333 TOTAL TIME FOR 3 FORKLIFTS 180088 50.0 UTILIZATION (%) 69.4784 MIN SEC

38.3

20.0

29.8

48.0

25.3 48.0 30.0 30.0

20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1.5

28.0

Table 4.17

In APM yard the utilization of forklifts keep on shifting as per the running of the APM machine and ASWM machine. Placing the spent anode from the machine to the yard is included in the miscellaneous activities other than this shifting of heavy materials and products from D/O plant. In this the average running hours of the two machines are also included because when the machines are running then the forklifts are engaged in feeding the APM emptying the ASWM and weighment of spent anodes.

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4.4.2 LOGISTICS In logistics the core activities that the forklifts perform are: 1. Shifting of cathode bundles from CSM yard to front yard or warehouse. 2. Shifting the cathode bundles from front yard to CCR furnace. 3. Loading the truck with cathode plate bundles. 4. Loading the trucks with coils. Various miscellaneous activities of the forklifts at logistics are: 1. Shifting of coils as per the truck loading requirements. 2. Arrangement of the warehouse according to the sections.

4.4.2.1 TIME CALCULATIO S Shifting Cathode Bundles from the CSM yard to the warehouse by going through one check post.
CSM YARD TO WAREHOUSE 3-ton WAITI G LAYI G CSM YARD TIME AT THE TO PLATE WAREHOUSE CHECKPOST 70 1 5 75 1 3 70 2 5 65 3 5 75 1 7 72 2 4 70 1 5 70 1 6 75 3 4 73 3 5 AVERAGE TOTAL TIME

S. O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

WAREHOUSE TO CSM LIFTI G YARD TIME 45 15 55 10 65 10 70 13 60 12 58 10 50 15 56 15 59 10 70 12

MI 2 2 2.5 2.6 2.6 2 2 2 2.5 2.7 2.5

SEC 16 24 32 36 35 26 21 28 31 43 29.2

Table 4.18

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Shifting of Cathode Bundles from the CSM yard to the front yard. The security check occurs only after keeping the cathode bundles in the yard as these bundles are meant to be fed in the CCR furnace for making coils CSM YARD TO FRO T YARD 3-ton CSM YARD TO WAITI G FRO T TIME AT YARD CHECKPOST 75 1 70 1 70 1 80 2 78 3 75 1 65 1 70 2 80 3 75 3 Table 4.19 TOTAL TIME LAYI G THE PLATE 3 2 5 8 3 7 5 5 8 10 AVERAGE

S. O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

FRO T YARD TO LIFTI G TIME CSM YARD 60 15 60 10 70 15 65 13 67 11 70 16 63 10 65 15 59 13 70 10

MI 3 2 2.7 2.8 2.7 3 2 3 2.7 2.8 2.6

SEC 34 23 41 48 42 49 24 37 43 48 38.9

Loading The Truck With Coils And Cathode Bundles from the warehouse to the truck by passing though the weigh scale and the check post. These coils are meant to for the export and trucks come to the front yard for loading.
WAREHOUSE TO TRUCK 5-ton LIFTI G THE BU DLE 3 4 3 2 4 STORAGE AREA TO WEIGH SCALE 10 10 14 15 12 Table 4.20 WAITI G TIME AT WEIGH SCALE 20 5 8 7 10 WEIGH SCALE TO TRUCK 20 25 20 25 25 TRUCK TO STORI G SPACE 20 25 25 20 20 AVERAGE TOTAL TIME MI 1 1 1 1 1 1 SEC 16 12 12 14 19 15

S. O 1 2 3 4 5

TRUCK LOADI G 3 3 2 5 8

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Shifting The Cathode Bundles from front yard to the CCR furnace for feeding the cathodes into the furnace to make coils. The bundles have to go through one check post.
FRO T YARD TO CCR 5-ton FRO T YARD TO CHECKPOST1 45 50 47 55 50 45 Table 4.21 WAITI G TIME AT CHECKPOST1 1 3 2 3 1 2 CHECKPOST TO PLATE STACKKI G AREA 60 65 55 70 65 70 PLATE STACKI G AREA TO FRO T YARD 90 105 96 95 100 90 AVERAGE TOTAL TIME

