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ED 430 694 PS 027 627

AUTHOR Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

TITLE Infant and Toddlers, A Publication for Montessori Infant and
Toddler Programs, 1997-1998.
PUB DATE 1998-00-00
NOTE 65p.
AVAILABLE FROM Infants and Toddlers, P.O. Box 14627, Albuquerque, NM
87191-4627 (Regular subscription, 1-year, $25; Intern
Subscription, 1-year, $20).
PUB TYPE Collected Works - Serials (022)
JOURNAL CIT Infants and Toddlers; vl n1-4 Spr 1997-Feb 1998
EDRS PRICE MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
DESCRIPTORS *Child Development; Child Rearing; *Early Childhood
Education; Early Intervention; Educational History;
Emotional Development; Infant Behavior; *Infants; Montessori
Method; Mothers; Motor Development; *Parent Child
Relationship; Periodicals; Play; *Toddlers; Toys
IDENTIFIERS Montessori Preschools

This document is comprised of the first four issues of a
journal published quarterly for parents of children in Montessori infant and
toddler programs. Regular features include "Ask Ginny," an advice column;
information on recent research; and reports on conferences. The Spring 1997
issue contains articles on the history of infant/toddler programs in the
United States and a mother's study regarding her use of Montessori techniques
and guidelines in full-time mothering. The Fall 1997 issue discusses the
importance of the early environment and age appropriate activities and toys.
The November 1997 issue includes articles on movement in infants and
toddlers, emotion as the motivating factor for infants and toddlers, and
young children's interests. The February 1998 issue presents information on
children's independence, using journals to record memories, and the use of
polyvinyl chloride in children's toys; this issue also includes a mother's
story of toddler separation. (KB)

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made *
* from the original document. *




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Become a CMTE/Ni Y
Infant and Toddler Specialist!
.111sy. 111111101111111
1111 am/Mt/III.

. V Deepen your appreciation of the

needs of children from birth to
r- 4
V Develop skills to observe,
understand and respect infants
and toddlers.
V Discover the joy, satisfaction
and profound value of assisting
the very young in their healthy
growth and development.
The CMTE/NY Montessori Infant and Toddler
Program is professional training for people working
with children from birth to thirty-six months of age.
The first program in the United States to offer Infant
and Toddler Montessori Certification, CMTE/NY
provides an in-depth study in Infant and Toddler
Montessori education combined with the most
current scientific and psychological research
The first three years of life affect a child's ability to thrive and be; self esteem, the ability to form
attachments and the establishment of basic trust are all central to this period. The importance of these
first years places a great responsibility on the adults in the child's world. Parents and child care
providers should be informed, knowledgeable, and well-qualified to assist in this crucial period of
physical, emotional and cognitive development.
CMTE/NY's Infant and Toddler Program teaches how to create beautiful, safe and developmentally
appropriate learning environments. The program will give you the skills needed to provide the best
quality care for infants and toddlers, as well as enrich you own life with a deeper understanding of this
remarkable stage of life.
Classes are held at the CMTE/NY summer institute in New Rochelle, New
York. Year-round weekend classes are held in Adrian, Michigan.
Observations are held at CMTE/NY's model child care center, the Montessori
Children's Center at Burke in White Plains, New York and at St. Joseph
Academy in Adrian, Michigan. Call us for information and a brochure.
Our CMTE/NY Infant and Toddler Care video is now available. Send $50.00
to order or call for your copy today.

CMTE/N*Y CALL: 914-948-2501

785 Mamaroneck Avenue ci White Plains, New York 10605
A Publication for Monteaeriii Infant and Toddler Programa-- Spring-1997

Vol. 1, No. 1 Infante

Infants and Toddlers
and Toddlers
Published 4 times a year.

The opinions expressed in

Infants and Toddlers editorials,
columns, and features are those FEATURES
of the authors and do not
necessarily represent the
position of the magazine. 5 The History of Infant/Toddler Programs
Acceptance of advertising does in the United States Virginia Varga
not represent endorsement of
any product or service.

Requests for permission to 6 United States History Timeline

reprint materials from Infants
and Toddlers in another form
(e.g. book, newsletter, journal)
should be sent in writing to
8 A Mother's Story, Pt. I Choosing to Care,
Infants and Toddlers. Permission K.T Korngold
to reprint i5 not required if you
want to make copies to share
with parents, teacher, or
students; for library reserve; or
for personal use.

Our copyright notice must

appear with each copy you make;
Copyright 1997 by Infants and 4 Editorial An Idea Whose Time Has Come...
Toddlers. All rights reserved.

Send all address.changes and

inquires about subscriptions to 4 Ask Ginny
Infants and Toddlers
Why Should a F'arent Stay...
PO. Box 14627
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627. How Long Is It Necessary to Stay...

Address all advertising inquiries

and editorial correspondence to
the editor: 10 Recent Research
Lillian De Vault Kroenke Effects of the Mother's Emotional State M. Odent
PO Box 14627 Benefits of Oily Sea Fish During Fregnancy M. Odent
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627.
Manuscript and photograph
guidelines are available on

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Elanbe Publishing Services
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Albuquerque, NM 87111-7502

POSTMASTER:Send address
changes to
Editor: Lillian De Vault Kroenke
Infants and Toddlers
PO Box 14627
Albuquerctue, NM 87191-4627
Editorial Advisory Board:
Maria Gravel Rita Messineo
Cover Photos
Front: K.T. Korngold with Sarah Carole Korngold David Shelton-Dodge
Back: Sarah Susan Tracy Virginia Varga
Photographer: Acirianne cle Polo


Editorial designed to keep you informed. Articles
are reviewed by a panel of peers.
Dayton, Ohio in the summer of
1966, but it was not until June,
1981, that the first teacher educa-
This journal is intended to stimulate
tion program was launched. Interest
Welcome to the the exchange of knowledge and
in infant and toddler programs and
first edition of experience among Montessorians
teacher education programs has
everywhere, regardless of national
Infants and Toddlers! affiliation, who are dedicated to this
grown exponentially since.

age group. Together we will have a We are also pleased to present the
At last, an wonderful opportunity to share our story of a young mother who has
idea whose collective wisdom with parents and the unique opportunity to be a full-
time has other professionals. time mother for her daughter,
come i5 now Sarah, using Montessori techniques
It is most appropriate that we begin
presented in and guidelines. You may wish to
a journal
our first edition of Infants and
share this story with parents in
Toddlers by bringing all of you up to
dedicated to your program.
date on this exciting sequence of
the needs and
nature of the child 0-3 from the events that has stimulated years Thank you for joining us in this
point of view of Montessori philos- of effort and progress on behalf of effort to learn more about our
the young child. children, and ultimately, ourselves.
ophy and practice around the world.
We look forward to your
In Rome in 1949, the first
Organized by experienced infant and contributions.
toddler Montessori professionals, infant/toddler teacher education
Infants and Toddlers is specifically program began. The first class in Lillian DeVault Kroenke
the United States started in

Ask 19y Ginny Varga confident in the new situation with three or four days. A lot will depend
the support provided by the on clear communication of the
For this issue of Infants and mother's presence. The mother expectations of the teacher and the
Toddlers, we asked Ginny to serves as a beacon of orientation role of the parent while in the room.
respond to frequently asked and a refueling station for the child. A child cannot leave a r,arent
questions. It takes the mutual cooperation of physically or psychologically if the
the staff and parent to help the parent is moving about the room,
parent/child couple experience a following the child around or
.,1Why should a parent stay healthy separation. directing her.
,) with her child when starting in
For future issues, please direct your
q.,the 18 month 3 year class?
questions to:
OHow long i5 it necessary for

,\ A parent should come with
Cher child to a new toddler
class even though the child
the parent to stay?

may have been enrolled in another AIt i5 difficult to state an

care program. The parent and child exact length of time. Each Ask
will need to become familiar with and parent/child couple is
learn to trust the new environment, different as I stated above. It could Infants and Toddlers
new staff and new children. The child be as long as three or four weeks or PO Box 14627
will feel more comfortable and
Albuquerque, NM
History of Infant/Toddler Programs
in the United States 13y Virginia Varga
Fresentecl in Rome, Italy, at the Montessori
International Congress, November 2-5,1996
Life-long patterns are formed during Mothers felt guilty
a baby's first eighteen months. Love about sending their
and trust and even ambition are infants to an
learned or not learned. babies today organized center-
and tomorrow are one. This reality based program.
places a great responsibility on the Some were fearful
adults in an infant's world, the and confused by
parents and the child care providers. the emerging
research regarding
Today, more people than ever before
the possible
are concerned about the quality of
negative effect of
infant care. This is especially true in
child care. Much of
homes where both parents must
that has changed.
work. Furthermore, there is an
increasing pul2lic awareness that Montessori infant and
simply fulfilling a baby's physical toddler care has its roots in Montessori
needs just isn't enough. Italy. Adele Costa Gnocchi (1E3E33-
infant and
1967), a follower of Dr. Montessori,
Infant child care is a relatively new toddler programs in the United
began a private school in 1949 to States began in 1966. Rita
phenomenon. Interest in infant
teach girls to work with pregnant Brandimarte Messineo, a pupil of
research is increasing. Everyday
mothers, newborns and infants. She Adele Costa Gnocchi, received her
more fascinating information is
received her Ph.D. in philosophy and
being recorded about infant diploma in 1963 in Rome, and moved
was trained by Maria Montessori in to Cleveland, Ohio. Upon her arrival
development. Montessori was
1909. She used the writings of she was informed that Americans
interested in the total development
Maria Montessori in her book The would not be willing to send children
of the personality, beginning with
Absorbent Mind as a point of under 3 years of age to a
departure. Montessori school. She was advised
In a letter addressed to Dr. Costa to enroll in a pre-primary course at
Infant/Toddler care in the US Gnocchi in 1950, Maria Montessori the Midwest Montessori Training
Infant and toddler care in the descril2ed the tasks of the first Program in Chicago and then
United States has evolved from the Assistente all' lnfanzia as follows: interned at the Ruffing Montessori
sole responsibility of parents to a "They shall start their task with the School in Cleveland.
growing acceptance of programs expectant mothers by encouraging Pam Wyse, a friend and classmate
which meet the special needs of and enlightening them with practical of Rita's, interned with me at Gloria
young children. In the past, parents advice that lately has been coming Dei Montessori School, in Dayton,
were reluctant to leave their infants into use which will facilitate delivery Ohio. Pam introduced Rita to me. I
and toddlers with anyone other and nursing as well as the was interested in learning more
than family members. And there preparation of the environment about the program in Italy and
were no professionals educated to necessary to receive the newborn. wondered what these young children
understand the unique nature of The assistant is there to assist could do. I agreed to organize a
this age group. and protect the psychic summer experimental toddler
development of the infant."
continued to page 6
HISTORY OF INFANT/ thing. You have them. Now how will Interests Spread Across
you continue?"
continued from page 5 During the first twelve years, many
Year-Long Program Begins
Montessori teachers and heads of
program at Gloria Pei Montessori The summer program was very schools visited our toddler class.
School if Rita would teach it. successful and the originally After approximately one hour of
hesitant mothers were now asking observation, they returned to their
First Summer Class that the program continue. Rita schools and began a toddler class.
in the US was under contract to the Ruffing Montessorians evidently shared the
Rita moved to Dayton for the Montessori School and returned to common belief that anyone can care
summer of 1996 and began the very for the children from birth to 3 and
first Montessori Toddler Class in did not need special training.
the United States. I worked as her this first plane of cievelopment from
apprentice assistant for a class of 0-3 is the most important phase of Planning for Teacher
twenty children between the ages of human development and should be
eighteen months and two and a half treated with the utmost respect.
This is the time when children Rita, Pam and I knew better. We were
years. I asked the parents who had
absorb everything in their environ- well aware of the need for an infant
children enrolled in our school if they
ment, which affects the personality and toddler teacher education
would bring their toddlers for 5iX
and lays the foundation for a secure program in the United States. We
weeks during the summer to partici-
and emotionally stable adulthood. also lacked a structure, standards,
pate in our experimental program.
curriculum and sponsorship to begin
They, too, were very interested to such a program. The three of U5
see what their little ones could do. Cleveland. Pam Wyse worked as the agreed that we would not do
The mothers reminded me that they Toddler Directress during the 1966- workshops or teacher education
would not be willing to enroll their 67 school year. Rita fulfilled her until we could bring someone from
children officially until they were contract and moved to Dayton in the Birth Center in Italy to get U5
three years old. the summer of 1967. started. We realized the importance
of this work and, therefore, wanted
The children often cried when their The second year of the program, to provide a quality program.
parents came to pick them up. They Rita took over the class and worked
were not ready to leave. At the end with toddlers until the birth of her The problem for us was one of
of the second week one of the first child in 1970. Pam once again language, as evetyone from the
mothers, speaking for the group, resumed the role of Directress for Birth Center spoke Italian. I was
said, "Now you've started some- the next five years. unfamiliar with how well American

Time Line for the History of Infant/Toddler

1949 1966- 1973 1976
Adele Costa Rita teaches first U5 Rita moves from Dayton, Jane Mack, ram Wyse,
Gnocchi summer toddler class -:eaches toddler class Virginia Varga and Rita
teaches with Virginia Varga, at South Suburban Messineo visit Infant/
Assistants to Gloria Dei School, 'Aontessori in Toddler Programs in Rome
Infants Course, Dayton, Ohio 5recksville, Ohio
Rome, Italy

Rita Draciimarte Rita moves to AMS sponsors

Messineo receives Dayton to teach 4 week Toddler
Assistants diploma Toddler Class Workshop,
Rome, Italy Dayton, Ohio


students would respond to a course from 0-3, but all very curious about with staff at The Birth Center, The
that would need a translator. We how one would go about establishing Montessori Training Center for Girls,
invited Grazia Honegger Fresco to classes to meet the needs of this as well as The Transportation Child
come to the United States. First age group. The more they observed Care Center, a private medical clinic,
she said she must learn English, Rita as she conducted the morning Ars Medica maternity ward, the
which she did. Then various things demonstration class, listened to sank of Italy Child Care Center and
happened to prevent her from lectures and participated in a private school.
coming to our training program for research groups, the more
years. Our dream was finally realized everyone realized the need for a full- A5 a result of this experience, I
when she came to the Center for fledged teacher education course in became confident of our under-
Montessori Teacher Education, New the United States. standing, interpretation and
York (CMTE/NY) in July of 1994 and practice of Montessori principles as
again in 1995. applied to toddlers. I was now
The fundamental needs of the infant convinced of our growing knowledge
include unconditional love, physical and skills in meeting the special
Determining the Interest nourishment, protection from needs of these young children, and I
In the meantime, in July, 1975, Jane physical and psychological harm, felt confident enough to share our
Mack, Chairman of the American and growth in independence. It i5 skill and knowledge with others.
Montessori Society Teacher's precise.iy how we meet these needs
Section, Pam, Rita and I organized a which makes the difference and
four week Toddler Workshop in affects the infant's identity Infant/Toddler Programs
Dayton. The workshop was spon- formation. Spring Up Across the
sored by the Teacher's Section of Country
the American Montessori Society
(AMS) for certified pre-primary bretta Weiss, Executive Director of
AMS, reported in the Winter Edition
Montessori directors and Revisiting the Rome
of The Constructive Triangle mag-
directresses. Our goal was to Experience
attract teachers with 3-6 azine that one fourth of approxim-
In May of 1976, Jane Mack, Pam, ately 400 AMS affiliated schools
certification who conducted toddler
Rita and I went to Rome thanks to had classes for infants or toddlers.
classes. I wanted these teachers
the AMS Teacher's Section. Our
to come together to share their There were no teacher education
goal Was to learn more about how
observations and experiences. programs in the United States to
Montessori 0-3 programs prepared
There were twenty hard working, environments and teachers to meet prepare teachers to care for the
enthusiastic participants, none of the changing needs of children under child under 3. Most, if not all, classes
whom had experience with the child 3. We visited, observed and talked were conducted by Montessorians
continued to page 12

