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Strategic Management and Business Policy, 14e (Wheelen)

Chapter 4 Environmental Scanning and Industry Analysis

1) Environmental scanning is the monitoring, evaluating, and disseminating of information from


the external environment to key people within the corporation.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

2) A corporation uses environmental scanning to avoid strategic surprise.


Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

3) Political-legal forces regulate the values, mores, and customs of society.


Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

4) The societal environment includes the economic, technological, political-legal, and


sociocultural forces.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

5) Industry analysis was popularized by Michael Porter.


Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

6) In dynamic environments, the CEO's focus is on forces in the societal environment.


Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

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7) Today's organizations must scan the natural environment for factors that might previously
have been taken for granted.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

8) The transferring of profits from a foreign subsidiary to a corporation's headquarters is known


as repatriation of profits.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

9) An example of an economic variable in the societal environment is interest rates.


Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

10) The growing health consciousness is an example of a political-legal force.


Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

11) One of the demographic variables in the societal environment is the changing household
composition.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

12) One of the breakthrough developments in technology is the portable information device and
electronic networking.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Use of IT

13) A multinational corporation is a company with significant assets and activities in multiple
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countries.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

14) The origin of competitive advantage lies in the ability to identify and respond to
environmental change well in advance of competition.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Identify the aspects of an organizations environment that are most
strategically important

15) Strategic myopia is the willingness to reject unfamiliar as well as negative information.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Identify the aspects of an organizations environment that are most
strategically important

16) Booz & Company found that companies that are most successful at avoiding surprises had a
well-defined system that integrated planning, budgeting, and business reviews.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Identify the aspects of an organizations environment that are most
strategically important

17) An industry is a group of firms producing a similar product or service.


Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

18) According to Michael Porter, the weaker each of the competitive forces, the more limited
companies are in their ability to raise prices and earn greater profits.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

19) According to Michael Porter, a high force can be regarded as a threat because it is likely to
reduce profits.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
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Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

20) An entry barrier is an obstruction that makes it difficult for a company to enter an industry.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

21) One of the possible barriers to entry is product differentiation.


Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

22) The need to invest huge financial resources in manufacturing facilities in order to produce
large commercial airplanes creates a significant barrier to entry to any competitor for Boeing and
Airbus.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

23) Governments can do little to erect barriers to entry in an industry.


Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

24) NutraSweet can serve as a product substitute for sugar satisfying the same need.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

25) A buyer may be powerful when changing suppliers costs a great deal.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
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AACSB: Reflective Thinking

26) A fragmented industry is dominated by a few large firms, each of which struggles to
differentiate its products from the competition.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Understand how industry maturity affects industry competitive forces

27) Multidomestic industries are specific to each country or group of countries.


Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness

28) The only factor used to determine whether an industry will be primarily multidomestic or
primarily global is the pressure for local responsiveness.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

29) McDonald's and Olive Garden are in the same strategic group.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

30) According to Miles and Snow, reactors are companies with a limited product line that focus
on improving the efficiency of their existing operations.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

31) In hypercompetitive industries, competitive advantage comes from an up-to-date knowledge


of environmental trends and competitive activity coupled with a willingness to risk a current
advantage for a possible new advantage.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

32) Key success factors seldom vary from industry to industry.


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Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Identify key success factors and develop an industry matrix

33) An industry matrix summarizes the key success factors within a particular industry.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Identify key success factors and develop an industry matrix

34) Competitive intelligence is a formal program of gathering information on a company's


competitors.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence

35) Business intelligence is one of the fastest growing fields within strategic management.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence

36) A.C. Nielsen is an example of an outside organization providing a firm with competitive
intelligence.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

37) To combat the increasing theft of company secrets, the U.S. government passed the
Economic Espionage Act in 1996.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Learning Obj.: Discuss the roles of ethics and social responsibility in strategic management
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence

38) Faulty underlying assumptions are the most frequent cause of forecasting errors.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

39) Extrapolation rests on the assumption that the world is relatively dynamic and changes
quickly in the short run.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario
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40) Statistical modeling is a quantitative forecasting technique that attempts to discover causal or
at least explanatory factors that link two or more time series together.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

41) An industry scenario is a forecasted description of a particular industry's likely future. It is


developed by analyzing the probable impact of future societal forces on key groups in a
particular industry.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

42) The combination of the degree of complexity and the degree of change existing in an
organization's external environment is/are called
A) strategic factors.
B) strategic issues.
C) environmental uncertainty.
D) strategic fit.
E) scenarios.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

43) According to the text, one reason environmental uncertainty is a threat to strategic managers
is because
A) it is a costly and time-consuming process.
B) it creates a new playing field in which creativity and innovation can play a major part in
strategic decisions.
C) it forces the strategic manager to be more stable.
D) it hampers their ability to develop long-range plans.
E) there are too many uncontrollable variables.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

44) Which of the following is NOT descriptive of external environmental scanning?