S. O 1 2 3 4 5 6

LIFTI G THE BU DLE 5 5 4 6 8 5

LAYI G THE PLATE 3 5 4 5 3 4

MI 3 3.9 3 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7

SEC 24 53 28 54 47 36 44

4.4.2.2UTILIZATIO OF THE FORKLIFTS
3TO FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO CSM YARD HR TIME FOR SHIFTI G O E BU DLE CATHODE FROM CSM YARD O OF BU DLES TO BE SHIFTED FROM 1 STRIPPI G O OF BU DLES TO BE SHIFTED FROM 3 STRIPPI GS I A DAY TIME FOR SHIFTI G TOTAL BU DLES I A DAY 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATIO (%) 159 84 252 40068 17280 5400 5400 68148 78.875 11.1 4.8 1.5 1.5 18.9 7.8 48.0 30.0 30.0 55.8 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 MI SEC

Table 4.22 The 3-ton forklift is dedicated to the shifting of cathode bundles from the CSM yard to the Warehouse or the front yard. Other miscellaneous works that this forklift performs is to take the bundles for repacking if required. The forklift is utilized for 78.87% throughout a day.

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TRUCK LOADI G (COIL) TIME TAKE FOR LOADI G O E COIL O OF COILS I O E TRUCK O OF TRUCKS I A DAY TIME FOR LOADI G ALL TRUCKS TIME FOR COIL ADJUSTME T PER TRUCK TIME FOR COIL ADJUSTME T FOR ALL TRUCKS TOTAL TIME FOR COIL LOADI G SET UP TIME(FORKLIFT ARM CHA GE)10 TIMES FOR 10 MI TRUCK LOADI G (CATHODE) TIME FOR LOADI G O E BU DLE CATHODE O OF CATHODE BU DLES I O E TRUCK O OF TRUCKS I A DAY TIME FOR LOADI G ALL TRUCKS CATHODE BU DLES TO CCR TIME FOR SHIFTI G O E BU DLE CATHODE TO CCR FUR ACE O OF CATHODE BU DLES SHIFTED I A DAY TIME FOR SHIFTI G ALL BU DLES I A DAY 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS OF TWO FORKLIFTS UTILIZATIO (%) 90 10 15 13500 90 8 15 10800 1200 18000 28800 6000

HR

MI

SEC

3.0 5.0 8.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

3.8

45.0

0.0

222 144 31968 17280 5400 5400 108348 172800 62.70139 8.9 4.8 1.5 1.5 30.1 48.0 52.8 48.0 30.0 30.0 5.8 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 0.0

Table 4.23 Shifting the Cathode Bundles and Coil from the warehouse to the trucks is done by 5-ton forklifts. For loading the coils a prior shifting of coils inside the warehouse is required according to the requirement of the exports as per weight and batch no. The utilization of the two 5ton forklifts is low as 62.701%.

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4.4.3 CCR In CCR the core activities for the forklifts are: 1. Shifting the coils from the CCR to the warehouse. 2. Loading the feeder of the furnace with cathode bundles. 3. Shifting the coils inside the CCR for various processing activities. Apart from this the other miscellaneous activities that the forklifts perform are: 1. Shifting of the wooden pallets from the CCR front yard to inside. 2. Shifting the necessary cylinders from the stores to the plant. 3. Carrying the copper bars from the cutting area to the feeder yard. 4. Shifting of heavy materials in the plants. 4.4.3.1 TIME CALCULATIO S Shifting Of Coil from the CCR to the warehouse by passing through two check posts, one at CCR and the other at Warehouse.
CCR TO WAREHOUSE( COIL) TOTAL TIME LIFTI G THE COIL FROM WEIGH SCALE 5 8 7 5 7 7 5 8 5 6