Programs in the United States

1979 1981 1991 1996 1997
AMS 5ponSorS First AMS approved Montessori
Model Infant/Toddler Infants
Infant/Toddler 1st Infant/Toddler International Con-
Program established and
Seminar, Teacher Education
at Montessori gress held in Rome, Toddlers
University of Course begins in US, Italy, sponsored by
Children's Center journal
Dayton, at Center for at Burke. Mite Birth Center and
Dayton. Ohio Montessori Teacher launched
Plains, NY CMTE/NY

Dr. Montanaro Many other teacher

presents 1 week education courses are
workshop in established
Tarrytown, NY


A Mother's Story 11/
Pt I: Choosing to Care 13y K T Korngold
Today's Pioneers
I am a strange and unusual We are a minority. Only 16 per cent ask as we get to know someone.
creature in 1997a full-time stay- of mothers in working families And, unfortunately, the answer, "I'll
at-home mom with an infant. Like a choose to stay home (1997). Most take care of babies," does not often
few of my friends, I have left a parents do not have this option for elicit an affirming response.
demanding career to take up the financial reasons. For others, the
most important challenge of my allure of the working world far At a luncheon for new mothers, I
lifecaring for my baby, Sarah. outweighs the appeal of staying met the mother of a four-week-old.
home. Many are not convinced of She planned to go back to work
And like the liberated women thirty after two months and to hire a
years ago who had the courage to the value of staying home and
devoting them-selves to the needs nanny to care for her infant.
demand an equal right for fulfilling Although she was entitled to take
employment and equity under the three months leave, she.said, 'What
law, we too are pioneers. Liberating difference does one month make?"
ourselves from the intense
I "There is a real difference between
pressures of our society to have
high-powered successful careers, we
choose instead to stay home to
care for our children.
I leaving him at two months rather
than at three," I said. I think it
was the first time she heard
I. someone argue in favor of staying
with her baby.
Trading Identities A

At a time when society-at-large IP "But I don't want him to get too

undermines parenting, we stay-at- I/ \ attached..." she said. She thought
home moms relinquish our pro- \she was protecting her child from
fessional identities to do a job we
II ----the pain of the inevitable separa-
believe will impact our children's lives tion. What she failed to realized was
and the future of our world. We the significance of those.early weeks
recognize the fortunate circum- for her child's development, not to
stances which enable us to afford mention the contribution that
to choose to care for our children. of a very young child. "I'd go crazy precious time would make to the
We are grateful that we are staying home all day. After all, richness in their relationship as a
emotionally capable of doing this infants just eat, sleep, and cry, newborn/mother couple.
intensive and joyful work full time. right?" one professional woman said.
My friends have Master degrees and Society's View
MBAs. This small sampling of Real Choices Our society-at-large tends to
mothers includes a landscape The women's movement has done a applaud this woman's choice, or at
architect, a teacher, an investment remarkable job of giving women the least to be very supportive. The
banker, and a physicianall choice of having a career, staying loudest voices seerti to say, "If
successful, all moving up the career home or doing both. But this choice Mommy i5 happy, baby is happy." "If
and economic ladder. Yet somehow has put tremendous pressure on you are satisfied, your baby is
they decided to forgo their jobs or women of my generation to value satisfied." "If you don't meet your
suspend their careers, and take themselves more by their pro- own needs first, you will not be able
reductions in their family incomes fessional accomplishments. "What to meet your child's needs."
to be with their children. do you do?" is the first question we
This is the first...
in a series
of articles on the
and care of for the arrival, the birth
Have we come so far in the K.T.'a daughter,
Information 5ources K.T. attended Sarah.
celebration of the individual that we course the Infant/Toddler
Penelope Leach (1995) wrote her at CMTE/NY,
have foregone the blessings and Varga with Virgina
book, Your E3aby and Child from and Grazia
benefits of giving fully to another Messineo, Honegger:
Birth to Age Five, because she the first Rita
human being? Have we worked so trained Assistente Montessori
believed that "the more people
hard for the right to our independ- all' Infanzia
knew about children in general, come to the US, to
ence that we are afraid to loose our has been K.T.'s
the more fascinating they would mothering
identity if we subsume our needs for mentor. Information
find their own child in materials from
that of the newly born?
particular." I have found this to the Birth Centerand
Rome are incorporated
be true for myself as I am unique mothering into this
Infant Need 5 learning to understand and experience.
Yet the degree to which the infant's appreciate my daughter,
needs are met affect their physical Sarah. I am eager to see more
health, mental health, personality, information available and absorbed
emotional life, and capacity to love t2y the public.
A New View Needed
and learn, to thrive and to be. The As Leach says, we spend far more
I keep a number of books at my
1996 Conference on Brain Develop- of our resources on producing
bedside. Two I find particularly
ment in Young Children drew national physically healthy newl2orns than we
useful are The First Twelve Months
attention to the determining nature do on insuring their development
of Life (1993) and Develptrental
of the first three years of life for into emotionally stable children. If
Profiles: Pre-birth Through Eight
the brain development in the child. we did, our society would look very
(1994). These books provided
different. More parents would
Schaefer (1996) stated, "A child's insights into Sarah's language,
choose to stay home, stay home
experience in his or her first weeks, motor skills, mental, and social longer, or work out of their homes.
months, and years of life determine development. With clear
Businesses would provide longer
how that child will function from the descriptions and explanations, they leaves of absence. Child care
preschool years through help me focus 35 Sarah grows and providers would be paid better.
adolescence, and even into- changes everydayas she stretches Politicians would increase, rather
adulthood.... A child's early and arches her back while laying on
than decrease, the money for
experiences and interactions with her tummy on her sheepskin mat;
publicly-funded child care programs.
the world around him (/her) actually grabs and swats at the cloth birds
affect the physiological development hanging above her changing table; The marketplace would offer
of his (/her) brain." thumps her feet on the hardwood equipment, toys, and materials for
floor; puts anything she can, from infants and toddlers that were truly
Nash (1997) stresses the designed to meet their develop-
the smallest wooden rattle to the
importance of the first years of life mental needs. Parents would want
largest cloth 12a11 she can hold, in
for the development of the human their nannies and child care
her mouth; screeches with delight
brain. Critical in raising the professionals to receive formal
when -she sees herself in the mirror
consciousness of parents and the educational training in a curriculum
or hums softly as I walk her in the
public-at-large, this article explains specifically designed for the infant
why we must secure the maximum and toddler. And parents might even
quality care to children in their first More information is now availal2le want to take such training
years of lifewhether it i5 provided than ever before through books, themselves.
by parents, a nanny or a child care magazines, videos and the internet.
center. Still, little has been said 35 Even the basic information about
to what quality care really should the importance of the first three Parenting Education
look like if we are to maximize the years of life and what it means for In 1995, I had the pleasure and
development and growth of a the child's growth, development, and fortune of attending such a class
healthy child. future as well 35 the future of our at the Center for Montessori Teacher
society, i5 not widely discussed or Education/NY summer institute.
even accepted. The five-week course was taught by

continued to page 14

5ea re summarized TIPby Lillian Ge Vault Kroenke

1 The Effects of the Another study that challenges the children whose mothers experienced
barker hypothesis is based on major stress such as bereavement
Mother's Emotional
r State During
anatomical factors. A Danish team
traced more than 8,000 twins born
between 1870 and 1900. They found
during pregnancy fell into the high
cavities group by the age of two.

l'hysiologists also tell us that the

that the twins' mortality rate was
13y Michel Oc lent not significantly different from the emotional states of pregnant
women affect hormone balance and
mortality rate of the general
The quality of fetal life is receiving influence fetal growth. Opiates such
population, even though twins
increased attention. Many doctors as endorphins regulate cell prolif-
experience restricted growth during
associate poor fetal growth with eration and cell differentiation.
the last trimester caused 12y lack of
maternal nutrition. They ignore the Emotional states, including painful
space in the uterus.
emotional state of the pregnant experiences, associated with
woman as a probable and important Several medical studies have increased levels of endorphins are
factor influencing fetal development. estal2lishecl a direct link 12etween likely to inhibit fetal growth.
the emotional states of pregnant
As a point in fact, the 'barker Fhysicians need to be more aware of
women and the later health of their
hypothesis' explores a correlation the importance of the emotional
children. A Finnish study
between low birth weight and risk state of the pregnant woman They
demonstrates a higher risk of
factors for cardiovascular diseases need to provide positive emotional
alcoholism, mental disease and
in adulthood. These diseases range support rather than suggestions
criminality among children who were
from impaired glucose tolerance to which convey to the pregnant
still in the womb when their fathers
raised 12I0061 pressure, high serum woman that something is wrong or
died during World War II compared
triglycerides, and low HDL, the good needs to be corrected.
to children who lost their fathers
cholesterol. The Darker hypothesis during the year following birth. Oc lent, Michel, Back to the Noceho Effect, Primal
implies that nutrition is the only Health Research, 2, (4), 1 (Spring 1995).
important factor involved. Harry Torney, an Irish dentist,
studied 107 children who were
Another study on predictors of breast-fed on demand for at least
placental weight to fetal weight two years. He found that the
concludes that their data do not
support the barker correlations.
Instead, the study notes that
raised placental ratios reflect
increased fetal exposure to
maternal hormones which inhibit
fetal growth.
These authors, however, do not
consider that the emotional state
of the motherunhappy, depressed,
or dominated by a situation or
someone elseleads to high levels of
the same hormones. The study
stops short of suggesting that the
mother's emotional state is a
primary risk factor for cardiovas-
cular diseases as the child reaches
adulthood. Restricted fetal growth
may be an early measurable effect. Michel Odent shared his recent papers with Ceres Schroer-York and
Victoria de Li Ila after his presentation in Rome.

4 'I
Benefits from Oily chain and the high sea food chain. vs. 3349 g) and the difference
The negative effects of trans-fatty persisted after adjusting for
Sea Fish By Michel Oderit acids were explained and a selection gestational age (85 g/week vo. 83
of printed recipes were offered to glweek). The rate of delivery before
A new study indicates that a high match individual tastes. 37 weeks was lower in the study
intake of oily sea fish during
pregnancy may promote full term Fish oil supplements do not group (7.37 vs. 9.57). The mean
gestation, reduce low birth weight substitute for a high intake of oily neonatal head circumference was
and prevent diseases related to sea fish, which are rich in vitamins, greater in the study group (34.7 cm
inadequate antioxidants. The study vo. 34.4 cm.
minerals and high quality protein.
at an East London hospital explored Trans-fatty acids, which are found in Results indicate that the benefits
the value of a twenty minute diet
foods such as cookies, cakes, French of increasing the intake of oily sea
counseling session within the
framework of the British National fries, fast food, and processed oils, fish during pregnancy warrant
Health Service. may have adverse effects on fetal further study.
growth. No exact recommendations Odent, Michel R., McMillan, Lindsay and Kimmel,
In 1991-1992, 470 women were given. The primary objective Tina, (1996) Prenatal Care and Sea Fish,
participated in a twenty minute was consciousness raising. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and
Reproductive Biology 68, p. 49-51 .
nutritional counseling session at
least once during prenatal care A control group was established by
before twenty weeks gestation. matching each woman in the study Editor's note: There is concern in the U5 about
group with a woman from the birth mercury contamination of fish in some of our inland
lakes, streams and coastal waters from industrial
The women first described their registry with approximately the same polution beyond that which occurs naturally in the
dietary habits and tastes. The date of delivery and characteristics. environment. Mackerel and salmon, two oily sea
counseling which followed covered fish(1), have been found to contain concentrations
This procedure was used to reduce of mercury significantly less than the FDA limit of
fetal growth and the needs of the any accidental interaction between one part per million(2).
developing brain. Counselors clarified members of the control group with 1. Oily Fish Helps Heart Attack Victims to Live
the difference between oily sea fish members of the study group. Longer, New Scientist, (1240), October 7, 1959, p.25.
and other fish as well as the 2. Foulke, Judith E., (1994) Mercury in Fish: Cause
contrasts between the coastal food The mean birth weight was slightly for concern?, FDA Consumer, (28), pp.5-8.
higher in the study group (3284 g

About Michel Odent

With his medical degree from Paris Dr. Odent astonished the rest of issue and is widely published in the
University and his residency in the obstetrical world with his international press.
surgery and obstetrics, Michel Odent application of innovative techniques
He has authored seven books
took charge of both the surgical and during labor and delivery. The use of
published in English covering such
maternity units at the state water during labor, combined with
topics as Entering the World, Birth
hospital in Pithiviers near Paris. low Cesarean rates, decreased
Reborn, Primal Health, The Nature of
incidence of espisiotomy. Positive
Developing home-like birth rooms in Birth and Breastfeeding, and Water
maternal and neonatal outcomes
France, he practiced home birthing and Sexuality Two books, We are all
associated Dr. Michel Odent with
in London in order to prepare a Water Bal2ies and Zinc and Health,
the very best maternal care and
report for the World Health Organ- were coauthored.
birth experiences.
ization on planned home birth in
Father of three and grandfather of
industrialized countries. He founded the charity organization,
three, Michel Odent's compelling
Primal Health Research Center in
A world renowned obstetrician, he presentation entitled, For the First
London to explore the correlation
has studied childbirth in many Bonding: Quality Birth, immediate
between the primal period (fetal life,
different countries, examining what and Free 8reastfeeding, was
perinatal period and early infancy)
effect their culture, environment enthusiastically received at the
and health later in life. Michel Odent
and birthing practices may have on 1996 Montessori International
the perinatal period. has authored more than twenty
Congress in Rome, Italy.
articles on many aspects of this
continued from page 7

with pre-primary certification and

experience which requires a different
attitude arid set of skills.
Schools I2egan classes for many
different reasons. Some schools
saw it as an opportunity to
introduce parents with younger
children to Montessori theory and
practice when it should be more
beneficial. Other schools saw the
class as an orientation and
preparation experience for the 3-6
class. Parent/child classes were
designed to help parents under-
Carole Wolf Korngolal (left) CMTE/NY ---
aria Grazia Honegger, Birth Center of Rome, hosts of the Montessori
stand how to meet the needs of International Congress, are shown here with Rita Messineo, (right).
their children. Lastly, programs were
developed to meet the changing everything in their environment, this age group and the need for
needs of society as more mothers which affects the personality and teacher education in the United
returned to the work force. lays the foundation for a secure and States.
emotionally stable adulthood.
There were many different class Later that summer, Dr. Montanaro
schedules offered to meet the The fundamental needs of the infant conducted a one week infant and
needs of families. Some programs include unconditional love, physical toddler child development workshop
offered choices of two, three and nourishment, protection from in Tarrytown, New York. Pam and I
five day Glasses. There were half-day physical and psychological harm, attended along with approximately
as well as full-day programs. Some and growth in independence. It is forty interested participants.
programs continued year-round; precisely how we meet these needs Everyone was excited by the
others followed the typical nine which makes the difference and information and the awareness of
month calendar. Some part-time affects the infant's identity the needs of the child from 0-3.
classes shared their environments formation. For these reasons, Everyone echoed the cry for an
with naptime programs, as well as infants and toddlers need specially Infant/Toddler teacher education
before and after school care. educated teachers. program in the United States.
Sharing space made it very difficult
to prepare and maintain a clean, Organizing the First U5 Establishing Standards
safe, consistent environment. Teacher Education Program The AMS Teacher Training
Communicating Infant/ The AM5 Board asked me to Committee appointed a task force
organize an infant/toddler seminar to study and establish curriculum
Toddler Needs
to determine ways that we could and set standards for infant and
There was a critical need to toddler teacher education and AMS
meet the needs of an increasing
communicate to school boards, certification. When the standards
number of 18-month to 3-year-olds
administrators, parents and were accepted and approved by the
enrolled in Montessori schools. On
teachers that this first plane of AMS board, Carole Korngold and
the weekend of June 9,1979, at the
development from 0-3 i5 the most Ceres Schroer York, co-directors of
University of Dayton in Dayton, Ohio,
important phase of human develop- CMTE/NY, asked me to work with
Montessorians gathered from all
ment and should be treated with Maria Gravel to develop a course.
over the United States. This
the utmost respect. This is the
seminar validated the interest in
time when children absorb
continued to page 13

