JANUARY  2004

Highlights From DAWN:  Washington, DC, 2002
This special report presents findings based on data submitted by 15 hospitals in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area for 2002. ■ Of the 1.3 million visits to Washington area emergency departments (EDs) in 2002, about one percent (10,554) were related to drug abuse. ■ During 2002, the most common drugs involved in these ED visits were alcohol in combination with other drugs, cocaine, marijuana, heroin, and phencyclidine (PCP). ■ Between 2001 and 2002, the rate of PCP­related ED visits increased 143 percent (from 13 to 31 visits per 100,000 population). ■ Among the 21 DAWN areas, Washington had  one of the highest rates of ED visits involving PCP in 2002. Top 5 drugs in drug abuse­related ED visits in Washington, DC, 2002
5000

4000

3,714 3,033 2,332

Number of visits

3000

2000

1,597 1,302
1000

0
Alcohol­in­� Cocaine combination  Marijuana Heroin PCP

DAWN:  The Warning Network
Local information is essential to Seattle support local action, and drugs, drug use, and drug­related morbidity can Detroit Minneapolis differ dramatically across communities. Buffalo DAWN focuses on metropolitan areas Chicago Baltimore to reveal emerging drug problems Denver San Francisco Washington St. Louis before they become widespread. DAWN detects new drugs, new drug Los Angeles combinations, new health consequences  Atlanta Phoenix Dallas of drug use, and changing patterns involving San� old drugs. Facilities participating in DAWN Diego can use this information to train staff and New� improve patient care. Communities can use this information to Orleans Miami plan, target resources, and act more effectively. Today, hospitals in Washington and 20 other metropolitan areas serve their  communities by participating in DAWN. Expansion to other areas is underway.

Boston New Y ork Newark Philadelphia

DAWN serves a diverse audience. In addition to participating facilities, users include researchers and policy analysts; pharmaceutical firms; State and local substance abuse agencies; community coalitions; and Federal agencies, including the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. For more information, go to http://DAWNinfo.samhsa.gov/.

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Trends in Top 4 Drugs, 1995­2002
Cocaine

From 1995 to 2002, the rate of cocaine­related
ED visits in Washington remained stable (at 71
visits per 100,000 population), while the
national rate increased 33 percent (from 58 to
78 visits per 100,000).
In Washington, almost three­quarters (71%)  of cocaine­related visits involved other drugs. About one­fifth of the cocaine mentions were attributed to “crack.”

150

Rate per 100,000� population

100

U.S. Washington

50

0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Marijuana

In 2002, Washington’s rate of marijuana­related ED visits (55 visits per 100,000 population) was near the national average (47). However, the rate in Washington was relatively stable from 1995 to 2002, while the national rate increased 139 percent. ED visits involving marijuana usually involve other drugs as well (74%).

150

Rate per 100,000� population

100

Washington
50
0 0 0

U.S.
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Heroin

From 1995 to 2002, the rate of heroin­related
ED visits in Washington remained stable (at 38
visits per 100,000 population). Over the same 
8­year period, the national rate rose 22 percent
(from 30 to 36 visits per 100,000).
In half (50%) of heroin­related ED visits in the Washington area, heroin was the only  drug reported.

0 150

Rate per 100,000� population

100

50

Washington U.S.

0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

PCP

Between 2001 and 2002, the rate of PCP­related ED visits increased 143 percent in Washington (from 13 to 31 visits per 100,000 population). Washington’s rate of PCP­related visits in 2002
was 10 times the national rate (3 visits per
100,000 population).
Nearly two­thirds (65%) of PCP­related ED visits in Washington also involved other drugs.

80

Rate per 100,000� population

60

40

Washington

20

U.S.
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

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3

??? Comparisons Across 21 Metropolitan Areas

The following figures show Washington in relation to the Nation and 20 other metropolitan areas represented in DAWN for selected drugs in 2002. Comparisons across areas are possible because the number of visits for each drug is represented in terms of a rate per 100,000 population. Not all differences in rates are statistically significant.

Cocaine visits�
Rate per 100,000 population, 2002
Total U.S. Chicago Philadelphia Baltimore Miami Atlanta Newark Detroit Buffalo New York Seattle Boston St. Louis San Francisco New Orleans Los Angeles Denver Washington, DC Phoenix Minneapolis Dallas San Diego 0 0 0 0 32 300 55 46 82� � 71 59 108 186 182 171 166� � 164� � 156 153 150 145 240 239 78 275 274 257

Heroin visits�
Rate per 100,000 population, 2002
Total U.S. Chicago Newark Baltimore San Francisco Seattle New York Boston Philadelphia Buffalo Detroit Miami New Orleans St. Louis Denver Washington, DC Los Angeles San Diego Phoenix Atlanta Minneapolis Dallas 0 29 28 23 20 16 10 225 38 53 51 43 93� � 93� � 85 128 123 111 109 171 36 220 214 203

Marijuana visits�
Rate per 100,000 population, 2002
Total U.S. Philadelphia Detroit St. Louis Boston Miami Atlanta Baltimore Chicago New Orleans Seattle Los Angeles Buffalo Washington, DC Newark New York Minneapolis San Diego Phoenix San Francisco Denver Dallas 0 27 160 55 54 47 47� � 46 46 39 38 78 72� � 65� � 64 56 96 88 124 119 111 47 150 146

PCP visits�
Rate per 100,000 population, 2002
Total U.S. Washington, DC Philadelphia Los Angeles Chicago Newark St. Louis Seattle Baltimore Dallas New York Minneapolis San Francisco Phoenix San Diego New Orleans Detroit Boston 7 6 6 5 4 4� � 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 11 8 3 31 25

Miami 0� � Buffalo 0

0

130

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??? About DAWN

The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a national surveillance system that monitors drug­related morbidity and mortality. Section 505 of the Public Health Service Act assigns this responsibility to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Act requires SAMHSA to report annually on drug­related visits to hospital emergency departments and on drug­related deaths reviewed by medical examiners and coroners. SAMHSA has a contract with Westat, a private research firm based in Rockville, MD, to operate the DAWN system. DAWN collects data from a scientific sample of hospital emergency departments and a set of medical examiners and coroners from across the U.S., with concentrations in selected metropolitan areas. Each participating facility has a DAWN Reporter who is specially trained to identify DAWN cases by retrospectively reviewing emergency department medical records or death investigation case files. No patient, family member, or physician is ever interviewed. No direct identifiers for individual patients or decedents are collected. Beginning in 2003, DAWN cases include any emergency department visit or death that was related to drug use. Reportable cases include drug abuse, misuse, overmedication, accidental and malicious poisonings, and adverse drug reactions. For each case, the DAWN Reporter submits a case report detailing the specific drugs involved, and characteristics of the patient or decedent and event (visit or death). Patient and decedent characteristics include demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and ZIP code. Other data items include date/time, chief complaint, diagnoses, and disposition for each emergency department visit; and date, cause, manner, and place  of death for each decedent.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of Applied Studies 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 16­105 Rockville, MD 20857 Official Business Penalty for Private Use $300

FIRST CLASS MAIL POSTAGE & FEES PAID SAMHSA PERMIT NO. G­283