S. O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

WEIGH SCALE TO WAREHOUSE 90 80 85 82 85 80 90 75 85 83 Table 4.24

WAITI G TIME AT CHECKPOST 5 10 3 4 4 8 10 5 7 4

LAYI G THE WAREHOUSE COIL TO CCR 5 75 3 65 4 45 4 60 5 70 5 80 4 65 3 70 4 50 7 75 AVERAGE

MI 3 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.9 3 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.8

SEC 0 46 24 35 51 0 54 41 31 55 33.7

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Feeding The Furnace with the cathode bundles from the CCR yard to the feeder. Activities like cutting of strap and washing of cathode is done prior to feeding the cathode to the furnace.
FEEDI G THE FUR ACE TOTAL TIME LIFTI G THE CATHODE BU DLE 5 8 7 5 7 7 5 8 5 6 CCR YARD WAITI G TO TIME AT WASHI G WAITI G FEEDER WASHI G WASHI G AREA TO TIME AT TO CCR AREA YARD AREA FEEDER FEEDER 10 10 8 75 13 12 10 7 65 14 15 10 9 45 15 11 15 8 60 10 10 15 7 70 15 13 14 7 80 13 15 13 9 65 12 13 16 8 70 14 12 15 9 50 15 12 10 7 75 15 AVERAGE

S. O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

MI 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.0

SEC 1 56 41 49 4 14 59 9 46 5 28.4

Table 4.25 Activities inside the CCR

S. O 1 2 3 4 5 COMPACT OR TO STRECH PACKI G 10 10 13 15 14

LIFTI G THE COIL 4 5 6 4 5

COILER TO COOLI G AREA 10 11 15 13 12

LAYI G THE COIL 5 5 3 6 7 STRECH PACKI G TO PACKI G 10 14 11 15 12

LIFTI G THE COIL 4 4 6 4 5

COOLI G AREA TO COMPACTO R 8 10 13 9 11

LAYI G THE COIL 10 7 10 9 8 PACKI G TO WEIGH SCALE 12 15 14 16 15

LIFTI G THE COIL 5 6 4 5 5

LAY G THE COIL 4 3 6 5 5

LIFTI G THE COIL 5 4 6 4 5

LAYI G THE COIL 5 6 5 5 4

LIFTI G THE COIL 4 7 6 3 5

LAYI G THE COIL 4 5 5 4 6

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WEIGH SCALE TO EW PALLET STORAGE 15 13 14 20 17

LIFTI G THE PALLET 3 5 4 5 5

PALLET AREA TO WEIGH SCALE 15 15 14 17 15

WAITI G TIME AT WEIGH SCALE 10 9 14 15 10 Table 4.26

WEGH SCALE TO PALLET STORAGE AREA 14 14 15 17 15

LIFTI G THE PALLET 5 4 4 5 6

PALLET STORAGE AREA TO COILER 13 14 13 16 15

LAYI G THE PALLET 5 5 5 4 6

MI 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.336667

SEC 0 11 26 36 28 20.2

AVERAGE

Inside the CCR plant the forklift has to take the coil bundle to the cooler for cooling and then to the compactor for compacting the coil bundle and then to the stretch packing section so as to pack the coil with this plastic film and then to the final packing section where it is strapped and then packed. After the final packing the coil taken to the weigh scale where it is weighed and then send to warehouse. 4.4.3.2 UTILIZATIO OF THE FORKLIFTS 3TO FORKLIFT DEDICATED TO FUR ACE TIME TAKE TO FEED I THE FEEDER O OF FEEDS I A DAY TOTAL TIMEE FOR FEEDI G 50% OF TOTAL TIME FOR MISCELLA EOUS ACTIVITIES 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATIO (%) Table 4.27 HR 148 120 17760 43200 5400 5400 71760 83.05556 MI SEC

4.9 12.0 1.5 1.5 19.9

56.0 0.0 30.0 30.0 56.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

3 TON forklift dedicated to the feeder to feed cathode bundles to the furnace as the utilization of 83.1%. Other than feeding the furnace, other activities make the major share of the activities in a day. These activities include carrying materials from store and carrying copper bars from the cutting area to the feeder yard.