Approving the First Course program also serves as an intern preschool child were in the work
site for Montessori teachers. force compared to 307 in 1970.
In November of 1980, the American
Montessori Society Teacher Training One of the largest corporate child In 1990, there were 18.6 million
Committee granted CMTE/NY care centers, located in Cary, North preschool children ages 0-4. Of that
approval to begin the first Montessori Carolina, is sponsored by the 5A5 number, 9.3 million had employed
infant/toddler teacher education Institute. There a beautiful, modern, mothers. 107 of the infants and
program in the United States, the state-of-the-art building is specially 207 of the toddlers were in center-
second in the world. The first was designed for over 180 infants and based programs. Those figures have
in Rome, Italy. toddlers. This center has received increased to 147w for infants and
many awards for the wonderful 237 for toddlers.
That first course started fifteen services, benefits and the care they
years ago in June, 1981, with eight In the United States, 4470 of
provide for the employees and their
students. Currently CMTE/NY trains working mothers return to their jobs
approximately 35 new infant and by the time their infante are 5iX
toddler teachers each year. Today Other Montessori infant and months old. In 1990, just over half
there are eleven different teacher toddler programs serve Mexican (537) of the mothers with children
education centers offering training migrant children living in the United under one year of age worked
States, Native American children outside the home. There is reason
at this level. These centers are
living on reservations, and children to believe that this trend will
often invited to provide training in
of homeless families. continue 50 that the demand for
other cities or countries, or for
programs that do not offer teacher There are Montessori infant and infant and toddler care will increase
in the years to come.
education at this level. toddler classes for children with
hearing impairment, victims of child
Currently we know of over 500
abuse as well as chddren born with
classes for infants or toddlers,
various problems as a result of
serving over 6,000 children. We
parent drug and alcohol addiction.
Ginny Varga...
know there are many more, but it is widely recognized as one of the
difficult to calculate numbers if One of the most exciting new leaders in the field of Infant
schools and child care centers are Montessori programs serving poor and Toddler education, founded
not affiliated with one of the families is Family Star in Denver, one of the first Montessori
Colorado. This program has been programs in the country at the
national Montessori organizations.
chosen as one of the five model Gloria Dei School, Dayton, OH
Early Start programs in the United following her AMI/AMS pre-
States. Early Start is funded by primary training in 1961. Ginny
Model Programs
Head Start, a federal program for has served as the Infant and
Montessori infant and toddler Toddler Coordinator at the
low income families. Family Star will
Glasses are sponsored by schools, CMTE/NY since 1980, directing
be able to expand its services when
year round day care centers and courses in New York and Hawaii.
its new building opens in 1997.
various special programs. Infant and Ginny has also been active at
toddler child care i5 provided as an the national level as chair of
employee benefit by some Looking to the Future the AM5 Teacher's Section
corporations and hospitals. (1966-68), 05 a school
The continued growth of Montessori
consultant (since 1966),
CMTE/NY conducts a model child infant and toddler care in all Regional Director of Consul-
care center located in the Burke segments of American society tation (1971-1973), a member
Rehabilitation Hospital of White contradicts the early predictions of the AMS Teacher Education
Plains, New York. The Montessori that Americans would not send Committee and as a member of
Chilclrens Center at Burke provides their youngest children to schools the AMS Board (1966-1977).
care for the children of the hospital or child care centers. Indeed, recent For her many achievements,
staff members as well as children statistics gathered by the Ginny was chosen 35 the AMS
from the community. Care i5 University of Michigan Center for Scholarship Committee's Living
provided for infants, toddlers and Social Research show that in 1994, Legacy in 1993-94.
pre-school age children. The 627 of married mothers with a


CHOOSING TO CARE emotions are a kind of intelligence. Our Challenge
continued from page 9 Our emotional capacity is shaped
It is my deep hope that this
along with our intellect as our brain
magazine will make this vital inform-
Virginia Varga, one of the leaders of develops. The first three years
ation accessible in the marketplace
infant and toddler education in the affect a child's ability to learn, to
of ideas so that 5arah can live in a
country The student body con- concentrate, to feel secure, to have
society that respects infants and
sisted primarily of professional a sense of trust.
welcomes and supports their
child care providers, as well as a
presence, value and contribution to
few parents. Right Actions our lives by honoring, empowering,
As a nation, if we want better and educating the people who care
Montessori Approach students and better citizens, we for them.
The CMTE/NY course demon- should shift our emphasis and our
strated that the adult influences resources to offer the maximum, Bibliography
how the children come to think not the minimum, opportunities for Morris, Betsy, (1997) 15 Your Family Wrecking
about themselves and the world-at- today's youngest children. This Your Career (and vice versa)? Fortune, 135(5),
pp. 71-90.
large. Our ways of interacting, means empowering mothers and
words, tone of voice, timing and fathers to make the choice to stay Schaefer; Dolores, (1996) New Brain Research:
Early Care And Nurturing Is Key to Good Brain
approach to the child affect the home to care for their children Development. Child Care Action News,13(6),
child from the moment of birth. We themselves if they can. We must pp.1, 4-5.
learned how the toys, furniture and help educate parents and care Nash, J. Madeleine, (1997, February 3) Special
equipment we choose for children givers to understand and meet the Report, How a Child's Brain Develops and What it
Means for Children and Welfare Reform. Time, 149
foster or thwart their emotional, complex needs of the children of (5), pp. 4E5-56.
cognitive, and physical development. this very young age.
Leach. Penelope, (1995) Children First: What
The Montessori approach offers This can only happen if we 35 a Society Must DoAnd 16 NOD DoingFor Children
Today New York: Vintage Books.
concrete tools and techniques 35 society understand the profound
well 35 a basic philosophy of value of the work with the little Princeton Child Care Center, (1993) The First
Twelve Months of Life: Your baby's Growth Month-
respecting the young child. These ones, and if parents, nannies, and by-Month. New York: Perigree.
support the development of basic child care professionalsour infant Allen, Eileen K., and Marotz, Lynn, (1994)
trust and assist the unfolding of and toddler specialistsaccept the Developmental Profiles, Pre-birth Through Eight,
the child's emerging personality. challenge of that work by gaining 2nd Edition. Albany: Delmar.

the knowledge, skills, enthusiasm,

We came to understand the
and respect for the individual
importance of the adult in the
child that makes this work so
child's life because children absor19
joyful and gratifying.
their attitudes, characteristics, K.T. Korngold
personality traits, speech habits "I can't expect my nanny in New York live511
and mannerisms. I gained a new to take as good care of City, with her
Michael Whaley husband,
found respect for the people who my child as I can," a friend
Sarah Korngold Their daughter,
care for the little ones and said. We want nannies Whaley
developed a deep desire to be and child care providers this past September was born
that primary person for my to love our children, her BA in 1985 K.T. received
daughter, Sarah. although we don't expect University from Wesleyan
them to love our children where she
English. majored in
as much 35 we do. But, She received
Right Timing Degree from her Masters
surely, we should expect Columbia
F'resident Clinton has called Writing Division University
the adults who do the
attention to the need for improved she attended in 1990.
most important work of In 1995,
educational opportunities at the
high school and college level. He i5
our future nation to do it Montessori the Center for
missing the point. In order to take exceptionally well. People Infant and Toddler Education/NY
advantage of higher learning, one who take care of infants has published Program.
needs to have had a nourishing
should be specialists, as
infants articles about K.T.
beginning. We know now that well as loving adults. and toddlers
Life magazine. in Montessori
article at homeShe wrote this
while Sarah
in the afternoons,

1 5-
At last,
and Toddlers
a pul2lication focusing on the needs and nature of the very young child from
the view of Montessori philosophy and practice around the world.

Contents will cover such topics as

Feature articles 12y experienced Montessorians
Parent education ideas and articles
Spotlight on infant/toddler programs in the US
Recent research findings
Book reviews
III Information about infant/toddler teacher education programs
Idea exchanges
Cogent insights and contributions from other early childhood educators
and programs

Editor: Editorial Review Board:

Lillian De Vault Kroenke Maria Gravel Carole Wolfe Korngold Susan Tracy
Rita Messineo David Shelton-Dodge Virginia Varga

,e 1

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Center for Montessori Teacher
785 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, NY 10605
Carole Wolfe Korngold
914-948-2501 Fax 914-421-0779

Meca-Seton Teacher Training Program

302 5 Grant Street, Hinsdale, IL 60521
Susan Tracy or Ce Irma Perry
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3300 Redstone Road, Boulder, CO 80303
Virginia Henries
303-494-3002 Fax 303-494-6104

Montessori Teacher College Sacramento

1123 D Street, Sacramento, GA 95814
Norman Lorenz, MEd
916-444 9072 Fax 916-444-7987

San Francisco Bay Area

Montessori Teacher Education Center
16292 Foothill Boulevard, Sari Leandro, CA 94578-2105
Pamela Zell Lariaro, PhD
510-278-1115 Fax 510-278-151Y

Become a CMTEMY
Infant and Toddler Specialist!
(i' Deepen your appreciation of the
needs of children from birth to
ci Develop skills to observe,
understand and respect infants
and toddlers.
ci Discover the joy, satisfaction
and profound value of assisting
the very young in their healthy
growth and development.
The CMTE/NY Montessori Infant and Toddler
311! Program is professional training for people working
with children from birth to thirty-six months of age.
The first program in the United States to offer Infant
and Toddler Montessori Certification, CMTE/NY
provides an in-depth study in Infant and Toddler
Montessori education combined with the most
current scientific and psychological research
The first three years of life affect a child's ability to thrive and be; self esteem, the ability to form
attachments and the establishment of basic trust are all central to this period. The importance of these
first years places a great responsibility on the adults in the child's world. Parents and child care
providers should be informed, knowledgeable, and well-qualified to assist in this crucial period of
physical, emotional and cognitive development.
CMTE/NY's Infant and Toddler.Program teaches how to create beautiful, safe and developmentally
appropriate learning environments. The program will give you the skills needed to provide the best
quality care for infants and toddlers, as well as enrich you own life with a deeper understanding of this
remarkable stage of life.
Classes are held at the CMTE/NY summer institute in New Rochelle, New
York. Year-round weekend classes are held in Adrian, Michigan.
Observations are held at CMTE/NY's model child care center, the Montessori
Children's Center at Burke in White Plains, New York and at St. Joseph IMO

Academy in Adrian, Michigan. Call us for information and a brochure.

Our CMTE/NY Infant and Toddler Care video is now available. Send $50.00 to w
order or call for your copy today.

CMTE/NciY CALL: 914-948-2501

785 Mamaroneck Avenue ri White Plains, New York 10605

A Publication for Montessori Infant and Toddler Programs Fall 1997

It Vol. 1, No. 2 Infante

Infants and Toddlers
and Todd !ere
Published 4 times a year.

The opinions expressed in

Infants and Toddlers editorials,
columns, and features are those
of the authors and do not
necessarily represent the
position of the magazine.
5 What Reality Will We Give Them?
Acceptance of advertising does Virginia Varga
not represent endorsement of
any product or service.

Requests for permission to

5 The Home Environment: birth to 12 Months
reprint materials from Infants Susan Tracy
and Toddlers in another form
(e.g. book, newsletter, journal)
should be sent in writing to
Infants and Toddlers. Permission
13 Age Appropriate Activities and Toys
to reprint is not required if you Compiled by Susan Tracy
want to make copies to share
with parents, teacher, or
students; for library reserve; or
for personal use.
Our copyright notice must
appear with each copy you make;
4 Editorial Thanks For Your Support...
Copyright 1997 by Infants and
Toddlers. All rights reserved. 4 Ask Ginny
Send all address changes and
Is A Hyperactive Child Searching for bonding?
inquires about subscriptions to
Infants and Toddlers 10 Recent Research
P.O. Sox 14627
A Report on the White House Conference on Early
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627.
Childhood Development and Learning:
Address all advertising inquiries What New Research Tells Us About Our Youngest Children
and editorial correspondence to Carole Wolfe Korngold
the editor
Lillian De Vault Kroenke
PO Box 14627 11 Conferences
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627. American Montessori Society Fall Regional Seminar
Manuscript and photograph
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request. 11 Letters To The Editor
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POSTMASTER:Send address Editor: Lillian DeVault Kroenke

changes to
Infants and Toddlers
PO Box 14627 Editorial Advisory Board:
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627
Maria Gravel Rita Messineo
Cover Photos Carole Korngold David Shelton-Dodge
Front: Emily Tracy, age 2 months
Back: Sarah Whaley, crawling Susan Tracy Virginia Varga


itoria I Starting any project of this scope the need for materials for parent
requires significant financial and and public education. We are offering
Thank You for emotional support as well as the schools the opportunity to begin a
cooperation and contribution from bulk subscription program at
Your 5upport many people as we start from ground discounted rates.
zero. This is an effort that requires
everyonethe author/contributors, Purchase and distribution of issues
You have of Infants and Toddlers can be win-
the Editorial Advisory Board, the
recognized win for the school, parents who are
advertisers and, most important of all,
the on the waiting list, parents of
you the subscribers who have responded
importance children currently enrolled in an
so well.
of a formal infant/toddler program, and even
venue for parents with children enrolled in the
professional Reaching Out Early Childhood programs. We look
communication With this issue, we are beginning to forward to reaching all of you.
and education. Without your reach out to Montessori schools
enthusiastic response, all our across the country to join in this Lillian DeVault Kroenke
efforts to launch this new support of our exciting new venture.
service would be fruitless. Schools are always confronted with

Ask Ginn Ye
I (I

,t)What does inadequate isn't the only thing that affects

Is it your opinion or has bonding affect? that trust. All developmental
, it been stated that a aspects affect trust. 13ut adequate
-,--,psychological component of bonding has some affect.
hyperactivity is a child searching for A There are many signs of
a bond? inadequate bonding. The child It i5 important for 3 child to start
u is still seeking a trusting with a strong, firm attachment to a
I do not want to say that relationship with somebody out primary care-giver. Most often it will
children who have ADD or are there. The child spends much of his be the mother, but we know that
hyperactive have had energy trying to fulfill this need if it there can be other strong
inadequate bonding. I will try to say wasnit fulfilled at an earlier age. You attachments as with the father or
this very clearly because I would not 'can see the expression of this need another primary care-giver.
want to be misquoted. Some in the chilolis behavior
behaviors that one might observe
from children who have inadequate As a result, inadequate bonding can For future issues, please direct your
bonding or attachment look like affect the child's ability to focus questions to:
hyperactive behavior 12eGaLlse they energy on the tasks that are
have more difficulty focusing in on a immediately present, like exploring
task when the basic need for a the world or concentrating on some Ask Ginny...
trusting relationship has not been object or activity. It affects learning
sufficiently or securely established. and the ability to learn. Infants and Toddlers
I would also say that having trust in
PO Box 14627
oneis self and oneis world would not Albuquerque, NM
be as strongly formed. Now, that 87191-4627
What Reality Will We Give Them?
By Virginia Varga
The adults in the immediate and Entering Life's Environment again at the 19reast, skin to skin in a
extended family are the first to joyous reunion.
communicate and provide the The next and most important
sensations which affects the Now, mother and baby need to be
experiences that will serve 35 the
formation of a perception of reality protected from the invasion of
foundation for the child's perception
would I2e the actual birth experience. friends and well-wishers for a period
of reality. Prenatal experiences
of time so the infant can first
affect the fetus' early formation of birth can be extremely positive or isolate and experience the many
reality. For instance, if the pregnant negative. I'm sure you can immed-
mother consumes a lot of alcohol, iately think of many situations in
the fetus can feel the effects and both categories. Young children experience all
begin to incorporate feelings of
Let's take a look at the usual of the same emotions or
distress and discomfort. feelings that we do as
experiences a newborn may havean
The Child's First Environment environment in which the 17aI2y adults, although they think
suddenly experiences harsh very differently. However, in
The brain Uses feelings which reality, we tend to treat
sensations, loud noises, rough
produce hormones to children as though they think
_,=zziolow, handling, inadequate food and
structure information. All logically as adults do and we
responses to his
learning i5 encoded in an "- often discount their feelings.
needswhere there i5 a
emotional nuance.
lack of tender, loving
Emotional nuances
care and protection. sensations provided by the
are blended feelings.
These nuances How overwhelmingly immediate family, and the unusual
form patterns or confusing it must be and unique sights and sounds of
categories that to suddenly be the new environment.
are internalized touched by cold, As a result of this protection and
and become a part rubber-gloved hands, loving environment, the infant can
of our values and to hear loud voices learn that this new, foreign world
belief systems. and sounds of is an okay place to be. Mother's
medical equipment, to milk and arms meet the infant's
When we are cut off
have a bright light basic needs as the new baby i5
from feeling tones,
shining in your eyes, to held and fed.
mental connections
feel the air rushing into
become difficult. Abstract A5 the baby's basic needs are met
your lungs and the pressure of
information is hard to recall with care, love and respect, the
gravity on your body.
because it has no grounding in the infant continues to form a sense of
emotional nuance records. Feeling Welcoming A New Life reality. That sense of reality
and thinking are dependent on one logically might 17e that this new
Now, as a contrast, think about a
another. world is a pleasurable place to be.
birth process in which the mother
If the pregnant mother takes good does not need medication and is "I can trust that the adults will love
care of herself during pregnancy and provided a calm, quiet, trusting and care for me. I can also trust
begins to communicate love and environment: where she has been myself to communicate my needs
acceptance of her pregnancy, the prepared to concentrate, effectively. I am competent." Ideally,
hormone oxytoxin is produced. This communicate and cooperate with this reality would be a fact for most
hormone produces pleasurable her baby in the birth process. Then of the children in the world.
feelings for the mother and the mother and her baby are joined
continued to page 6

