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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Introduction

This chapter presents a Review of Related Literature and studies which helped

the researchers to determine the relationship of waste management and other factors

like Age, Gender, Monthly Income and Education. Thus, statistical data, survey analysis

and many studies will be used regarding these factors as how it affects and makes

significant difference to the study of waste management. Moreover, waste collection,

waste segregation, waste recycling and waste disposal which encompass waste

management will be thoroughly discussed since it plays very important roles in clearly

defining waste management.

Waste is generated by human activity therefore its management is particularly an

important issue as it affects both environmental and human health as wastes cause

land, air and water pollution. Solid waste means garbage, refuse and other discarded

materials including but not limited to solid and liquid waste materials resulting from

industrial, commercial, agricultural and residential activities (Mantell, 1975). It has been

suggested, likewise, that practices of basic solid waste management (SWM) are often

neglected at the individual level (Licy et al.,2013).

Issues of the environment specifically about Waste Management have been

timely and relevant in the Philippines. However, it is not just a problem of the nation

but a problem of other countries as well. Thus, it has been discussed most of the time

because it is affected by a countrys economic and political aspect. The persistent


increase in human population and rapid industrialization has caused the continuing

global problems on improper waste disposal. (Atienza, 2008)

The major drawbacks concerning wastes management, especially in the

developing countries are the ineffective waste collection strategies and the lack of

disposal sites (Reyes et al,2013). The problem of solid waste management has become

critical in the Philippines and as a response to this issue, the government enacted the

Republic Act of 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of

2000, on the 26th of January 2001. This intends the country to adopt a systematic,

comprehensive and ecological solid waste ,management program that protects both

the environment and the human health. This aims to establish a holistic approach in

solving the waste management problem in the Philippines.

Solid wastes can be classified according to their sources and this research study

focuses on the municipal or household wastes at the home level. According to research

study conducted by Bennagen , et al. (2002) at two Barangays in Metro Manila, waste

segregation at the household level is not widely practiced and waste recycling is

minimal. Some of the reasons for the residents non compliance include their

indifference to participate in waste management related activities, their attitude that the

government has the sole responsibility over garbage management, and their lack of

information and education campaigns.