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5TO FORKLIFT TIME FOR SHIFTI G COIL A D PALLET I SIDE CCR O OF COILS PRODUCED I A DAY TOTAL TIME FOR COIL COIL TO WAREHOUSE TIME TAKE TO SHIFT O E COIL O OF COILS PRODUCED I A DAY TIME TO SHIFT ALL COILS TO WAREHOUSE 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATIO (%) Table 4.28

HR 200 96 19200 158 96 15168 17280 5400 5400 62448 72.27778

MI

SEC

5.3

20.0

0.0

4.2 4.8 1.5 1.5 17.3

12.8 48.0 30.0 30.0 20.8

48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0

5-TON forklift is used majorly for shifting the coils from CCR to warehouse. Shifting of coils inside CCR for other processes is also performed by it. Bring the wooden pallet from the CCR front yard to inside and weighment are some other activities included in the miscellaneous activities of this forklift.

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CHAPTER 5 RESULTS A D SUGGESTIO S
5.1 TIME EFFICIE CY: CO SOLIDATED TIME EFFICIE CY OV’09-MARCH’10
TOTAL O OF BA KS 677.14 699.71 699.71 632 699.71 TOTAL RU I G HRS 12073.45 14417.36 10346.94 9283.44 11645.09 57766.28 EXPECTED TOTAL RU I G HRS 12490.97 14965.4 10746.3 9614.95 12053.09 59870.71 TIME EFFICIE CY 96.65742532 96.33795288 96.28374417 96.55214016 96.61497591 96.48504252

MO TH OVEMBER DECEMBER JA UARY FEBRUARY MARCH

Table 5.1 5.2 FOKKLIFT UTILIZATIO CO SOLIDATED STATEME T
RU I G HOURS HR MI S 18 18 50 38 18 55 01 5 AVAILABL E RU I G HOURS HR S MI 24 24 72 48 0 0 0 0

PRESE T UTILIZATIO 76.25 78.88 69.48 62.7

FORKLIFT/AREA 3TO /CSM YARD 3TO /LOGISTICCSM (1)3TO +(2)5TO /A PM YARD (2)5TO /LOGISTIC S 5TO /CCR 3TO /CCR FUR ACE

PROPOSED UTILIZATIO (%) SUGGESTIO SUGGESTIO SUGGESTIO -1 -2 -3 90.1625 ELIMI ATED .A (70%) 78.93 (100%) 85.88 .A ELIMI ATED .A 67.38 .A ELIMI ATED .A (100%) 85.88 (90%) 84.04 .A (0%) 90.05 (10%) 93.75

17

21

24

0

72.27

.A

19

56

24

0

83.05

.A

99.5

ELIMI ATED

Table 5.2

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5.3 SUGGESTIO S
5.3.1 SUGGESTIO 1 PERFORMI G THE TASK OF CATHODE SHIFTI G FROM CSM (70%) TO WAREHOUSE/YARD TO CCR (100%) A D TRUCK LOADI G (100%) BY 2 FORKLIFTS OF LOGISTICS (5TO ) 1. Proper coordination to be established between csm ccr and logistics such that requirement of forklifts could be planned. 2. Timing of stripping to be well communicated to logistics prior so that it can make forklifts to do rest of the work in a planned manner 3. 70% of the cathode bundles can be shifted by logistic forklift and 30% can be stored in the csm yard and later can be shifted by csm forklift during the changeover.
RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 70% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2-5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS

TIME FOR SHIFTI G 70% FROM CSM BU DLES I A DAY TOTAL TIME FOR COIL LOADI G TIME FOR LOADI G CATHODE BIU DLES I TRUCK SET UP TIME(FORKLIFT ARM CHA GE)10 TIMES FOR 10 MI TIME FOR SHIFTI G ALL BU DLES I A DAY TO CCR 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS OF TWO FORKLIFTS UTILIZATIO (%)