WHAT REALITY WILL WE Important Early Decisions them. The experiences add to those
children internalized in utero, birth
GIVE THEM? These young children are in sensitive and in their family.
continued from page 5 periods for absorbing their
environment and making early How should we assist children in
A Stranger In A 5trange decisions about their personal their cosmic task of adapting to
Land realities. That is, who they are, how their time and culture? What can we
The newborn is like an alien from the world works and what they must give the child to assist in such a
another planet. Everything do to get attention, to be accepted, great formative task?
experienced is new. Children have no to be loved and to survive. After all, don't we as adults have
names for anything and lack an These early decisions are made different perceptions of reality? We
understanding of the language based primarily on feelings rather have all come from different families,
spoken and the many new than logical thinking. The brain Uses different environments, rich and
sensations. The newborn has only feelings to structure information. poor, different cultures, and
feelings of the event to incorporate. Feelings underlie everything we know, different religions. Thus we have
Remember that the brain Uses even when we are not conscious of different values and beliefs which
feelings to structure information. these feelings. Feelings are the add up to different realities.
What does this new little, brain's way of Our beliefs about children, what they
dependent alien need? How can we need, how they should act, what
help the child to adjust to the they should learn, how they should
Our beliefs about children, what
reality of existence in this world? feel and what they should eat are
they need, how they should act,
Experiences begin to affect the most often not based on factual
what they should learn, how they
child's formation of a sense of information of a child's needs, or
should feel and what they should
reality. A different beginninga eat are most often not based on how children develop.
different reality. factual information of a child's Rather they are the result of our
In a consistent and orderly environ- needs, or how children develop. personal experiences of having been
ment, the infant begins to develop a child and what our parents and
the ability to organize impressions coding, classifying and grandparents and teachers taught
into predictable patterns, which in U5 directly or indirectly.
cross-referencing experiences.
turn helps the infant to make sense
of this exciting, yet confusing world Young children experience all of the When Do You Give Your
of new sensations and visual same emotions or feeling that we do Attention?
objects. The first sensory images as adults, although they think very Many of our beliefs and values, which
are most important and have an differently. However, in reality we formed our personal reality, were
awesome effect. tend to treat children as though subtly communicated by what our
they think logically 35 we do and we parents and teachers gave
The child is attracted to human
often discount their feelings. attention to. Therefore, in our caring
faces. The face of the mother (the
caregiver) serves 35 a mirror for self Moving Out Into The World for children, we must be careful what
reflection for the newborn, as well as we pay attention to. Attention is a
Children come to us in our schools great reinforcer of behavior and the
for the young child. Does the adult's
and child care centers with many formation of our personal reality.
face reflect love and acceptance or
varied experiences, thus different
does it reflect rejection, anger, Do we give the children in our care
realities. When children come to us
fatigue and depression? How does attention for being curious, for being
in a Montessori programinfant or
the newborn see itself in the independent, for showing initiative,
toddlerwe, too, are in a position
mirrored reflection? for being polite and helpful? Or do we
of mirroring and communicating to
The infant begins to discover self the children a sense of reality as pay more attention to children when
through the responsiveness of we respond and care for the they get hurt or are demanding,
othersparents, family, caregivers. children, as we provide activities for impolite or screaming?
It is relatively easy to understand It amazes me to know that a
that there are many different newborn infant can squirm toward New Montessori
realities existing at the same time and find the mother's breast by Infants and Toddlers Videos
in this very real world. And it is a sensing its odor and warmer body Infant/Toddler Activities
Actual video of children interacting with their
fact that the only thing we can be temperature. I am not suggesting environments. Explore new ideas. Watch how
sure of i5 change. That, too, is that an infant never needs help to children respond. Approx. 35 min. $40.00
reality. Today, in our rapidly find the nipple. What I am pointing Montessori Infant and Toddler Care
changing world, adaptation i5 made out i5 the competence of a newborn. Filmed at several programs around the
more difficult for the young child. country. Emphasizes Montessori theory and
practice. Approx.. 9 min. $40.00
Identifying The Real World
A Helping Hand
Respect Begins At Birth Actual video of ways adults can assist
Dr. Montessori also directs us to
children. Give just the necessary help. $40.00
Maria Montessori stated that we introduce the child to the real world.
should treat the newborn with In a sense, I think the infant and Eacb video contains a brief description
of its contents.
reverence. Right from the beginning, toddler world i5 closer to reality
we show respect by telling the than the adult world. The very young Send your order with payment to:
infant what we are going to do and child lives in the presenthere and Infants and Toddlers Videos
PO Box 14726
what we are doing to or with the now. One of the benefits we receive Albuquerque, NM 87191-4726
child. When we move more slowly, when we work with this age groups is
the infant has time to watch, sharing the child's wonderful world.
respond, anticipate and participate our Montessori reality meshes with
in their care, in life. Giving the child the names of every-
the child's, I believe the child will
thing in the immediate environment
continue to grow in independence
helps the child to understand and
and seif confidence. This growth, in
Ginny Varga... further develop a sense of trust.
turn, supports the child in making a
widely recognized as one of the Just think, all of these new
healthy, peaceful adaptation to the
leaders in the field of Infant and experiences must be amazing and
Toddler education. She founded fantastic to this new arrival.
one of the first Montessori For the children who come to us
programs in the country -at the A Montessori Reality having formed a conflicting sense of
Gloria Pei School, Dayton, OH reality, we can hope that their
following her AMI/AMS pre- Since the adult has control over the Montessori experience will give the
primary training in 1961. child's environment, we must be very
child another possible reality.
selective in what we make available.
Sometime in the child's life, this
Ginny has served as the Infant We should protect the infant and
early experience might make a
and Toddler Coordinator at the toddler from the world of illusion difference. The child will know that
CMTE/NY since 1950, directing and fantasy. A young child cannot
courses in New York and Hawaii. there are alternatives and options.
discriminate between that which is
Ginny has also been active at real and that which is not real. This We must continue to treat all
the national level as chair of the confuSion interferes with normal children with respect, acceptance
AM5 Teacher's Section (1966- and love. Show them how to do
65), as a school consultant things so they can experience the
(since 1966), Regional Director I believe that children's self joy of their developing competence.
of Consultation (1971-1973), a confidence and competence help
Give the child the real world of
member of the AMS Teacher them adjust to the reality of a familiar objects in the home and
Education Committee arid as a changing world. Therefore, by nature. F7rovide consistent,
member of the AM5 board introducing the infant and toddler
(1966-1977). orderly nurturing environments
to the familiar or real worldthe that will help the child to form a
child's worldwe assist them in sense of reality that will enable
For her many achievements,
their cosmic task. This i5 the reality him to become the child of
Ginny was chosen as the AM5
Montessorians should be providing.
Scholarship Committee's Living Montessori's dream, The New Child
Legacy in 1993-94. Children come to us from many in a New World.
different experiences or realities. If

The Home EriviromWiT'
13irth to 12 Months [3, Susan Tracy
Introduction the child comes to associate that The Importance of Moving
room with elimination. A changing Freedom of movement allows an
Parents want to welcome their child
tal9le is not needed if the adults infant to develop coordination.
into the home. Many pregnant
caring for the baby are comfortable Movement develops the pathways of
mothers have experienced nesting
to kneel, changing baby on a pad on the brain. An infant whose
the drive to prepare the home for
the floor. This is much safer than movement is restricted does not
the coming baby. Ideally, parents
putting a squirming baby on a high develop the brain to its full potential
are prepared to accept their new
changing table.
child and meet the infant's needs. Montanaro (1991).
The home is for all family members. A baby's skin is adjusting to the air, One way that movement, and thus
There will most likely be 12aby water, clothing and substances it development, is hindered, is through
things in every room of the house. contacts. Cloth diapers and natural the use of devices that restrain the
The house will never be quite the
infant. Most parents use several of
same again!
these to contain the infant (car
A baby's needs are few, but seat, infant seat, play pen, crib) or
important. Most parents in our to give a false ability to move
affluent society buy too much. By (walker or jumper).
observing babies, Montessori infant
A car seat is necessary, but
and toddler educators have otherwise the baby i5 best allowed
determined simple materials that f f '0
to move freely.
meet their developmental needs. I f f f
Following these suggestions will save Many children who have had greater
new parents money. opportunities to move appear more
coordinated. They seem more
During pregnancy and the first few fiber clothing (cotton, wool and silk) confident in taking on physical
month after birth, the mother is the are tolerated best. Lotions and tasks. The attitude of the parents
environment. The newborn needs to powders are usually not needed, but affects movement. I regularly
be held in order to have that if they are used, they can be from a observe infants who are new
familiar warm, surrounded feeling, natural source such as almond oil. crawlers of seven or eight months
and to hear the familiar heartbeat Little clothing i5 needed if the home looking to a parent for approval
of mother. The child's eyes focus on is warm and the baby gets frequent before moving ahead.
her face. -skin-to-skin contact with the
mother and father. Infants enter into this world, explore
How do we prepare the environment observe, and try to make sense of it.
for the newborn period? 13y Less clothing also means more
preparing the mother and assuring freedom of movement. My children They look for order in the
that she is able to give her crawled a month sooner without a environment and their routine. As
attention and energy to her baby. diaper than when wearing a diaper. with older children in Montessori, we
She will need a comfortable, quiet I recommend some time out of present the real world to the child
place to sit to nurse the baby. diapers every day. Dresses and long at their level of understanding. The
pants can interfere with crawling. infant is learning the pattern of day
Diapers and Clothing Shoes can hinder walking. Often and night so we do not completely
they don't fit properly. Provide soft darken the bedroom during the day.
Parents will want to arrange a place
leather shoes only when needed for We do not play with the baby during
to change diapers. Ideally, diapers
warmth and protection. the night.
are changed in a bathroom so that
Appropriate Furnishings think of a crib as a safe space, but bell above a three- or four-month-
many children learn to climb out of old motivates movement.
I3abies may have their own room, or
the criI2, sometimes before they can
they may share a room with parents After gaining arm control by
or siblings. Newborns enjoy the
even walk! Better that the safe
batting, the baby can begin to reach
space i5 the entire room. The door
surrounded feeling that they had in out to grasp a wooden ring
can be gated or closed when the
the womb. A basket or bassinet may suspended overhead. For early
be preferred for sleeping in the first child sleeps, although I found that
grasping, rattles should be
my children consistently came to
weeks of life but soon the baby i5 lightweight and small enough to fit
find me upon waking.
capable of movement and will need the tiny hand. Because rattles are
more space. Visual stimulation should be mouthed, wood with a natural finish
minimized in the sleep area. Ferhaps or no finish is ideal. Dried gourds
The ideal bed for the baby is low. It
could have a frame or just be a there could be a mobile or picture to make natural rattles.
engage the waking I2a17y, I2ut the bed
mattress or cotton futon on the When the child 12egins to creep and
floor, no more than eight inches is best associated with sleep.
crawl, 3 soft ball can motivate
high. Twin size allows more When babies are awake, they will movement. When the baby touches
movement than crib size. Babies of want to be with others. Flacing the the ball, it rolls a short distance,
three or four months can creep to baby on a quilt or mat on the floor and the I2aby may follow.
one end of the bed, and rotate in the living area of the home i5 one
A crawling baby should have access
around. They rarely roll out of the of the best ways to encourage
to stable furniture that can be used
bed once rolling is voluntary, but if movement. A long mirror can be
for pulling up. Once the baby is
the floor is hard, a rug or mat can hung or placed horizontally at floor
pulling up well, the baby can push a
be placed beside the bed. level, so that baby can see his/her
walking wagon to begin taking steps.
whole body moving.
Farents protest that the baby can
There are several materials that can
get out of a low bed. Yes, and they
Age-Appropriate Toys be used to encourage the infant's
can get into it, too. Many times my
Younger babies enjoy mobiles. These
fine motor development. The young
children climbed into bed and fell
can be homemade. Begin with a
child will enjoy putting objects in
asleep before I even realized they
simple black and white mobile during containers and dumping them out
were tired.
again. Simple nesting bowls and a
the first few months. Then introduce
Of course, the room must be safe, wooden egg in an egg cup can be
a color mobile. Hanging a
but it should be anyway. Farents Used successfully at eight to twelve
months. Children that age are also
challenged by putting rings on a peg
and balls in a hole. The most popular
material in my Farent-Infant class-
room is the ball ramp (a wooden ball
rolls down a series of ramps).

The Most Important

One of the most important
activities for the infant's learning
requires no materialtalking to the
baby. And this can begin before the
baby is born. My wise obstetrician
prescribes that both parents talk
to their baby throughout pregnancy.
This helps them to connect with

continued to page 12
Recent Research Findings
Report on the White Houee Conference on By Carole Wolfe Korngold

6 Early Childhood Development and Learning:

r What New Research Tells Us About Our Youngest Children
Current Research Supports born and throughout those earliest U5 to interact with the larger infant
Montessori's Findings years. The lack of nurturing and and toddler community.
proper responses by sensitive and
Current research supports what A Word of Caution
educated caregivers during this
Maria Montessori discovered so
period, adversely affects the child's There was a great deal of emphasis
many years ago about the
brain development. at this conference about the
significance of the prenatal life and
the first three years. What is importance of stimulation. We need
extremely important to U5 as Infant Sensitive Periods Recognized to remind ourselves about the
and Toddler Specialists is the danger of over stimulation by
The human brain has a remarkable
recognition of the necessity of the caregivers and by the environments
capacity to change, but timing i5
careful preparation of the young we create. As we know, there's a big
crucial. While learning continues
child's physical and psychological difference between talking with
throughout the life
environments. children and filling their lives with
cycle, there are 41011111NS..
chatter and clutter. We see our
function as assisting the natural
The White House Conference periods which
development of our youngest
we in
Last April, I was invited to the children.
White House to take part in the call sensitive
White House Conference on Early
periods. The
Childhood Development and
Learning: What New Research Tells
Us About Our Youngest Children,
called them Carole Korrigold
prime times. In is well known
hosted by First Lady Hillary Rodham in Montessori
the neuro- the Director circles as
Clinton. Her opening remarks of the Center for
biological literature, Montessori Teacher
focused on the the rapidly growing
these times are called critical (CMTE/NY). Education/New
brain of the infant and hightlighted Most recently Carole York
periods. The Time article called hosted the Montessori co-
the importance of the first three them windows of opportunity. Congress International
years of life. in Rome,
This information supports the 1996. She i5 a pastItaly, in November,
As Dr. T. berry Brazleton said, "It recognition of sensitive periods American Montessoripresident of the
35 the time in which the brain is Society
Carole was instrumental
was a wonderful opportunity for
those of U5 involved in child particularly efficient at specific The Early Leaning founding
types of learning. Center in Albany,
development and health to share where her children NY,
Westchester started, and
our concerns about U.S. families
Day School in
and children." The Montessori View Mamaroneck,
Validated Carole holds both
Early Brain Development and Early Childhood AMS Infant/Toddler
None of these findings are new certification. She
received her Bachelors
Clinical studies reported that to Montessorians. but having University from Syracuse
electrical activiity in brain cells supporting scientific research and her MEd from
change the structure of the brain evidence disseminated to the College, NYC.
Carole is the
both before and after birth. The general public enhances our mother of two children,
Jamie, a rabbinical
same processes drive the explosion professional credibility. This student, and K.T.,
writer. She is also the
of learning which occurs in the new presents an opportunity for proud grand-
mother of K.T.'s daughter,