A) used as a tool to ensure a corporation's long-term health
B) used to monitor, evaluate, and disseminate information relevant to the organizational
development of strategy
C) used to identify major stockholders
D) used as a tool for corporations to avoid strategic surprise
E) used to determine a firm's competitive advantage

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Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

45) The corporation's task environment


A) encompasses the physical working areas of the organization.
B) includes those elements or groups within an organization's industry.
C) is an advisory committee to top management.
D) is an accounting of the many jobs within an organization.
E) is the job requirement specification listing necessary skills and abilities.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

46) Which of the following is NOT an element of the organization's task environment?
A) local communities
B) trade associations
C) governments
D) technological developments
E) special interest groups
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

47) Which environment was generally perceived by business people to be something to exploit,
not conserve until the twentieth century?
A) the task environment
B) the natural environment
C) the internal environment
D) the societal environment
E) the external environment
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Ethical Reasoning

48) Which of the following is NOT a major force in the societal environment?
A) political-legal forces
B) labor forces
C) economic forces
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D) technological forces
E) sociocultural forces
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

49) All of the following are technological breakthroughs already having a significant impact on
many industries EXCEPT
A) growing health consciousness.
B) alternative energy sources.
C) genetically altered organisms.
D) smart, mobile robots.
E) virtual personal assistants.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

50) Which societal force includes demographic trends?


A) political-legal forces
B) labor forces
C) economic forces
D) technological forces
E) sociocultural forces
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

51) Which of the following is NOT one of the eight current sociocultural trends mentioned in the
text?
A) increasing environmental awareness
B) growth of the seniors market
C) decline of the mass market
D) increasing food consumption
E) impact of Generation Y boomlet
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

52) Which is the largest of the current U.S. generations?


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A) Baby Boomers
B) Woofies
C) Silent Generation
D) Gen X
E) Gen Y
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

53) A company with significant assets and activities in multiple countries is known as a(n)
A) multinational corporation.
B) repatriated corporation.
C) transferable corporation.
D) duplicate corporation.
E) emancipated corporation.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

54) When strategic managers have a willingness to reject unfamiliar as well as negative
information it is referred to as
A) strategic paralysis.
B) corporate inertia.
C) management indifference.
D) strategic myopia.
E) corporate apathy.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Identify the aspects of an organizations environment that are most
strategically important

55) The origin of competitive advantage lies in the ability to


A) gain major stockholders.
B) identify and respond to environmental change well in advance of competition.
C) launch products quickly.
D) serve customers faster.
E) create surprise for others.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Identify the aspects of an organizations environment that are most
strategically important

56) According to Porter, seeing clothing firms such as Under Armour enter the athletic shoe
industry would reflect a
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A) medium bargaining power of suppliers.
B) low threat of substitutes.
C) medium bargaining power of buyers.
D) high threat of potential entrants.
E) low competitive intensity.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

57) Industry analysis is primarily concerned with a corporation's


A) societal environment.
B) task environment.
C) sociocultural environment.
D) economic environment.
E) internal environment.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

58) According to Porter, the corporation is most concerned with


A) the intensity of competition within its industry.
B) the aggregate level of demand for a product line.
C) a market's position on its life cycle.
D) the amount of pressure from the societal environment.
E) the level of government action in an industry.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

59) In addition to Porter's Five Forces, another force added in the text is
A) bargaining power of unions.
B) other stakeholders.
C) threat of prospects.
D) threat of shareholders.
E) bargaining strength of employees.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

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60) According to Porter, the collective strength of the interaction of potential entrants, buyers,
substitutes, suppliers, firm rivalry, and other stakeholders determine
A) the level of government action in an industry.
B) the probable industry attractiveness and business strength position.
C) the ultimate profit potential in the industry measured in terms of long-run return on invested
capital.
D) the aggregate level of demand for a product line.
E) the amount of pressure from the societal environment.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