28047.6 28800 13500 6000 31968 17280 5400 5400 136395.6 172800 78.93264

7.8 8.0 3.8 1.7 8.9 4.8 1.5 1.5 37.9 48.0

47.5 0.0 45.0 40.0 52.8 48.0 30.0 30.0 53.3 0.0

27.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.6 0.0

Table 5.3
RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 30% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 3TON FORKLIFT OF CSM TIME FOR SHIFTI G 30% FROM CSM BU DLES I A 3.3 20.3 20.4 DAY 12020.4 MAXIMUM OUTPUT I O E STRIPPI G(BU DLES) 84 TIME FOR SHIFTI G 1 BU DLE FROM MACHI E TO CSM YARD 150 O OF STRIPPI G I A DAY 3 TIME FOR SHIFTI G 84 BU DLES I EACH STRIP(3) 37800 10.5 30 0 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR -8.5E4.8 48 MISCELLA EOUS 17280 13 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 5400 1.5 30 0 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME 5400 1.5 30 0 TOTAL TIME 77900.4 21.639 38.34 20.4 UTILIZATIO OF FORKLIFT (%) 90.1625

Table 5.4

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RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 100% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS TIME FOR SHIFTI G 100% FROM CSM BU DLES I A DAY TOTAL TIME FOR COIL LOADI G TIME FOR LOADI G CATHODE BIU DLES I TRUCK SET UP TIME(FORKLIFT ARM CHA GE)10 TIMES FOR 10 MI TIME FOR SHIFTI G ALL BU DLES I A DAY TO CCR 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS OF TWO FORKLIFTS UTILIZATIO (%) 40068 28800 13500 6000 31968 17280 5400 5400 148416 172800 85.88889 11.1 8.0 3.8 1.7 8.9 4.8 1.5 1.5 41.2 48.0 7.8 0.0 45.0 40.0 52.8 48.0 30.0 30.0 13.6 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.0 0.0

Table 5.5

4. Before loading one truck if we can supply 6 bundles of cathode to ccr then we can easily manage with the two 5ton forklifts. 5. One forklift will be used to bring the cathode from csm to yard and other will be used to supply cathode to ccr, and after supplying 6 bundles the forklift will be used to load one truck. 6. During break down of csm the csm forklift can also be used to transfer cathodes to yard/warehouse. 7. Ccr 3-ton forklift can also take some of the cathode supply to the furnace while not on other works. 8. Before the starting of the csm coils to be loaded in the truck must be sorted out in advance so as to gain time during the machine running and shifting of cathodes. 9. If two to three trucks is to be loaded one after the other then initial supply of cathode is to be provided to the ccr and then one truck is to be loaded and then the ccr forklift can be utilized to supply the cathode at regular intervals until all the trucks are loaded and also if 70-30 system is used then the 5ton forklift used in csm can be used to load the truck at a later stage.

RESULT: 3 TO FORKLIFTS OF LOGISTICS CA BE ELIMI ATED UTILIZATIO OF 5TO FORKLIFTS CA BE I CREASED

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5.3.2 SUGGESTIO -2
I STALLI G THE AUTO FEEDER I THE CCR FUR ACE AREA 1. Install an auto feeder as shown in the diagram of auto feeder for feeding the cathodes to the eder cat furnace at ccr

Cathode lifting arm

Fig 5.1 2. Time which was earlier used for feeding the furnace can be utilized for bringing the furnace bring cathode from yard to ccr.

3-TO FORKLIFT OF CCR TO TIME FOR SHIFTI G O E BU DLE CATHODE TO CCR FUR ACE O OF CATHODE BU DLES SHIFTED I A DAY TIME FOR SHIFTI G ALL BU DLES I A DAY 50% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS UTILIZATIO (%) 222 144 31968 43200 5400 5400 85968 86400 99.5

HR

MI

SEC

8.9 12.0 1.5 1.5 23.9 24.0

52.8 0.0 30.0 30.0 52.8 0.0

48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 0.0

Table 5.6 4. Time used for shifting the cathode to ccr can be used to shift the cathode from csm yard to yard/warehouse.