American Monteseori Society Fall Regional Seminar,
October 24-26,1997
Mark your calendars. The excitement exciting for everyone. reasonable discounted conference
is building! For the first time, there will be rates. Parking is free and the airport
infant/toddler presentations during shuttle is only V10.00.
The first AMS conference focusing on each session. On Sunday morning To reserve a room, call 314-532-
infants and toddlers will be held at there will be a material making 500. For more conference
the Doubletree Hotel and Conference workshop at Hope Montessori information, contact Susie Shelton-
Center in St. Louis, MO. What an Infant/Toddler Community. Dodge at 314-458-4550 or Terri
excellent opportunity for professional Byrd at 212-358-1250.
development and networking with The comfort and attractiveness of
other infant/toddler educators! the Conference Center will appeal to Come. Connect. Network with other
the whole family 35 will the infant/toddler educators.
Dr. William Sammons, MD, a noted
pediatrician who worked with T. Berry Other presenters and topics include:
Braze [ton, will highlight the
Trade Goebel & Melisa Gregory First Steps to Independence
conference as the Keynote Speaker.
Patricia M Picchetti, MD A Journey of Life: Special Needs for a
Dr. Sammons will discuss specific Special Child
strategies to help children gain Interdependence in a Montessori Infant
Barbara Rueter
confidence in their own abilities, Community
emphasizing for parents and Lynn Williams Spiritual Development of the Toddler
teachers what children can do. He will Teacher
show U5 how, by sustaining patterns Susan Tracy First Observe: Meeting the Needs of
of interaction which enhance self- Children, Birth to 3
sufficiency and initiative, parents, Carole Wolfe Korngold What New Research on the Brain Tells U5
teachers and children can learn from Nancy Birkenmeier Sleep Issues in the Young Child
each other in a very active Rita Bremmer Creating a Toddler Reality Through
interchange which makes life more Language

Letters to the Editor

661'm looking forward to this new 6 6It was great to hear from you. me. It's a great start, and I'm sure
magazine. I was in the first Infants and Toddlers i5 a very it will enhance the infant-toddler
infant/toddler program with informative publication, and field."
Ginny Varga and Carole Korngold in badly needed. David Kahn, Executive Director,
New York. 5ay 'Hi' to both of them NAMTA
I have only two suggestions. One i5
for me. I'm now with the Early
that you expand your coverage to
Intervention & Early Childhood
include more of the AMI perspec- We agree with your suggestions,
Special Education Program in
tive... The other i5 that you look at David. Please see the article in this
Douglas County, Oregon working as
the mainstream research that issue by Susan Tracy, AMI trained in
a Speech-Language Pathologist and
complements Montessori. There i5 Denver.
using my Montessori background
currently an explosion of information
on the under-three age group...
Karen Nielsen-Frye
Thanks for sharing your work with
Myrtle Creek, OR

THE HOME to observe their child, they can Nova Natural Toys and Crafts
discover the child's present needs.
ENVIRONMENT 817 Chestnut Ridge Road
Parents are sometimes behind in Chestnut Ridge, NY 10977
continued from page 9
understanding their child's needs.
their child. In the later months the They keep repeating what the baby
baby hears their voices. responded to a few months ago. In
order to be responsive to a child,
My second child was born when my
the adult must focus on what the
Susan Tracy, MEd
first was a toddler, demanding that coordinates the Infant-Toddler
I read his favorite book at least ten child i5 trying to do. Only then can Teacher Preparation course for
times a clay. As a newborn, my we provide the environment for MEGA-58ton. She is school
daughter would stop crying at the success. coordinator and direct Parent-
sound of that familiar rhyme. Infant and Toddler classes for
It is the child's success. It i5 the
the Montessori School of
We try always to tell the baby what child's growth. It is the child's life.
Hinsdale, Illinois, one of MECA's
we are doing, what they are doing We prepare the way.
lab schools.
and what the objects are around us.
Receptive language comes before Reading Susan holds a Bachelors
expressive. Infants understand Understanding The Human Being: Degree in psychology from
much more than they can say. The Importance of the First Three Northwestern University and a
Years, by Silvana Quattrocchi Masters Degree in Education
Books for a baby should be simple,
Montanaro. 1991, from Loyola College in
with only one item on a page.
Nienhuis, Mountain 13altimore. She has Infant and
Pictures should be realistic, and Toddler certificates from both
give the adult something to tell the View, California.
the American Montessori
child. Babies enjoy turning the Society and the Association
pages of a board book. References Montessori Internationale.

Ending Michael The mother of three, Susan

Olaf's leads parenting seminars
As educators, we aid the child by
Essential based on the Montessori
educating parents. We can give Method.
suggestions for the home.
P 0 Box 1162
If we give parents the opportunity Arcata, CA 95518

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Age"Appropriate Activities and Toys
Compiled 13y Susan Tracy

Age/Stage Description Use Furpose

Prenatal on Music Hearing by 7th month of Develops auditory

Recordings of children's pregnancy. Will recognize sense and love of music.
and other types of music, a familiar song or poem
music box, singing and at birth. Don't just play
later, fingerplays. recordingssing!

From birth Door Mirror Place in the living area Develops body image.
Hang horizontally at floor with a quilt to occupy
level while baby is creeping baby near others.
and crawling. Hang vertically
once walking.

Birth to Mobile Hang 10-12" above the Promotes visual development.

ten weeks At first, black and white baby's face, to the
or high contrast mobile. preferred side.

From birth 5helving A place to store the Provides order.

Low enough for the child child's toys, materials Accessibility of belongings
to reach, preferably wood. belongings. aids independence.

From 2 or 3 Color Mobiles Hang 12" above the baby's Builds visual perception.
months on May be made of paper shapes preferred side. Observe
(pinwheels, animal, geometric what the baby is most
shapes, etc.). Consider view from interested in looking at.
below. Moves with air current.

2 to 5 Mobiles for batting Hang object within reach. Motivates arm and hand
months Cloth ball, wood objects, bell. movement (cause and effect).

3 months Mobile for grasping Hang within reach. Could Develops eye-hand
until sitting Wood ring or shape, cloth be hung from elastic 50 baby coordination, reaching and
shape. Must be easy to grasp. can pull object to mouth. grasping (cause and effect).

From 3 Rattles For the 3- or 4-month-old, Helps grasping, mouthing and

months on Made of natural materials (wood, choose small, light rattles. auditory development.
cloth, metalnot plastic). Also, Hold near baby's hand. Older
wood rings and shapes. babies can pick up a larger

From 5 Rolling Toys Place near child on the floor. Motivates crawling.
months, Soft balls and rolling rattles. 5hould not roll far.

6 months- Table (Height 15") and Use for meals and work. Aids independence in sitting.
2 1/2 Chair (Seat height 7*) A chair with sides or arms Provides a place for
preferably wood. is helpful until sitting well. working and eating.

6 months Doll First, looks at the doll, then Encourages movement and
and up Realistic, anatomically correct. holds and carries it. Later, develops body image.
nurtures and dresses it.
continued on page 14
Age-Appropriate Activities and Toys
continued from page 13

From 5 to Small dishes Encourages and models Develops fine motor skills
6 months Plates, tiny cup without lid, small independent Use. Give only and independence.
pitcher, small fork and spoon. a little liquid in cup 50 spills
are small.

8 months Objects in containers First, dumps or takes Introduces concept of in and out.
Several small objects in an objects out. Months later
interesting container (for will replace objects.
example, wooden eggs in a basket).

8 months Box with 17all(s) Ball(s) is dropped, pushed Teaches object permanence
for 1 ball, or hammered into hole(s). (concept that an object exists
10 to 12 though out of sight) and fine
months for motor skills (hand movement).
several balls

8 months Nesting objects Observe to see what type Enhances fine motor size
for 2 pieces, Wood egg in an egg cup, nesting and quantity. discrimination.
12 months blocks, cylinders, or dolls
for more

From 8 months Bar or furniture for pulling Bar may be attached to the Exercises gross motor (large
until walking up wall, or provide stable muscle) movement and builds
furniture the baby can pull on. independence and self-esteem.

8 months Balls A simple toy to manipulate, Develops gross motor movement.

and up Various sizes and textures, of throw and chase.
wool, cloth, rubber. Not too hard.

8 months Doors and lids Throughout the home, things Builds eye-hand coordination
and up Some with locks and latches. to open and close. More and independence.
challenging as they get older.

8-15 months Ring posts As the child gets older, more Encourages grasping and
Rings placed on a peg. and smaller rings. eye-hand coordination.

From about Walking Wagon Child pulls up on the handle, Develops independent
10 months, Low wooden wagon with a handle and walks with the support walking skills.
or when the for pushing. of the wagon. Use instead
child is of a traditional walker.
pulling up

11 or 12 months Books The child uses books Promotes the development of

and up (read to Simple and realistic with or independently in addition language skills and a love of books.
the child from without words. Rhymes. to adults reading to child
birth). daily.

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Montessori Education Center of the Rockies (303) 494-3002

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Virginia Hennes, Director
Sue Kennedy, Infant and Toddler Coordinator

Educating with excellence since 1978

Center for Montessori Teacher Education/NY
785 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Mains, NY 10605
Ca role Wolfe Korngold
914-948-2501 Fax 914-421-0779

MECA-Seton Teacher Training Program

302 5 Grant Street, Hinsdale, IL 60521
Susan Tracy or Celma Perry
630-654-0151 Fax 630-654-0182

Montessori Education Center of the Rockies

3300 Redstone Road, Boulder, CO 80303
Virginia Hennes
303-494-3002 Fax 303-494-6104

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1123 D Street, Sacramento, CA 95814
Norman Lorenz, MEd
916-444-9072 Fax 916-444-7987

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Classes are held at the CMTE/NY summer institute in New Rochelle, New
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A Publication for Montessori Infant and Toddler Programs Noverifier1997_i'

Vol. 1, No. 3 Infante

Infants and Toddlers
and Toddlere
Published 4 times a year.

The opinions expressed In

Infants and Toddlers editorials,
columns, and features are those FEATURES
of the authors and do not
necessarily represent the
position of the magazine. 5 What Makes Infants And Toddlers Tick?
Acceptance of advertising does Sue Kennedy
not represent endorsement of
any product or service.

Requests for permission to 7 Moving At A Child's Pace

reprint materials from Infants Lillian DeVault Kroenke
and Toddlers in another form
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should be sent in writing to .
Infants and Toddlers. Permission Into The Woode...a picture story
to reprint Is not required If you Lillian OeVault Kroenke
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students; for library reserve; or
for personal use.
10 The Incredible Drive Toward Movement
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Infants and Toddlers
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Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627. 4 Editorial Supporting Professional Growth
Address all advertising Inquiries
and editorial correspondence to
the editor 4 Ask Ginny
Lillian DeVault Kroenke A List Of The Most Important Points To Cover When
PO Sox 14-627
Training A New Assistant For The Toddler Room
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627.
Manuscript and photograph
guidelines are available on
request. 13 Letters To The Editor
Printed by
Elanbe Publishing Services
6201 Peachtree PI NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-7502
Phone: (505) 291-8022
Fax: (505) 291-1252 Editor: Lillian DeVault Kroenke
POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Editorial Advisory Board:
Infants and Toddlers
PO Box 14627
Maria Gravel Rita Messineo
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627 Carole Korngold David Shelton-Dodge
Cover Photo Susan Tracy Virginia Varga
Front: Sarah Whaley, 10 months,
standing up in her Radio Flyer


hand, working with parent boards, It will be your job to find ways to
itoria I establishing national organizations,
determining curriculum and staff for
raise the standards both for the
educational process and for your
, Supporting teacher training and much more. right to be recognized as
professionals providing very special
Professional In the forty years since Montessori
services for a very young and a very
programs were revived in America,
Growth we have come a long way. Efforts
important group within our society.
have begun to record and archive Infants and Toddlers was initiated
materials, resources, and individual to provide you support. Our goal is
Everyone who stories of this growth. There is still to educate and to archive the
has been much to do. young, but rich history of your
active in efforts. Infants and Toddlers i5 here
Montessori Many of you reading this know you
to fill a need. To keep this effort
education are very much at the beginning of
vital, it is imperative that you
knows that we the expanded growth and interest in
contribute yet again with your
are all, to one the very youngest children which we
knowledge and your financial
extent or another, pioneers in an serve.You may find yourself at the
support. We must work together for
educational revolution. Those of U5 same beginning place as we did for
our common interest and our
who have been around from the the Early Childhood programs years
professional future.
beginning in the U5 know the ago. You are struggling with a
minimal income, working hard to sell

struggles of organizing and staffing
new schools, making almost all of and build programs and to educate
staff and parents to look anew at Lillian DeVault Kroenke
the basic classroom materials by