61) According to Porter's model, a strong or high force is likely to reduce profits and can be
regarded as a(n)
A) benefit.
B) opportunity.
C) advantage.
D) threat.
E) risk.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

62) According to Porter's model, a low force can enable the company to earn greater profits and
can be regarded as a(n)
A) benefit.
B) opportunity.
C) advantage.
D) threat.
E) risk.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

63) Which of the following is NOT descriptive of the "threat of new entrants"?
A) depends on the presence of entry barriers
B) have a desire to gain market share
C) depends on the reaction of existing competitors
D) does not impact industry attractiveness
E) brings new capacity and substantial resources
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
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Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

64) Which barrier to entry do corporations such as P&G use to force new entrants to spend
heavily to overcome existing customer loyalty?
A) rivalry among existing firms
B) switching costs
C) capital requirements
D) product differentiation
E) access to distribution channels
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

65) Which barrier to entry uses cost advantages associated with large size?
A) rivalry among existing firms
B) switching costs
C) cost disadvantages independent of size
D) capital requirements
E) economies of scale
Answer: E
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

66) Which barrier to entry is demonstrated by Microsoft's MS-DOS operating system?


A) government policy
B) access to distribution channels
C) cost disadvantages independent of size
D) capital requirements
E) economies of scale
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

67) Intel was able to gain a significant cost advantage over its competitors in the production and
sale of microprocessors because of
A) capital requirements.
B) product differentiation.
C) switching costs.
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D) economies of scale.
E) access to distribution.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

68) Which of the following is NOT descriptive of intense rivalry among firms?
A) slow industry growth
B) high fixed costs
C) high exit barriers
D) few competitors or competitors that are roughly equal in size and power
E) product offerings that are highly differentiated
Answer: E
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking
69) Which of the following is NOT descriptive of the threat of substitute products or services?
A) Substitute products appear to be different, but satisfy the same need as another product.
B) If the cost of switching is low, substitutes may have a strong effect on an industry.
C) Identifying substitutes is relatively easy since they look similar.
D) Possible substitute products or services may not appear to be easily substitutable.
E) Substitutes limit the potential returns of an industry.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate

70) A sugar company that is worried that consumers may buy artificial sweetener instead of
sugar is concerned about the
A) threat of new entrants.
B) rivalry among existing firms.
C) threat of substitute products.
D) bargaining power of suppliers.
E) bargaining power of buyers.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

71) Which of the following is NOT descriptive of a high level of bargaining powers of buyers?
A) Changing suppliers costs very little.
B) Alternative suppliers are plentiful because of standardization of the product.
C) The purchased product represents a high percentage of buyer's costs.

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D) The buyer buys a large proportion of the seller's product or service.
E) A buyer earns high profits and is very insensitive to costs and service differences.
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

72) When General Motors considers making its own automotive parts, Delphi Automotive
Supply Company would be concerned with the
A) bargaining power of suppliers.
B) bargaining power of buyers.
C) rivalry among existing competitors.
D) threat of substitutes.
E) threat of new entrants.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
73) Which of the following is NOT descriptive of a high level of bargaining power of suppliers?
A) Substitutes are readily available.
B) The product or service is unique.
C) The supplier industry is dominated by a few companies, but sells too many.
D) The purchasing industry buys only a small portion of the supplier group's goods and services.
E) Suppliers are able to integrate forward and compete directly with their present customers.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

74) Other software companies could not compete with Microsoft based on the hesitation of
consumers to try a new software. Which of Porter's forces does this reflect?
A) exit barriers
B) bargaining power of buyers
C) threat of substitutes
D) bargaining power of suppliers
E) rivalry among existing firms
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

75) A company or an industry whose product works well with a firm's product and without which
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the product would lose much of its value is considered to be a(n)
A) complementor.
B) oligopoly.
C) strategic group.
D) industry leader.
E) staggered company.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

76) A relationship that illustrates the term "complementor" is


A) Microsoft and Intel.
B) General Motors and Ford.
C) Hewlett Packard and Compaq.
D) Gateway and Dell.
E) America Online and CompuServe.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