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TRUCK LOADI G (COIL) TIME TAKE FOR LOADI G O E COIL O OF COILS I O E TRUCK O OF TRUCKS I A DAY TIME FOR LOADI G ALL TRUCKS TIME FOR COIL ADJUSTME T PER TRUCK TIME FOR COIL ADJUSTME T FOR ALL TRUCKS TOTAL TIME FOR COIL LOADI G SET UP TIME(FORKLIFT ARM CHA GE)10 TIMES FOR 10 MI TRUCK LOADI G (CATHODE) TIME FOR LOADI G O E BU DLE CATHODE O OF CATHODE BU DLES I O E TRUCK O OF TRUCKS I A DAY TIME FOR LOADI G CATHODE BU DLES CATHODE BU DLES TO YARD TIME FOR SHIFTI G TOTAL BU DLES I A DAY FROM CSM TO YARD 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS OF TWO FORKLIFTS UTILIZATIO (%) 40068 17280 5400 5400 116448 172800 67.38889 90 10 15 13500 90 8 15 10800 1200 18000 28800 6000

HR

MI

SEC

3.0

0.0

0.0

5.0 8.0

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

3.8

45.0

0.0

11.1 4.8 1.5 1.5 32.3 48.0

7.8 48.0 30.0 30.0 20.8 0.0

48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 0.0

Table 5.7 5. Utilization of logistics forklift can further be improved by engaging it into miscellaneous and supporting activities of other forklifts.

RESULT: 3 TO FORKLIFTS OF LOGISTICS CA BE ELIMI ATED UTILIZATIO OF 5TO FORKLIFTS CA BE I CREASED

MO EY MATTERS: INVESTMENT FOR THE CONVEYOR=RS.20 LAKHS (APPROX) (MACHINE AND INSTALLATION) MONEY SAVED PER MONTH ON 1 FORKLIFT= RS.1 LAKH ESTIMATED PAYBACK PERIOD= 20 MONTHS I.E. 1 YR 8 MO THS

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5.3.3 SUGGESTIO 3:
RESEQUE CI G THE CCR WORKFLOW A D I STALLATIO FEEDER 1. Present arrangement of ccr plant and forklift movements are shown as below: OF AUTO

COILER

COILER

COMPACTOR

COOLER

WEIGHED PALLET PACKER

STRECH PACKER PALLET STACKI G AREA WEIGH SCALE

FORK LIFT

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2. Workstations of the ccr is to be arranged in a sequential manner as shown in the diagram of new railed ccr and rail system to be implemented to shift the coil.

Cooler

Rails Coiler Compactor

Pallet Stretch packer

Packer

Weigh scale

Delivery for forklift

Fig 5.2 2. Installing an auto feeder system as shown in the diagram (auto feeder) will feed the ccr furnace with the cathodes. 3. Time gained by 5ton forklift can be utilized to do the miscellaneous work at ccr and to shift the coils to warehouse.

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5TO FORKLIFT OF CCR TIME TAKE TO SHIFT O E COIL O OF COILS PRODUCED I A DAY TIME TO SHIFT ALL COILS TO WAREHOUSE 60% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATIO (%) 158 96 15168 51840 5400 5400 77808 90.05556 4.2 14.4 1.5 1.5 21.6 12.8 24.0 30.0 30.0 36.8 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 HR MI SEC

Table 5.8

5TO FORKLIFT OF CCR TIME TAKE TO SHIFT O E COIL O OF COILS PRODUCED I A DAY TIME FOR SHIFTI G 10% CATHODE TO THE CCR TIME TO SHIFT ALL COILS TO WAREHOUSE 60% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME UTILIZATIO (%) 158 96 3196.8 15168 51840 5400 5400 81004.8 93.75556

HR

MI

SEC

0.9 4.2 14.4 1.5 1.5 22.5

53.3 12.8 24.0 30.0 30.0 30.1

16.8 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.8

RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 100% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS
TIME FOR SHIFTI G 100% FROM CSM BU DLES I A DAY TOTAL TIME FOR COIL LOADI G TIME FOR LOADI G ALL TRUCKS TIME FOR SHIFTI G ALL BU DLES I A DAY TO CCR SET UP TIME(FORKLIFT ARM CHA GE)10 TIMES FOR 10 MI 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS OF TWO FORKLIFTS UTILIZATIO (%) 40068 28800 13500 31968 6000 17280 5400 5400 148416 172800 85.88889 11.1 8.0 3.8 8.9 1.7 4.8 1.5 1.5 41.2 48.0 7.8 0.0 45.0 52.8 40.0 48.0 30.0 30.0 13.6 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.0 0.0