I2IGir1riyVarga b. be informed about what the
adult i5 about to do before doing
it, i.e., wipe their nose, change
QI would like suggestions or their diaper, etc.
maybe a list of the most c. participate in their daily
important points to cover routines and develop
when training a new assistant for independencegive just the
the toddler room.
necessary help, back away and
Gayle Davis, Fern beach, Florida observe.
d. not be interrupted when
For future issues, please direct your
AThe Main Points to Cover questions to:
When Training Assistants e. chose their own activity and
learn through exploration and
1. Respect for the toddlers
repetition. Ask Ginny...
rights to: f. chose not to join in group
Infants and Toddlers
a. be spoken to in a quiet PO Box 14627
respectful, calm, positive manner. g. not be reported on or talked
Albuquerque, NM
continued to page 13 87191-4627
What Makes Infants & Toddlers Tick?
E3y Sue Kennedy
Watch quietly important person in her life to the of scientific researchers. And while
almost 3-year-old who takes great many answers are to be found in
an infant trying to turn over for the
delight in his burgeoning mobility, scientific studies, this is not the
first time. Notice his concentra-
excellent grasp of the language and only way to answer the very basic
tion, commitment and struggle to
ever-growing communication skills questions of who these fascinating
succeed. Undeterred by failure, he
people really are. Many answers are
tries over and over, finally succeed-
This Wonderful World of to be found in the infants and
ing. Then what happens? He does
it again, time after time, not ready Infants and Toddlers toddlers themselves.
to stop until the skill is under his This is the wonderful world of Maria Montessor's
control. Who makes the infant infants and words from
practice his work unceasingly toddlers. In the almost I 00
until it i5 perfected? There is no period of the A parent who responds to years ago are
outer motivation present. Still the unconscious the smile of a three-month- still the best
infant strives to accomplish his absorbent mind old...often see in return big guide that we
chosen task. that Montessori smiles and excited body have, "Follow the
described, these movements. What the parent child." Observing
Follow silently... fascinating people may not realize is that this and studying
from birth to three activity promotes activity in diligently, trying
and at a reasonable distancea the brain.
dwell in a different to see the world
toddler on a trip of discovery
world. This is the as the child does,
through a park. She stops to smell
time when children will help U5 probe the world of the
a flower, turns over a rock, watches
learn without seeming to learn. very young child and begin to see
a bug make its slow, winding way
across the path, walks around a the world as the child 5CC5 it. We
When they are awake, they are
tree four times, goes back to the are learning more about the levels of
learning. We were there once, but we
flower, tries to find the bug and understanding with which the infant
left that period so long ago that it
swishes her way through a pile of or toddler tries to make sense of
is no longer in our conscious
autumn leaves. the world. If we can approximate
memory. We learn because we
what the process is like for them, it
All of this is accomplished not only choose to learn, but infants and
may lead U5 to better
with an intensity that would do toddlers learn simply because they
credit to a dedicated scientist, but exist and every moment of their
also a great deal of joy, delight and existence involves learning. We need to understand why they feel
an evident sense of wonder at what compelled to explore and investigate,
Howl:10 they learn to move, to walk,
she is experiencing. Why is this to repeat a task over and over, to
to talk, to think? In short, how do
person drawn to explore the world want the same book or the same
they do what they do? They do it
so intently that she doesn't even song over and over. We know that
without an apparent teacher, but
seem to realize you are there? this is what they want, but we need
with an intensity rarely matched by
to understand how and why.
The expressions of joy and delight, those no longer in that period of the
the accompanying sense of wonder, unconscious absorbent mind.
The Great Mystery
as well 35 what appears to be an
intense feeling of satisfaction, can Searching For Answers The inner growth of the child i5 a
be observed at all the infant and great mysteryone WC may never
How do we get into that
toddler stages. We see this from solve. However, we have been making
unconscious absorbent mind to
the 17.aby who first realizes that her extensive progress in recent years.
know how these small children are
smile has attracted the loving Many new studies reported in
thinking? These are questions that
attention and response of an recent issues of Time and Newsweek
are currently occupying the energies
continued to page 6
WHAT MAKES INFANTS level accurately informed and in the brain. Connections are being
supportive of these efforts. stimulated to form among billions of
brain cells and neurons. These
continued from page 5 Emotion As The Motivating
connections are the links the brain
as well as the many magazines for Uses to communicate with other
parents of very young children, A new book, The Growth of the Mind parts of the brain and the body.
continue to reveal more facts about and the Endangered Origins of
Without these connections we, very
how the brain develops after birth. Intelligence by Pr. Stanley
simply, do not function to our full
We now understand more about the potential as mentally adept human
presents, in a
significant effect beings. The stimulating interaction
forceful but
that an enriched provided by a positive emotional
environmentor way, a new
environment and an appropriately
the lack of it concept for us
prepared physical environment do
has on this early, much to ensure the maximum
to contemplate.
most critical development of the brain.
stage of " / I
It i5 his firm
belief that The Prepared Emotional And
development. This
knowledge alone
emotion i5 the Physical Environment
motivating factor in the actual
should be enough to inspire everyone Montessori writes eloquently about
physical development of the mind.
concerned with children to sit up Pr. Greenspan proposes that the prepared emotional and physical
and take notice of how parents and environment as it regards the
emotion enables the brain to form
child care providers alike areor sensitive period for language. "The
thought. Emotional interaction with
are notdoing their job. a caring and loving adult encourages child manifests the pleasure that
brain connections to grow and he receives when he contracts his
We must take responsibility to
allows all the wonderful capabilities limbs, clenches his fists, lifts up his
communicate what we know. We
present at birth to begin their head and turns toward one who is
want waves of people knocking down
marvelous development. speaking and fixes his eyes intently
our doors to learn about
upon his lips. The child is passing
development from birth to three. We A parent who responds to the smile through a sensitive period... All
want parents and care givers to be of a three-month-old with this happens quietly and unnoticed
excited about learning how to set up appropriate comments like, "What a as long 35 the child's environment
appropriate environments. We want beautiful smile. What i5 it you would
great numbers of businesses willing continued to page 14
like to tell me? I'd really like to know,"
to spend what is necessary to set often see in return big smiles and
up and staff proper child care New Montessori
excited body movements. What the Infants and Toddlers Videos
environments. And we certainly want
parent may not realize i5 that this
to see people in government at every Infant/Toddler Activities
interaction also promotes activity Actual video of children interacting with their
environments. Explore new ideas. Watch how
children respond. Approx. 35 min. $40.00

PIECA-SETON Montessori Infant and Toddler Care

Montessori Teacher Education Program Filmed at several programs around the
country. Emphasizes Montessori theory and
practice. Approx. 9 min. $40.00
Educating teachers and administrators for children
A Helping Hand
0 to 3 years and 3 to 6 years Actual video of ways adults can assist
children. Give just the necessary help. $40.00
Contact MECA-SETON for information:
Each video contains a brief description
302 S. Grant Street, Hinsdale, IL 60521 of its contents.
Phone: 630-654-0151 Fax: 630-654-0182
email: MECA 1 Send your order with payment to:
Infants and Toddlers Videos
Web Site: PO Box 14627
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627


Moving At A Child's Pace Dy Lillian DeVault Kroenke
The interests and motivations of the familiar places and do the same everyday and the ordinary in
adult are very different from those familiar things. Most adults who refreshing new ways.
of the young child. Adults want to have already mastered skills, are
A walk in the park, in a woods, along
get somewhere in their time frame anxious to move on or require their
a creek bed, or at the zoo can be
and then move on. Because child to do something that peaks pure delight for both the adult and
everything is new and exciting, the their adult interest. childif you move at the child's
young children want to explore, to For adults, following the 'AV pace. No
find out what i5 there and all about child's interests, can be
. -4.
need to
it. They have no concern with time. very relaxing and cover the
The majority of family activities are rewarding 35 they learn ri,04 entire park
organized around the needs of the to focus on the or woods or
adult. We have all seen young uniqueness vi.)f creek bed or
children pushed in strollers, pushed child. This is a great see all the
about in grocery carts, pulled in way to learn to enjoy' : animal in the
wagons, and in specially designed and responato the ZOO. Just give
seats or trailers behind a bicycle. All interests an'd your child
this movement i5 either for the mysteries of the life- your full
adult's own exercise or for the adult of their child. Children attention and
to accomplish something efficiently help us seethe enjoy the
and without boredom. For the infant experience,
and the toddler, most of the world knowing that, as the child grows, you
just whizzes by 'will cover more. Se comforted that
Young children do not need to cover there i5 important and appropriate
a wide area or long distance to be learning going on for everyone.
completely enthralled. Climbing up on The Hope Montessori Infant and
a rock, jumping or climl2ing back down . Toddler Community in Creve Coeur,
is a marvelous challenge Then MO, under the direction of David
repeating this feat again and again Shelton-Dodge, is fortunate to have
15 delightful This is a process of access to a 75-acre campus. A
discovery and mastery of self and signature activity for this program
the environment year-round is a daily walk in the
Children like to go surrounding 1/400015, fields and school
I2ack to grounds. Turn the page and join us
for the walk.

Lillian DeVault Kroenke,

now retired from I3FGoodrich Corporate
Research, has a BA from Kent State, an
M Ed from Case Western Reserve and
AMS Certification for 3 to 6 in 1963. She
has been a Montessori directress, school
administrator, teacher trainer, owner of
designed for children, language curriculum
researcher for the Montessori Divelopment
Foundation and director of the AMS
School Consultation Service. Today she is
publishing The Montessori Readers Series
and is the editor of Infants and Toddlers.
Into The 0 0 a 5 13y Lillian DeVault Kroenke
a picture story Sliding down the hill means
A walk in the woods begins by climbing down a it's okay to get a little
small hill. Children may slide down or walk dirty outside. Clothes can
carefully when they are readyalways be changed when they
supervised by the staff return to the classroom.

Throughout the walk, children stop to collect leaves, nuts,

stones and to observe insects and animals.

One more challenge! Adults help the Here the children stop by the
children cross the small ditch near bushes to pick a treat.
a farmer's field.

Photographs by Lillian DeVault Kroenke were

taken of David Shelton-Dodge's class at
The Hope Montessori Infant and Toddler
Community in Creve Coeur, MO.
11," vvrr 111/ VP'


This bridge was made by the The group stops to 2119103111
parents. When they are rest and wait -For all
ready, the children may the children to
choose to walk across the catch up before
bridge alone. Or they may moving on.
walk across hand-in-hand
with an adult

All the children

cross this
narrow bridge
with an adult.

This wide cur12 makes a wonderful balance

beam on the way back to the classroom.

Once a little girl

turned around and
walked up this hill 7

l2ackward. Others
followed and a new
;1-1 love to climb this long tradition began.
ta-ircase. Learning how
these wide stairs is

A Mother's Story
Pt 2: The Incredible Drive
Toward Movement Korngold
An Explosion of Activity meals at her low table. "We are But what children during this period
It is the beginning of September and sitting clown," I tell her, calmly, truly need is the freedom, time and
Sarah's first birthday will be on the slowly, and guide her to the little space to exercise their muscles,
14th. She is experiencing a chair. She sits clown and tries to be experiment with their balance, and
tremendous explosion of activity, patient. Then she springs up once discover the boundaries and edges
propelled by an increcliHe inner drive again, ready for action. The meal of their own bodies. They progress
toward movement. After weeks of goes on like this until she gets the from turning over, to crawling, to
practicebalancing, shifting weight, hang of it, becomes focused on her pulling up, to stepping, to walking at
standing, squatting, raising each leg eating, and sits. 5he brings the their own pace and in their own
in an arabesque, cruising along the spoon to her mouth and eats, sequence, without the interference
sofa edge, from table to chair to spoonful after messy spoonful. She of devices that will put them in
stool, carefully traveling up and is a master drinking from the glass positions before they are ready.
clown the step, she took three steps cup. When she wants more she holds
I am trying to give Sarah 35 Much
independently. the small glass out to me to refill
freedom of movement as possible.
her juice, water or milk.
It is such a miracle how far the baby We live in a small apartment in New
comes in only twelve months. How York City, 50 this means going to
Movement is Essential the park. Sarah knows the ritual of
strong their urge for movement.
How driven they are to get upright One of the foundations of the getting ready to go, and is eager to
and go! How diligent they are in Montessori philosophy is the idea participate. 5he has a small chair in
their practice! How they persevere that movement is essential to the front hall, beside a low hook
even in sleep. And how they are physical and mental development, where we hang her coat on a hanger.
rewarded for their efforts! and an aid in maximizing the child's Before we leave, she sits in the chair
potential. Therefore, Montessori where, together, we put on her socks
I love to sit a small distance away infants and toddlers are given as and shoes.
and observe Sarah as she goes many opportunities for self-
about the exploration of her own motivated movement as possible, Supporting independence
movement. At times she looks like a within an environment that is
surfer riding the waves; at others, Dr. Montessori noticed that children
specifically designed to
like a modern dancer; or she is a tend always to expand their
accommodate them. safely.
yogi practicing her postures. Her independence, wanting to act of
movement i5 careful and elegant, This philosophy is contrary to what their own accord, to handle things,
inspired and delightful. Occasionally happens to most children of this to dress and undress themselves.
she turns her head down, and gets age, who are usually contained At this stage, Sarah is more
into a trianglethe yoga plow rather than free to move. From crib accomplished at the undressing
positionwith her hands and feet to playpen, electric swing to walker, the ability to undress comes before
on the floor and her bottom in the car seat to high chair, the children dressing. To take off her shoes, I
air. "Sarah is upside clown!" I say, are confined, constrained and start the lace and then she pulls it
and she smiles. I am amazed how limited. Often, when they are given the rest of the way; I free the shoe
infants just naturally know what to environments that are designed to and she pulls it off her foot; I edge
dogiving the brain that little extra encourage their motor development the sock over her heel and she
Close of oxygen whenever it needs it. (for example, gymnastic 01355e5), yanks it off from the toe. At each
the children are put on the step of the way, I include her. This
equipment or placed into positions. takes time and patience, but
Natural Movement Rather than follow the interest, usually, I am not in a rush. Before
Sarah is so eager to move. It seems attraction, and focus of the child, it you know it, she will be putting on
unnatural to contain her! Now she is the instructor or curriculum that her shoes and saying I did it
has a hard time sitting down for her determines the exercise. myself!"
My husband loves to see zoomed out from her knees, and crawls to a flower
her coat hanging low to under her. But after bed, where she leans over and puts
the ground, with her a short while, she her nose in the yellow mums. She is
shoes neatly tucked began to under- stopping to smell the flowers. I am
beneath the chair. Her AG stand how to awed by how much she sees and
own little mud room, he regulate the speed takes in of the world around her.
says. Because Sarah's herself. She gained
shoes have their own control of her own Snack Break
special place, we will force and was aHe
Like most of us, Sarah feels better
always know where to find to calibrate it with
when she is well rested and well fed.
themno searching under her steps.
So I am sure to pack a few
the bed or in the back of
treats for an afternoon
the closet. She'll know too.
5oon she snackusually fresh fruit,
discovered she organic cheese, and a bagel or
Exploring the World could step into rice cakes. Her hands are
Off we go in the stroller to the park. the wagon and usually filthy by this time, 50 we
Once there, I take Sarah out of the sit inside it. Then give a good washing with the
stroller and let her move. As soon with great joy, diaper wipes. Sarah helps by
as Sarah was able to crawl, I let her she found she pulling the wipes out one at a
go where she wantedas long as could stand up time and handing them to me.
she was not in danger. It seemed inside the wagon "Thank you," I say to her. And
she preferred the pavement to the and extend her then, 35 needed, "May I have
grass. so I gave up redirecting her leg up and over another one, please?' When we
to the green, and let her follow the the edge, and are finished, I ask her to close
snaking curves of the path through then get out the lid of the box,
the park. We go at her speed, with again. Over and over she and she does.
me walking beside her, pushing the practiced this maneuver
Sometimes she likes
stroller. The path weaves through with great determination.
to open and shut the
the park, up and clown, with rough How proud she looked
box for a while, which
spots, pot holes, a variety of then, being able to get in
I let her do. We aren't
textures and experiences. She and out with ease.
in any hurry, after all
crawls and scuttles along, exploring
each surface.
In the playground, she this is her work
loves her Fisher Price learning al2out how
She is, of course, attracted to pusher. The cart is things operate. Like
stairs. So up we go. I taught her lightweight plastic and other children,
how to turn around and go clown collapses, 50 it is easy for sometimes she
backwards. Now when she gets to us to bring along. She repeats things over
the top, she pauses. "Turn around, races around the Itior and over. I allow her
please" I say. And pavement in a -2 that and don't
she does. Then flurry of speed interrupt her cycle.
clown she goes. and excitementthrilled to She is an explorer in a new world,
She pauses, 17e on her own, under her learning how everything i5 done. I
looks around, own power and volition. wait for her to let me know she i5
and starts up Around and around the finished, rather than imposing my
again. You can loop she goes. She is not will on her that it is enough already.
see her trying to get anywhere in
If the fruit is an orange or a banana,
confidence grow particular, but is impelled
as she becomes we peel it together. I start the peel
instead by the sheer thrill
adept with her on a small section, and then Sarah
of her own movement, the
own movement.
pulls it off, and drops it in a napkin I
need of her muscles to
have set out. It takes a long time to
perfect their task, the
When she began get through the whole fruit. I start
drive of her little legs to do this
to stand and take her steps, we a little peel, and she tugs it off and
huge and important work of walking.
introduced the Radio Flyer wagon. then drops it on the napkin. Slowly,
At first, when she pushed, it Then, suddenly, she stops, drops to we work our way. The action is