77) The strength of each of the six driving forces of industry competition varies according to the
A) effectiveness of the strategic planning.
B) stage of industry evolution.
C) capital requirements.
D) changes in the political environment.
E) amount of government regulation.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

78) In a fragmented industry


A) no firm has large market share.
B) prices drop as new competitors enter the market.
C) economies of scale are used to reduce costs.
D) companies integrate to further reduce costs.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Understand how industry maturity affects industry competitive forces

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79) The U.S. major home appliance industry is an example of an industry
A) that has evolved from an oligopoly to a monopoly.
B) in which each company maintained a distinct product line.
C) that was once fragmented, but now is consolidated.
D) that has experienced consistent, increasing sales.
E) experiencing a successful strategy of product specialization because of product differentiation.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Understand how industry maturity affects industry competitive forces
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

80) An industry dominated by a few large firms, all of which struggle with product
differentiation, is known as
A) multidomestic.
B) consolidated.
C) global.
D) indigenous.
E) worldwide.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Understand how industry maturity affects industry competitive forces

81) In which type of international industry do corporations tailor their products to the specific
needs of consumers in a particular country?
A) consortium industry
B) global industry
C) indigenous industry
D) multidomestic industry
E) worldwide industry
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness

82) Which type of international industry manufactures and sells the same products with only
minor adjustments made for individual countries around the world?
A) consortium industry
B) global industry
C) indigenous industry
D) multidomestic industry
E) worldwide industry
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness

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83) Which of the following is an example of a global industry?
A) retailing
B) banking
C) tires
D) insurance
E) health care
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

84) The two factors that tend to determine whether an industry will be primarily multidomestic
or primarily global are (1) the pressure for coordination within the MNCs operating in that
industry and (2)
A) the pressure for local responsiveness on the part of individual country markets.
B) the power of the local country governments to restrict MNC actions.
C) the need for brand management in the various MNCs operating within that industry.
D) the importance of differentiating with integrating mechanisms in regional cooperatives.
E) the likelihood of terrorist activity impacting that industry.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness

85) When the pressure for coordination is strong and the pressure for local responsiveness is
weak for multinational corporations within a particular industry, the industry will tend to become
A) global.
B) consolidated.
C) multidomestic.
D) risky.
E) indigenous.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

86) When the pressure for local responsiveness is strong and the pressure for coordination is
weak for multinational corporations in an industry, the industry will tend to become
A) global.
B) consolidated.
C) multidomestic.
D) risky.
E) indigenous.
Answer: C
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Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

87) What is a set of business units or firms that "pursue similar strategies with similar
resources"?
A) strategic group
B) collective collaboration
C) cooperative
D) integral association
E) strategic assembly
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

88) Which of the following is NOT one of the general strategic types according to Miles and
Snow?
A) initiators
B) reactors
C) analyzers
D) prospectors
E) defenders
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

89) According to Miles and Snow, which strategic orientation is demonstrated by companies that
have a limited product line and focuses on improving the efficiency of their existing operations?
A) initiators
B) reactors
C) analyzers
D) prospectors
E) defenders
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry
AACSB: Analytical Thinking

90) According to Miles and Snow, a company that operates in at least two different product-
market areas in which one product is stable and the other one is variable, reflects which strategic
orientation?
A) initiators
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B) reactors
C) analyzers
D) prospectors
E) defenders
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

91) According to Miles and Snow, companies with fairly broad product lines that focus on
product innovations and market opportunities such as Frito-Lay, reflect which strategic
orientation?
A) initiators
B) reactors
C) analyzers
D) prospectors
E) defenders
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

92) According to Miles and Snow, most major U.S. airlines have reflected which strategic
orientation?
A) initiators
B) reactors
C) analyzers
D) prospectors
E) defenders
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking

93) To succeed in a hypercompetitive industry, companies must be willing to


A) cut prices below marginal costs.
B) pursue market share instead of profits.
C) operate in the ethical gray zone.
D) cannibalize their own successful product lines.
E) reduce spending on research and development.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
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94) A table which summarizes the key success factors within a particular industry is called a(n)
A) EFAS Table.
B) IFAS Table.
C) SFAS Table.
D) TOWS Matrix.
E) industry matrix.
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Identify key success factors and develop an industry matrix

95) Those variables that can affect significantly the overall competitive positions of companies
within any particular industry are known as
A) external strategic factors.
B) internal strategic factors.
C) matrix factors.
D) key success factors.
E) industry scenario.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Identify key success factors and develop an industry matrix

96) A formal program of gathering information on a company's competitors is referred to as


A) statistical modeling.
B) competitive intelligence.
C) competitive strategy.
D) quantitative forecasting.
E) qualitative matrix.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence

97) Which of the following is true in regards to competitive intelligence?