Table 5.9

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RENEWD UTILIZATION WHEN 90% OF CATHODE IS SHIFTED BY 2 -5TON FORKLIFT OF LOGISTICS
TIME FOR SHIFTI G 100% FROM CSM BU DLES I A DAY TOTAL TIME FOR COIL LOADI G TIME FOR LOADI G ALL TRUCKS TIME FOR SHIFTI G ALL BU DLES I A DAY TO CCR SET UP TIME(FORKLIFT ARM CHA GE)10 TIMES FOR 10 MI 20% OF TOTAL AVAILABLE HOUR FOR MISCELLA EOUS 30 MI PER SHIFT REFRESHME T TIME 30 MI PER SHIFT BREAKDOW TIME TOTAL TIME TOTAL AVAILABLE HRS OF TWO FORKLIFTS UTILIZATIO (%) 40068 28800 13500 28771.2 6000 17280 5400 5400 145219.2 172800 84.03889 11.1 8.0 3.8 8.0 1.7 4.8 1.5 1.5 40.3 48.0 7.8 0.0 45.0 59.5 40.0 48.0 30.0 30.0 20.3 0.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 31.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.2 0.0

Table 5.10 4. Time during the starting of the coiling process can be used to shift 10% of the cathodes to the ccr furnace. 5. Time gained by 5ton forklifts of logistics can be used for other miscellaneous purpose.

RESULT: 3 TO FORKLIFTS OF LOGISTICS CA BE ELIMI ATED 3TO FORKLIFT OF CCR CA BE ELIMI ATED UTILIZATIO OF 5TO FORKLIFTS CA BE I CREASED

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5.3.4 SUGGESTIO 4
ESTABLISHI G A CE TRALIZED FORKLIFT CO TROLI G U IT 1. Central controlling unit is to be established where in all the forklifts report. 2. Planning should be regarding each shift activities and the requirements of forklifts by the controlling unit. 3. During reporting of the forklift, each forklift is to be checked for the status card issued by the maintenance unit of forklifts which specifies the overall condition of the forklift and fitness for its usage. 4. After the verification by the in-charge the forklifts are to be issued to the various jobs in hand which are preplanned by all the plants and informed prior. 5. Job cards are to be issued by the controlling unit for each job to be done. 6. After the completion of the particular job the job handling officer should relieve the forklift by signing on to the job card. 7. The forklifts must report to the controlling unit after completion of each job. 8. Breakdowns and refreshment breaks are also to be informed to the controlling unit with starting and ending time. 9. Rules must be formulated to take actions against the improper performance of the forklifts and intentional delay. 10. Progress of each job should be reported to the controlling unit by the job handling officer and estimated job completion time also to be communicated. RESULT: MORE SYSTEMATIC FORKLIFT MA AGEME T CA BE DO E A D UTILIZATIO OF EACH FORKLIFT CA BE IMPROVED.

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CO CLUSIO :
The project regarding the time efficiency of the refinery plant has prominently highlighted with the help of Pareto analysis that CSM, ASWM, APM and CRANES play a vital role in the production of copper cathodes. And the delays which occur during their functioning are majorly caused due to various technical reasons in the machine parts and operational inefficiency. Steps should be taken to bring in control and efficient usage of machines by regular checkups and maintenance and training and knowledge sharing activities for the operators. The project regarding the forklift motion study in the EOU has clearly identified the under utilization of the forklifts and the unproductive motion that the forklifts take to perform an activity. By the implementation of the provided suggestions the utilization of the forklifts can be increased and the excess forklift can be removed and the profitability of the EOU can be increased.

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REFERE CES: 1. Http://www.sterlite-industries.com 2. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/pareto_analysis 3. Documents from the company which are confidential. 4. Daily reports of the refinery plant 5. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_and_motion_study

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