THE INCREDIBLE DRIVE If, at the end of each clay, I were to when she hears applause on the
TOWARD MOVEMENT make a chart of all my statements radio. Yesterday, corning home from
continued from page 11 and tones of voice, I would want my the park, we heard the clip clopping
positives to far, far outweigh the of a horse and carriage. 5arah
fulfilling for her. It is repeated. It negatives. I like to tell her how much started clapping. I hadn't realized
is predictable. The peel makes a fun I am having with her today, how the two sounds are are 50 similar.
satisfying plop as it lands on much I enjoy being with her, and
the napkin. often, I say, "I like the way you Mind and Dody Working
Finally we are finished with our think." Of course, I say "I love Together
peeling activity and then, what you," too!
Dr. Montessori recognized that
comes next? We can eat the fruit of mental and physical development
our labor. I cut the fruit into small Expanding Language Skills are dependent on movement. I can
sections. I spear a piece with the Sometimes, in the stroller, when she readily see how one helps the other.
fork arid hand it to Sarah. She seems attracted to something, I Sarah's body moves and her thinking
takes the fork from my hand and say, "What do you see?" Then she grows. Her thought process
places the fruit in her mouth. points, and I say, "Oh, that's a tree," connects two things and her body
"Delicious!" I say. She gives the fork or "That's a truck," or "Do you see expresses it. As her mother, I am
back to me. "Thank you," I say to her the cat?" Lately she has discovered trying to provide her with as many
as I take the fork and then offer she can put her finger in her nostril. opportunities as possible to explore
another. Sarah learned to eat with a "Nose" I tell her, or, "Have you found and discover, to practice and
fork even before she ate with a your nose?" "Where is Mommy's exercise, to stretch and reach, to
spoon. The fork is easier to hold and nose?" I ask, and she gives mine a move and move forward, to grow and
to control, and the food stays on little tug. develop. I am humbly stepping aside
the tines. Now I just have to work and watching her, 50 that she i5
with her to help her learn that we Sarah loves to do -so big!" Now,
whenever I say the word "so" she
still safebut freeand I, too, am
sit when we eat! clapping my hands.
lifts her hands up. Sometimes,
seemingly for no reason,
Positive Directions her hands shoot up over
I am careful how I speak with Sarah. her head. 5he
She is absorbing everything and smiles her big two- Korngolcl
learning the language. You can hear tooth grin, and in New York lives_
in the modulations of her sounds City, with her
then I realize I just Michael Whaley. husband,
that she is emulating my vocal- said, "She was so Sarah Korngold Their daughter,
izations. I try to model grace and happy to see L/5", or Whaley
courtesy as much 35 possil2le. I say "It was 50 cold at September was born
14, 1996.
"Thank you," when she hands me the house." She is her BA in 1985 K.T. received
something. I say "Please," when I ask listening, listening, University from Wesleyan
her something. listening. where she
English. majored in
She received
And I am very careful to use no Of course, she Degree from her Masters
sparingly. There are other ways to knows how to clap. Columbia
Writing Division University
stop or alter behavior and teach She claps to the
her. I save no for the biggiesnot she attended in 1990. In 1995,
songs Clap hands,
touching the stove or running into Montessori the Center for
clap hands, till Teacher
the street. I Use other words Mommy comes Infant an Education/NY
instead to redirect and instruct her. d Toddler
home and Clap, Clap, has published Program.
"Chairs are for sitting," I say when K.T.
she stands on her chair. Or, "Pebbles
Clap your hands,
infants and articles about
Clap your hands toddlers
are for holding," when she puts a together. She claps Life magazine. in Montesoori
small pebble in her mouth. Positive when you say, "Can article at homeShe wrote this
phrasing supports the child's you clap your while Sarah in the afternoons,
experimentation. I try to make sure hands, please?" napped.
that most of what I say to her is She claps when she
pleasant, loving and affirming. i5 happy. She claps

14 5'
continued from page 4

about negatively when present.

the Editor
4. The importance of
H. be self-motivated. Toddlers a. positioning yourself at the
are not dependent on praise. child's eye level when com-
2. The importance of forming the municating with the child.
habit of daily observation: b. positioning yourself 50 that
you can always visually scan
a. of oneself.
the room to be aware of the
12. of the head teacher. safety of all the children.
c. of the children. c. confidentiality and
Suggestion: Have a clipboard with responding in a professional
a pencil attached in the manner when interacting
classroom with a posted with children, staff and
observation schedule. parents.
3. The positive impact of a well d. regular attendance, ;
Marilyn Tokarsky
prepared, safe, ordered and punctuality, and consistent Montessori
responses to the child. for Learning,
maintained environment on the Newark
toddler's absorbent mind.

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continued from page 6 infants can learn to read and interactive environment during this
compute, but that all this new period.
adequately corresponds to his inner knowledge can make our interaction
needs. In the acquirement of speech, more exciting as we know more and New knowledge about how the brain
for example, a child's sensitive more about what i5 going on, what develops in the early years makes it
period remains unnoticed since he is to look for, and how we can help easier to understand why children
surrounded by people who through make it happen. do the things they do and when
their speech provide the necessary they do them. We can't see all that
elements for his development." is happening so rapidly in the child's
A Tall Order For Adults body. But we do see a baby who
(Montessori, The 5ecret of
Childhood, pg. 43). Whether we are working with infants works and works to roll over, the
and toddlers directly or training toddler with a vibrant sense of
Iii short, we don't notice the child care providers, we must be wonder running through the autumn
development that is taking place in aware of the importance of our leaves and the child who wakes with
the youngest infant when the task. What happens before age joy and delight to a brand new world
environment meets the needs of the three sets the patterns for the every morning.
developing brain. years to come. What happens at
this early age will determine to a In light of the new studies about the
Maximizing Early large extent the character of the child from birth to three,
Development adult who will emerge in the next Montessori's words take a deeper
century. Children can become loving, meaning as we stand in awe of the
Dr. T. berry Brazelton, with his
caring, responsible, and productive creation before us. Her admonitions
Neonatal Assessment Scale, seeks
adults or they can become adults to follow the child, prepare the
to identify more opportunities for
who barge through life, caring only environment, and be an assistant to
adults to become emotionally
for themselves and their own needs. life are more significant than ever.
involved with infants. In his
Assessment Scale, he lists aspects Yes, it sounds like a tall order, but
of development that are easy for the child's future development is Bibliography
parents to observe and offer really what is at stake. It is how we brazelton, T. Berry. (1973) Neonatal Assessrlent
opportunities for more interaction. meet the challenge now that i5 the
Scale. Philadelphia: J.5. Lippincott.

Studies on massage for infants critical action. We must become Greenspan, Stanley I., and Bender I., Beryl L.
also stress the value of the adult- (1997). The Growth of the Mincl and the
advocates for our youngest citizens. Endangered Origins of Intelligence. Reading, MA:
child interaction that the process They do not vote, have jobs, run Addison-Wesley.
provides, for both child and adult. corporations, make laws or keep us
Guiding parents about the well and safe, but they will, and
development of their child is an much sooner than we realize.
important role for the infant and The quality of people our children I
toddler child care provider. Pointing will become as adults will depend ,
out what parents may not know or upon the quality of their
be aware of promotes more intellectual capabilities which
involvement. As Greenspan states, are, for the most part,
positive emotional involvement i5 the determined by the quality of I
key to the development of the brain. their physical and emotional
Without adequate early develop- environment between birth and /
ment, language, thinking and age three. It will also depend on
reasoning will never reach the levels the quality of their empathic 0
of the child's potential at birth. capabilities which are, for the
Research scientists caution us most part, determined by the

however, not to misread the findings. quality of their emotional and

These facts do not mean that


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A Publication for Montessori Infant and Toddler Programs February 1998

t Vol. 1, No. 4
Infants and Toddlers
Published 4 times a year. and Toddlers
The opinions expressed in
Infants and Toddlers editorials,
columns, and features are those
of the authors and do not
necessarily represent the
position of the magazine.
Acceptance. of advertising does 5 First Steps Toward Independence
not represent endorsement of
Tracie Goebel and Melisa Gregory
any product or service.
Requests for permission to 8 Recording Precious Memories
reprint materials from Infants
and Toddlers in another form
a picture story of journaling
(e.g. book, newsletter, journal)
should be sent In writing to
Infants and Toddlers. Permission 10 The 810550ttl
to reprint is not required ifYou
want to make copies to share
a poem by Charles M. Uzzell
with parents, teacher, or
students; for library reserve: or
for personal U5C. 10 Parting is Such Sweet Sorrow
Our copyright notice must Marty Wourms Niederman
appear with each copy you make:
Copyright 1997 by Infants and
Toddlers. All rights reserved.
11 Into the Mouths of Babes
Send all address changes and Adapted from an article by Joel Tickner
inquires about subscriptions to
Infante and Toddlers
P.O. Sox 14627 .
Albuquerque, NM. 87191-4627.

.Address all advertising inquiries DEPARTMENTS

and editorial correspondence to
the editor:
Lillian De Vault Kroenke 4 Editorial Fractical Matters
PO Box 14627
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627.
Manuscript and photograph
guidelines are available on
4 Ask Ginny
request. What's the difference between what Montessorians do
Printed by
with infants and infant stimulation?
Elanbe Publishing Services
6201 Peachtree PI NE
Albuquerque, NM 57111-7502 4 Letters To The Editor
Phone: (505) 291-5022
Fax: (505) 291-1252
POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to
Infants and Toddlers
Editor: Lillian DeVault Kroenke
PO Sox 14627
Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627
Editorial Advisory Board:
Front Cover Photo
Quin Anderson, sits supported Maria Gravel Rita Messilleo
by a cushion Carole Korngold David Shelton-Dodge
Sack Cover Photo Susan Tracy Virginia Varga
Sarah Whaley, crawling to reach
an object


Editorial daily progress in this i55Ue. This
month's feature presents clear
guidelines for practical activities. Letters
Practical Matters This publication, however, i5 not to the Editor
Ah, yesthe classical dilemma for intended to focus solely on
the teacher and the parentwhat activities that one would find in a We love your magazine!
should we teacher's syllabus. Nor do we wish Charles M Uzzell
specifically do to encourage a proliferation of Cary Montessori School
daily in the duplicate activities which ends up Cary, NC
real world of promoting busy work.
living with Thanks for a great puHication!
the young On the other hand, there are toys
Barbara Chattin-McNichols
child. I have and activities which are very
West Campus Children's Ctr
discussed this developmentally appropriate for this
Seattle, WA
very issue with age group. Teachers should know
some of our Advisory Board what i5 appropriate, what i5 Please send all the back
members. available, what to look for when issues...they are great!
selecting materials 35 well 35 how Linda L3aggish
It is our intent to build a l2road- to construct safe materials. Greensboro, NC
based view of the child which does
include the how and what to do in We hope to formulate an outline of
our approach to this aspect of
A suggestionit (the journal)
child care. We have pul2lished a list needs more practical articles...
of age-appropriate activities and assistance to young children in one
Rita Zimny
toys in Vol 1, No 2; a picture story of of the up-coming issues and then,
Countryside Montessori
an outdoor activitya daily walk in of course, to encourage your
St. Louie, MO
the woods in Vol 1 No 3; and we have contributions.
Please see the editorial on this page
included ideas on journaling a child's Lillian DeVault Kroenke

Ask Ginny...

What is the difference Montessorians recognize that each

between what Montessorians child, depending on temperament,
do with infants and infant heredity and neurological
stimulation? maturation, has a different
threshold for sensory stimulation.
Charles M. Uzzell, Cary, NC
Montessori suggested creating
environments that are rich in
For future issues, please direct your
Infant stimulation generally sensory experiences and which
questions to:
refers to adult-initiated provide for the maximum possibility
techniques which provide of moving about to explore textures,
direct sensory stimulation. Most sights, and sounds. Montessorians Ask Ginny...
often, infant stimulation i5 Used as are observant of the child's needs Infants and Toddlers
physical therapy or remediation for and interests. They then create
environments which permit the
PO Box 14627
infants who have special needs, or
who have been environmentally children to initiate activity which Albuquerque, NM
deprived of sensory experiences. fulfill their own sensory needs. 57191-4627
First Steps Toward Independence
By Tracie Goebel and Melisa Gregory
We prepared for this article by usually suggest a shorter first
researching the word independent. clay to ensure that it's a positive
We came across these definitions: experience. We spend much of our
free from influence, control, or time observing the parent's
determination of another or others, interaction with the child. This
and relying on one's own abilities. If tells U5 a lot about the child's
you think about it, independence daily care.
begins at birth, when newborns learn
to breathe on their own. Independ- We keep a personal journal for
ence i5 a process that continues each child. We write anecdotes
from that moment throughout life in about what we see the child
many different aspects. doing and we acid pictures. This Mk "4,1reow--
helps parents feel more
In our program, we provide connected to their children's
opportunities to help infants gain activities when they have to be
independence skills as opportun- away from them. We encourage
ities naturally arise. We share parents to take these journals
with you here the way we assist home to read and acid to them.
infants 35 they develop their This interaction about their child
independence skills. helps us develop a relationship Tracie helps a child wave bye to morn.
with the parents and provides
Working With Parents another form of two-way
In order to provide a supportive communication. When a child leaves to take the children to the windows
environment which meets each the infant program, the journal is 50 they can see that their parents
child's individual needs, we first need kept by the parents. are actually leaving. When helping
to estal2lish a good working children separate, we encourage
relationship between the parents parents not to use food to help with
Separating Successfully separation. This can make things
and the staff. Before a child begins We encourage independence
our program, the Montessori more difficult in the long run.
throughout the day with one
educator goes to the new family's exceptionduring separation.
house for what we call a home visit. Children can only separate Feeding Infants-From Fluids
This home visit provides an successfully in an environment to Solid Foods
opportunity to go over program Our program strongly encourages
where they feel secure and
policies, administer any necessary mothers to breastfeecl and we offer
comfortable. Therefore, we strongly
paperwork, and most importantly feel that an adult must be available appropriate assistance to assure
to start building a relationship of whenever needed to assist a child their success. Some mothers come
trust with the family. in during their lunch hour to
who i5 having a hard time. The adult
offers assistance by acknowledging breastfeed while many others
When a child enters our program, we express milk for U5C when they are
how the child feels and offering
require a parent to spend the first unable to be present.
comfort and support
day with the child 50 the child,
parent, and staff can become We feed the babies when they are
We encourage parents to stay for
comfortable with one another. hungry. We never require them to
as long 35 they want any morning.
Knowing that their mom or clad is However, when they are ready to
wait until it is time for them to eat.
comfortable in this environment We never force children to eat at
leave, they need to say good-bye
also helps the child trust. We a certain time nor do we wake them
and leave. We encourage the staff

continued to page 6
continued from page 5

in order to feed them. We believe Taking in FluidsFrom Breast

that children's bodies tell them
Feeding to the Cup
We prefer to wean a child from a
when they need to eat and we
respond to their needs. bottle gradually. This makes the
transition 35 easy as possible for
the child. When the child starts
We insist that infants are held when
sitting at our weaning tables for
they get a bottle. We never expect
meals, we start the weaning
infants to hold their own I2ottle.
process by offering fluids from a
Holding a child when giving a bottle
cup. Although this i5 usually a long
is very important for several
process, children I2enefit from
reasons. It allows the perfect
experiencing what it's like to drink
opportunity for one-on-one time in
from a cup.
group care and makes basic care from a cup.
When we first offer a cup, we hold drinks
more personal. The staff members, Morgan, at 12 months,
as well as the the cup and let a
children, need little fluid flow
into the child's After much practice, children drink
special holding time.
mouth. Many more and more from the cup and
times infants eventually try holding it. Keep in
We work closely with
just smack their mind that there will be many spills
parents when we
lips together at first. It's best to put only a small
introduce cereal and
and the fluid amount of liquid in the child's cup at
jar foods. We never first.
put cereal in bottles.
trickles out.
If we are
We feel it is
consistent in When children seem tO be drinking
important that
offering fluids, fluids from a cup on their own, we
children get practice
the child learns start weaning them from the bottle.
with a spoon. We
this new way of If a child still wants a bottle, we
start feeding
taking in fluids. start I2y taking the child to the
children in a bouncy Quin is fed in a bouncy chair table. We offer 35 much.of the fluid
seat before they are
as possible from a cup. Then we
able to sit up. When
offer the rest from the
children are able to sit
bottle. The child will eventually
unsupported for short periods of
take more and more from the
time, they Sit at a weaning table
cup, making it easier to
during meals. We make sure that
eliminate the bottle.
utensils are always available for
them to experiment with, even if
they end up on the floor. An adult Helping Parents with
is always sitting near the infant the Weaning Process
at the table. When children are Approaching parents about
ready for more textured food, we giving up the bottle can be a
puree vegetables and fruits to very touchy subject. Some
offer them. As the infants parents are just not ready to
progress, we give solid, bite-size make this transition and,
pieces of food 50 they can feed therefore, are very defensive.
Feeding Melanie at the weaning table.
Some parents also have a hard time We offer a pacifier when it is needed. process has been very successful in
sharing decisions regarding their We do, however, use good judgment our program. We currently have no
child with their Montessori on when and how to use the pacifier. children using pacifiers.
educator. The way we approach We do not give children a pacifier
parents seems to work well in our just because they are crying. We Self-Calming Skills
program. We never just say, "We're find a time to meet this need when lrfants cry for a number of reasons
taking the bottle away." We the child is awake, happy, and just including hunger, tiredness,
approach the parents when we have needing to suck. frustration and anger. Crying is the
had success. We write on the way an infant communicates. Many
child's daily charts the quantity When the pacifier is given for crying, times when adults hear a child cry,
of fluids the child i5 drinking from it's purpose changes. It then they immediately rush over to see
a cup at meals. becomes a plug and does not what they can do to get the
meet child to stop crying.
When we can show the parents that the However, infants do not
When infants are small and
their child is receiving a lot of fluids sucking always need an adult to
unal2le to control their own
from the cup and not very much need. If a intervene for them when
bodies, they may need adult
from the bottle, parents usually child they are crying. An infant
help. As they gain more
show less resistance. We always entering needs to learn self-
control, we need to allow them
work on changes before approaching our calming.
program i5
the freedom to do more for
parents so we can see how the child
is going to do and so the parents older, we It is important that, as
can see that their child might really talk to the caregivers, we understand why the
be ready for this transition. Videos parents about not giving the child a child i5 crying. We approach the
also help U5 discuss these issues pacifier. They can bring in a pacifier situation through observation. Does
with parents. and leave it in their child's cubby so the child need something? 15 the
it is nearby if needed. child angry or frustrated? We then
The Sucking Instinct and decide what is the appropriate
Pacifiers We try not to give children a pacifier response. An infant may need
5elf-calming works hand-in-hand 50 that they never associate it with adults to give reassurance with
with weaning a child. Children can be our program. If a child is using a their voice, to be moved into a
weaned from a bottle or a pacifier pacifier before entering our program, different position, or to just be left
when they have learned some self- our goal is to wean the child from it. alone and ol9served for a while
calming skills. Often when infants We work closely with the child longer. When infants are small and
cry, adults respond by plugging towards achieving this goal. Only unable to control their own bodies,
them up with a pacifier. Infants then do we talk to the parents they may need adult help. As they
under 3 months may need non- about what we are doing and the gain more control, we need to allow
nutritive sucking. After about 3 success we've had. This helps the them the freedom to do more for
months, a child no longer has a need parents feel more comfortable and themselves.
for sucking. less likely to become defensive. This
When an adult's presence i5 needed,
the adult does not necessarily need
MECAESETON to touch or hold the child. There are
Montessori Teacher Education Program times when a child just needs
someone near them as they work
Educating teachers and administrators for children through their struggle. When we
0 to 3 years and 3 to 6 years allow children the time to work
through these struggles on their
Contact MECA-SETON for information:
own, they begin to become more
302 S. Grant Street, Hinsdale, IL 60521
independent. An infant needs to be
Phone: 630-654-0151 Fax: 630-654-0182
able to self-calm I2efore moving to
email: MECA 1 Seton@aolcom
the toddler program.
Web Site:
continued to page 12