A) The Economic Espionage Act makes it illegal to steal any material that a business has taken
"reasonable efforts" to keep secret.
B) The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals urges strategists to stay within the law
and to act ethically when searching for information.
C) The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals states that illegal activities are foolish
because the vast majority of worthwhile competitive intelligence is available publicly via annual
reports, websites, and libraries.
D) A number of firms hire consultants with questionable reputations who do what is necessary to
get information when the selected methods do not meet SPIC ethical standards or are illegal.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence
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98) The primary activity of a competitive intelligence unit is to
A) monitor competitors.
B) engage in corporate espionage.
C) survey stakeholders.
D) determine industry R&D statistics.
E) reverse engineer competitors' products.
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence

99) A study of nearly 500 of the world's largest corporations indicated which of the following to
be the most widely practiced form of forecasting?
A) statistical modeling
B) scenario-writing
C) delphi technique
D) brainstorming
E) trend extrapolation
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

100) Over ________ of large companies use trend extrapolation for forecasting.
A) 20%
B) 30%
C) 40%
D) 50%
E) 70%
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

101) Trend extrapolation is


A) the process of converting intuition and hunches into reality.
B) the extension of present trends into the future.
C) the process of asking some authorities in the area to make an "informed guess" about the
future.
D) given a large amount of historical data on certain interrelated factors, one attempts to
conceptualize alternative futures.
E) detecting faulty underlying assumptions before forecasting errors can occur.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

102) A non-quantitative approach to forecasting that requires simply the presence of people with
some knowledge of the situation to be predicted to propose ideas without first mentally screening
them is called
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A) simulations.
B) the delphi technique.
C) brainstorming.
D) signal monitoring.
E) scenarios.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

103) One ground rule necessary for effective brainstorming is


A) scrutinize each idea generated.
B) propose ideas without mentally screening them.
C) calculating future earnings of each idea.
D) critique each idea for rationality.
E) forecast the success of each idea.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

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104) Regression analysis is an example of which quantitative forecasting technique?
A) the delphi technique
B) statistical modeling
C) brainstorming
D) trend-impact analysis
E) morphological analysis
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

105) The most widely used forecasting technique used after trend extrapolation is
A) statistical modeling.
B) simulations.
C) scenario-writing.
D) expert opinion.
E) brainstorming.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

106) Which one of the following is NOT part of the process of industry scenarios?
A) Examine possible shifts in societal variables.
B) Identify uncertainties in each of the six forces in the task environment.
C) Generate at least 15 scenarios.
D) Make a range of plausible assumptions about future trends.
E) Analyze the industry situation that would prevail under each scenario.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

107) The technique recommended by the text to organize an analysis of external strategic factors
is called
A) IFAS.
B) EFAS.
C) SFAS.
D) SWOT.
E) the issues priority matrix.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Be able to construct an EFAS Table that summarizes external environmental
factors

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108) In the EFAS Table, the indicator of how well a particular company is responding to current
and expected factors in its external environment is characterized by the
A) IFAS score.
B) industry matrix.
C) total weighted score.
D) SWOT score.
E) SFAS score.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Be able to construct an EFAS Table that summarizes external environmental
factors

109) Describe the four general forces in the societal environment.


Answer: The four general forces in the societal environment are economic, technological,
political-legal, and sociocultural. Economic forces regulate the exchange of materials, money,
energy, and information. Technological forces generate problem-solving inventions. Political-
legal forces allocate power and provide constraining and protecting laws and regulations.
Sociocultural forces regulate the values, mores, and customs of society.
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

110) List eight current sociocultural trends in the United States that are transforming North
America and the world.
Answer: Eight current sociocultural trends in the United States that are transforming North
America and the world are as follows:
Increasing environmental awareness
Growing health consciousness
Expanding seniors market
Impact of Millennials
Decline of the mass market
Changing pace and location of life
Changing household composition
Increasing diversity of workforce and markets
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Recognize aspects of an organizations environment that can influence its
long-term decisions

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111) Describe Porter's approach to industry analysis.
Answer: Michael Porter contends that a corporation is most concerned with the intensity of
competition within its industry. The level of this intensity is determined by basic competitive
forces. These are the threat of new entrants, rivalry among existing firms, threat of substitute
products or services, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, and relative
power of other stakeholders (added later by the authors).

