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HeadingWestern Cape

Government
Agriculture

THE CULTIVATION OF CAROB


(Ceratonia seliqua)

Institute of Plant Production


Pippa Karsen
26 January 2012
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Were does Carob grow naturally?
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What is Carob?
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Male Female
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Heading Phenology/Fenologie
AUTUMN WINTER SPRING SUMMER
MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DES
FI JAN FEB
F

S1 S2 S3

FI-Flower initiation
F- Flowering
Pod Development:
S1- Stage 1 of pod development (slow development)
S2- Stage 2 (rapid pod development)
S3- Stage 3 (ripening)
Veg. Growth
Heading Climate / Klimaat

Mediterranean climate
Cool winters (decrease growth <7C)
Hot dry summers (withstand temp.
40C)
No frost
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Soil requirements / Grond voorvereistes

Wide range of soils:


Poor sandy soils to deep soils
Withstand calcareous with high lime soils
Tolerated saline soils (3% NaCl)
Well drained
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Water requirements / water voorvereistes

Xerophyte
Annual rainfall 250-500mm per year
500-550mm commercial production

Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo

600-800mm/yr 200-290mm/yr 100-520mm/yr


Renoster 200-600mm/yr
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Crop Crop water need Produce Calories CHO Sugar Fibre Protien
(mm/total growing
Ton/Ha g/ 100g g/ 100g g/ 100g g/ 100g
period)
Banana 1200-2200 4-7 424 23 12 3 1

Barley 450-650 2-3 1591 84 1 2 13

Oats 450-650 2-3 1540 66 1 15 17

Wheat 450-650 6-10 1558 73 0 13 13

Citrus/Olives 900-1200 45-50 235 12 9 2 1

Carob 500-550 50-70 830 80 50 8 4

Maize 500-800 5 1445 74 1 7 10

Peanut/Potato 500-700 17 na na na na na
Heading Properties

Component Tylliria SFax Aaronsohn Santa Fe


(g/100g dry mass)
Moisture 9.27 9.56 9.29 8.91
CHO 90.69 89.57 90.79 91.12
Tot sugars 54.74 40.69 50.55 45.61
Sucrose 45.09 33.70 40.41 42.02
Glucose 4.92 3.54 4.95 1.79
Fructose 4.73 3.45 5.19 1.80
Dietary fibre 31.47 36.07 33.35 35.85
Protein 3.57 4.42 3.07 3.26
Fat 0.71 0.45 0.74 0.86
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Uses/
1. Human consumption
Cocoa substitute
Locust bean gum:
thickener and binding
agent
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Uses/
1. Animal fodder:
Production same or
higher than other
traditional small grain
crops
80% energy value of
barley
2. Shade tree
3. Reclaim eroded land
4. Cheap CHO for ethanol
production (160g/1kg dry
pods)
Heading Production

Country Pod production (t) % Seed production (t) %

Spain 135000 43.5 12000 37.5


Italy 45000 14.5 4000 12.5
Portugal 30000 9.7 3600 11.3
Morocco 26000 8.4 4800 15.0
Greece 20000 6.5 1800 5.6
Cyprus 17000 5.5 1700 5.3
Turkey 15000 4.8 1800 5.6
Algeria 7000 2.3 800 2.5
Other 15000 4.8 1500 4.7
Total 310000 100 32000 100

(Fletcher,1996).
Heading Why plant Carob?

Grows in semi arid and marginal soils


Drought hardy
Low input cost
Easily adapted to the WC
Provides fodder in summer in winter rainfall
areas
High nutrient value
Heading Limitations/Beperkings

1. Cold hardiness
2. Suitability to high density plantations?
3. Market stability
4. Unavailability of good quality plant material,
5. The time it takes for the tree to come into
production and
6. The local knowledge of cultivation practices.
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Research/Navorsing

1. Propagation of the carob tree.


2. Establishment of Carob.
3. Cultural practices