S6 El
Recording Precious IV,
a picture story of journaling
We keep a personal journal for each child. We
nosoLui. write anecdotes about what we see the child
doing and we add pictures. This helps parents
toto. 0- altui.. 9-0+' feel more connected to their children's activities
when they have to be away from them.
UP*4;.: ergy.44- a91-

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Call for Contributions

next issue of Infants and and experiences with a young one free additional issue of
The will feature child. We know that each of you Infants and Toddlers which
language development. has had an exchange with a young contains your contribution.
child which you have shared with Please include your source, if
We would like contributions of parents and others, that reminds known. All contributions become
games played on the infant's body us that the child is alert, thinking the property of Infants and
to increase awareness of their and feeling. Toddlers and will not be returned.
body parts, like for example, This
Little Piggy., Please keep each contribution Send your contributions to:
brief and clear. Deadline for the Infants and Toddlers
We would also like anecdotal next issue is April 1. Each PO Box 14627
contributions of conversations contribution printed will earn you Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627


mories Photographs were provided by Melisa Gregory of the
infant class at The Hope Montessori Infant and Toddler
Community in Creve Coeur, MO.

4 k. -ks qy



4 -

, e eke

We encourage parents to take these

journals home to read and to add to them. This
interaction about their child helps us develop a relationship with
the parents and provides another form of two-way communication.
When a child leaves the infant program, the journal is kept by the

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The Parting is
blossom By Charles M. Uzzell Such Sweet Sorrow
In this small world
we find ourselves as children
One Mother's Story of Toddler Separation
exploring an unknown planet By Marty Wourms Niecierman
with a mere brain,
"If you go away, it will hurt my A5 I kiss my son good-bye and leave
an alien self born
feelings." the room, I am flooded with both
from the world of the womb,
sadness and joy. This parting is such
destined for a world This comes from the sad little mouth
sweet sorrow! I take a deep breath,
beyond the senses. of my 2 72 year old son, Myles. It is
put one foot in front of the other,
Dut for now, we train the fifth day of our separation
braced for tears that don't come yet.
ourselves process for the Toddler class. I'm
with what we find. sitting quietly in the Hg rocker. He i5 He'll be okay.
next to me in the little rocker. He's
This small flower eager, at times, to venture away from I'll be okay.
fell to my lap, teacher. me, enticed by some interesting work As I close the
I smelled it, he sees another child put back on the door behind
pulled off the stem shelf. I have enjoyed sitting in this me, a little
and tasted neatly organized environment these tear rolls
sweet and perfume. past days. I now know the other down my
Not usually in my class children's names and personalities. cheek. This
or near the trampoline, When Myles mentions them at home, I is just one
I held it close to my mind. can picture them and grin with more step
familiarity. towards Myles
This small flower
I've observed the teacher's style and becoming his
forming memories,
listened carefully to her choice of own person Marty arid Myles
this small flower
words with the children. I feel separate and
confident that she will tend to wonderful, apart from me. My
I find it a treasure
Myles' needs, keep him safe and thoughts whisper words of love for
so do not understand
teach him some wonderful new things him. I remind myself that when I
why I should put it
during her mornings with him. I know come back he'll be playing happily.
in the garbage.
that she has a loving, gentle touch I can hug him and tell him how happy
I do the jumping
and also a calm, firm, unl9ending side I am to see him as I listen to stories
and forget
when needed. of his clay.
the wayward Hossom.
I am amazed by the level of
independence some of these tiny
Charles M. Uzzell is an
people have achieved. Andrew spilled
Infant Montessori Teacher -
his juice this morning, and wiped it up
at the Cary Montessori with the mini-size mop. When my son

School in Cary, NC. Charles

finishes with a work, he quietly puts it
and his wife, Andy, the
back on the shelf before he reaches
director of Cary Montesori, for something new. Miracle of
have three children, Molly,10,
miracles, if only we could teach that
Elizabeth, 8, and Peter, 5.
skill at home! Myles i5 greeted each
morning by a cheerful "Hi, Myles," from
a new buddy.

nto the Mouths of
Adapted from an article by Joel Tickrier
babes Copyright Greenpeace 1997

shown to disrupt laboratory learning disabilities. Cadmium can

animals' hormonal systems. These cause cancer, kidney disorders and
complex and sensitive chemical other health effects. Despite these
messenger systems regulate known hazards, neither manufac-
important I2odily functions such turers nor retailers have taken
as embryo and organ development, sufficient action to protect
12rain function and behavior, children's health.
When you buy a toy for your
growth, reproduction and immune
child, especially one meant
system functions. Alternative materials for producing
to be put in the child's
mouth, such as a teether or toys include other plastics that
pacifier, you expect that toy to in This means that every time a child don't require toxic additives. For
safe. However, new evidence sucks or chews on a soft PVC toy, our children's sake, it i5 Up to
demonstrates that soft toys made that child is ingesting a potentially consumers to demand that manu-
out of a common plastic, polyvinyl harmful substance. When these facturers produce and retailers sell
chloride (also known as vinyl or PVC), chemicals are sold for laboratory toys and other products free of
may be hazardous to your child's use, they carry a myriad of hazard toxic materials. If you would like
health. PVC is used to make toys warnings and instructions on safe more information, contact
ranging from teethers and pacifiers handling. But a PVC toy, containing Greenpeace at 1-800-326-0959.
to bathtub toys, inflatable toys large quantities of the same
and dolls. chemicals, often carries the label
non-toxic. Joel Tickner is a toxics policy advisor to
environmental and labor groups, and
Alone, PVC i5 a brittle, heat- and other non-profit organizations. He is
light-sensitive material. Chemical Realizing the dangers that soft PVC
also a researcher and doctoral
additives called plasticizers are toys present to children, especially
candidate in the Department of Work
necessary to make the plastic soft. infants, national governments,
Environment at the University of
A class of chemicals called retailers, and even toy
Massachusetts at Lowell.
phthalates (pronounced tha-lates) manufacturers in Europe have taken
are generally used to soften vinyl action to remove soft vinyl toys
products. Greenpeace researchers from store shelves. These actions
have found that soft vinyl toys contrast sharply with the US New Montessori
contain up to 40 percent of Consumer Product Safety Infants and Toddlers Videos
phthalates by weight. Commission's inaction. The Infant/Toddler Activities
Commission responded to a Actual video of children interacting with their
Greenpeace inquiry, "We will continue environments. Explore new ideas. Watch how
Government studies have shown children respond. Approx. 35 min. $40.00
to gather and evaluate information
that high levels of these chemicals Montessori Infant and Toddler Care
on the chronic toxicity of specific
can leach out with everyday use. Filmed at several programs around the
phthalates, their use in children's
Chewing or mouthing, such as on a country. Emphasizes Montessori theory and
articles and children's exposure to practice. Approx. 9 min. $40.00
teether, can increase this leaching
these chemicals." A Helping Hand
Actual video of ways adults can assist
children. Give just the necessary help. $40.00
A recent Greenpeace investigation
While research on the health effects
has demonstrated that many Eacb video contains a brief description
of the phthalates has only recently of its contents.
common soft vinyl children's
begun in earnest, laboratory
products such as back packs, tote Send your order with payment to:
experiments have linked them to
bags, raincoats, and even play food Infants and Toddlers Videos
liver and kidney damage, cancer, and PO Box 14627
contain harmful levels of two toxic Albuquerque, NM 87191-4627
reproductive dysfunction. Some
hea metals, lead and cadmium.
kinds of phthalates have been
Lead can Pause brain damage and

on the bed. As children become Encouraging Independent
strong crawlers, we take one side off Movement
continued from page 7 the bed so the children are able to We encourage independence in
crawl in when they are tired and out movement by providing many
Encouraging Independence at when they awake. opportunities for children to develop
Nap Time their motor skills. Building motor
The process of self-calming works We usually begin this process by skills begins early in infancy when an
right along with encouraging patting or rubbing the child's back infant first turns to look at his
independence during nap times. as we sit right next to the bed. We mother or reaches to bat at a
Many times when children first begin eventually stop patting or rubbing mol2ile. By providing aesthetically
our program, they are very and gently lay a hand on the pleasing mobiles, these batting
dependent at nap time. A5 with any infant's I2ack. When the infant learns movements become more purposeful
other activity, we encourage self-calming skills, we start to sit grasping movements.
independence gradually. We promote next to the child without touching.
behavior that is most likely to We encourage crawling by
proceed to the next level. providing a supportive
environment. We give children
Until children become accustomed tummy time starting at a young
to us and their new environment, we age. Tummy time enables young
help by following their normal children to strengthen their
routines, if that's what's needed. muscles by practicing pushing up
For example, we may have a child their upper trunk. If you wait too
starting our program who gets late to start tummy time, the
rocked and takes a pacifier when child may have a hard time
going to sleep. When children become adapting to it because it's not a
more comfortable with Us, we start familiar position.
helping them gradually learn to put
themselves to sleep. When we put infants on their
tummies, we provide many
The first thing we do is eliminate Trade pats a child to sleep. objects for them to look at and
the pacifier. If the child is rocked reach for. As they are getting
to sleep with a pacifier, the
Eventually we move
common sellse transition towards
independence includes eliminating
away from the bed,
one of these dependencies. The
but still remain in the
child's view. Finally,
pacifier is our first choice to
eliminate because the longer that the child i5 319le to go
a child uses it the harder it is to 'to sleep without any
eliminate. Also, rocking is more
Although it may seem
like a lot of work to
Steps Leading to Sleep
help the children go to James crawls to the ball.
After the child has successfully
sleep on their own,
eliminated one dependency, it's time
they learn to self-
to start working on the next. Our
calm and control their own body's closer to moving forward, we provide
next step toward independence
rleeCis. The children who go to sleep materials that will entice their
includes patting the child to sleep in
in their beds on their own tend to crawling, like balls and other objects
the child's own bed. We U5C low beds
sleep better and to be much happier that can roll just out of reach.
in our program. When the child is
after naps.
not yet mobile, we keep both sides


When children are starting to crawl These objects consist of tables, balance necessary for walking.
and to build their arm and leg chairs, shelves and anything else Walkers can also be harmful to the
muscles, they are also building that will move when they are pushed. development of the child's legs.
strength in their backs. We We provide small carts that the Since the child tends to stay on his
encourage sitting by first children can push toes more in walkers, the muscles
letting a child sit with throughout the tend to form in balls because the
support, for instance environment. As foot is always flexed.
between our legs or on our children feel more
laps. As the child gets stable, they learn Preparing for Toddlerhood
stronger, we supply to maneuver the E3y helping the child progress toward
cushions for support. carts around independence in the areas that we
Finally, the child sits objects and even have discussed, the infant becomes
unsupported. to push the carts well prepared for toddlerhood.
when they are Before moving up to the toddler
As the children become weighted down. program, the two most important
more comfortable with skills that we look for are walking
these new skills and After practicing all and language. The child needs to be
become strong crawlers, of these upright a steady walker who can handle the
they learn more skills, the infant soon daily walks that the toddler,classes
challenging skills. They begins to stand take. Also, children need to I9e able
learn to crawl in and alone. Many times to communicate their needs at any
out of things and Quin sits Supported this happens when the given time. This communication does
by a cushion.
start crawHng up child holds on to not have to 17e through words, just
things. We provide appropriate something and lets go. as long as the teacher can figure
materials that are safe and the Eventually, it happens when the child out what is needed.
right height to practice these new is in the middle of the room with
skills without being stopped or nothing around. Finally, children When children seem close to
assisted by an adult. begin to take their first steps on reaching toddlerhood, we help them
their own. Children always walk on prepare for an easier transition by
Standing Up their own when their body tells them providing activities to help improve
After children have mastered they are ready. some of their skills. Shortly after
crawling, they move to they learn to walk, we start
something more Walkers changing the children's diapers
challengingpulling We do not use while they are standing up. We
up to standing walkers in our believe this gives the children more
position. Children program. The independence by knowing what is
soon start to cruise number one going on with their bodies. They take
around the furniture. --11'1111P reason is that part in the diaper changing
We provide bridges walkers are procedure. They learn the natural
4 4.
with low steps. When dangerous. sequence of pulling their pants down
children are ready, Although a when going to the bathroom and
they can I2egin to walk walker may pulling them up when finished.
holding on to railings, help children
and to go up and down move around We take the children with us when
steps while standing when they are we go to do laundry or get food
and holding on. not quite from the kitchen. We take the
mobile, children on many walks and increase
The children begin to AI& walkers don't the length of the walks as they are
push objects around the himself to standing. encourage ready. We encourage the children to
environment as an James the infant
to learn the continued to page 14
alternative to crawling.

continued from page 13
Tracie Goebel
is currently the Infant Coordinator
at Hope Montessori Infant-Toddler
help take care of themselves and Community in St. Louis, MO. She
the environment. They can put their has worked with infants and
toddlers for eight years. Tracie
dirty laundry in baskets, clear their
received her Infant-Toddler
places from meals, and wash up Certification from CMTE/NY and is
after meals. the proud mother of CJ, born in
November 1997.
Visiting the Toddler Class
As the time grows closer for the
children to actually move to a
toddler room, we take them to visit Melisa Gregory
their new class. Eventually we leave
works at Hope Montessori Infant-
them there for either part of or an Toddler Community in St. Louie,
entire clay. We know that the Mo. She has worked with infants
transition to a new environment and toddlers for six years. Me Ilea
can be a difficult one, so we help received her Infant-Toddler
make this transition as easy as Certification from MECA-Seton.


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Highly Qualified Staff

All AMS Infant and Toddler trained
Extensive Infant and Toddler experience

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Montessori Education Center of the Rockies (303) 494-3002

3300 Redstone Road Boulder, Colorado 80303
Virginia Hennes, Director
Sue Kennedy, Infant and Toddler Coordinator

Educatinrcuit-5 excellence since 1978'

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