New entrants to an industry typically bring to it new capacity, a desire to gain market share, and
substantial resources. The threat of entry depends on the presence of entry barriers and the
reaction that can be expected from existing competitors.

A competitive move by one firm can be expected to have noticeable effect on its competitors and
thus may cause retaliation or counter efforts. Intense rivalry is related to the presence of the
number of competitors, rate of industry growth, product or service characteristics, the amount of
fixed costs, capacity, the height of exit barriers, and the diversity of rivals.

Substitute products are those products that appear to be different but can satisfy the same need as
another product.

Buyers affect an industry through their ability to force down prices, bargain for higher quality or
more services, and play competitors against each other.

Suppliers can affect an industry through their ability to raise prices or reduce the quality of
purchased goods and services.

The sixth force includes a variety of stakeholder groups from the task environment. The
importance of these stakeholder groups varies by industry.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Conduct an industry analysis to understand the competitive forces that
influence the intensity of rivalry within an industry

112) Distinguish between a fragmented and consolidated industry.


Answer: A fragmented industry has no firm with a large market share and each firm serves only
a small piece of the total market in competition with others. As new competitors enter the
industry, prices drop as a result of competition.

A consolidated industry is dominated by a few large firms, each of which struggles to


differentiate its products from the competition. The automobile, petroleum, and major home
appliance industries are examples of mature, consolidated industries each controlled by a few
large competitors.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Understand how industry maturity affects industry competitive forces

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113) What are the two factors that tend to determine whether an industry will be primarily
multidomestic or primarily global?
Answer: The factors that tend to determine whether an industry will be primarily multidomestic
or primarily global are pressure for coordination within the multinational operations operating in
that industry and pressure for local responsiveness on the part of individual country markets. A
multidomestic industry is one in which companies tailor their products to the specific needs of
consumers in a particular country. A global industry is one in which companies manufacture and
sell the same products, with only minor adjustments made for individual countries around the
world.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter Objective: Categorize international industries based on their pressures for coordination
and local responsiveness

114) Describe the four strategic types of the Miles and Snow typology.
Answer: According to Miles and Snow, there are four general types of firms based on their
general strategic orientation. Defenders are companies with a limited product line that focus on
improving the efficiency of their existing operations. Prospectors are companies with fairly broad
product lines that focus on product innovation and market opportunities. Analyzers are
corporations that operate in at least two different product-market areas, one stable and one
variable. Reactors are corporations that lack a consistent strategy-structure-culture relationship.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Construct strategic group maps to assess the competitive positions of firms in
an industry

115) Define competitive intelligence.


Answer: Competitive intelligence is a formal program of gathering information on a company's
competitors. Often called business intelligence, it is one of the fastest growing fields within
strategic management. Most companies use outside organizations (such as A.C. Nielsen Co.) to
provide them with environmental data. The Internet provides the quickest means to obtain data.
Some companies choose to use industrial espionage or other intelligence-gathering techniques to
get their information straight from their competitors.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter Objective: Use publicly available information to conduct competitive intelligence

116) Discuss the most commonly practiced form of forecasting.


Answer: Trend extrapolation is the most widely practiced form of forecasting with over 70% of
the world's largest firms using this technique either occasionally or frequently. Extrapolation is
the extension of present trends into the future. It rests on the assumption that the world is
reasonably consistent and changes slowly in the short run. Time-series methods are approaches
of this type: they attempt to carry a series of historical events forward into the future. The basic
problem with extrapolation is that a historical trend is based on a series of patterns or
relationships among so many different variables that a change in any one can drastically alter the
future direction of the trend. As a rule of thumb, the further back into the past you can find
relevant data supporting the trend, the more confidence you can have in the prediction.
Difficulty: Difficult

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Chapter Objective: Know how to develop an industry scenario

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.