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Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV (2004) 1291.

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COMPONENTS OF MARTIAN DUST FINDING ON TERRESTRIAL SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS


WITH USE OF INFRARED SPECTRA
Larissa P. Maxe, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mogilev State University named
afte r Kuleschov A. A., Cosmonaut-str. 1, 212022, Mogilev, Republic o f Belarus , lari sa_maxe@yaho o.c om

Intro ducti on: Scienti sts suppose that se as and forming clinker silicates and aluminates. Main
lakes on Mar s exist ed during ear lie r geological cli nker compounds are 2CaO*SiO2 , 3CaO*SiO2 ,
periods. Acco rdingl y it c an be supposed that on 3CaO*Al2 O3 and 4CaO*Al 2 O3 *Fe2 O3
Mars can be find r ests o f se dimentary depo sit s of (2CaO*Al2 O3 *SiO2 gehlenite can be formed
seas and lakes or products of transformation of also) [1]. If calcium carbonate prevails in trepels
ones. Therefore the Earth s edimentar y deposits of str uctur e, then calci nated pro duct co ntains
seas and lake s, especial ly anci ent, can be used as abundant c alci um oxi de. Calcinat ions of sapr opels,
analogue objects f or the anal ysis of possibl e incl uded organics , can lead als o to forming of
sedimentary de posits of ancie nt Martian s eas and ceramics compo unds. In both c ases at c linke ring o r
lakes. at ceramics forming calcinations, from clay,
It was suppo sed the presence of similar presenting in sapro pels and tr epels, can be forme d
minerals in chemical composition of terrestrial mullite. As chemically inactive compound it can be
sedimentary de posits and Martian dust , as it can be examined as an end product of transformations of
the t ransf ormed s edimentar y deposit . Acco rdingl y sedimentary de posits .
it was supposed a probability of similar chemical Hydration, decomposition. Interaction
and physic al tr ansfo rmations of sediment between clinker minerals and water causes the
substance s occur duri ng natural or organized formation of hydrate d compounds and follo wing
artificially processes. hardeni ng. Hydrated sili cate s and aluminate s of
Chemical base for contemplates. In course calcium are the knitting base of cement concretes.
of scientific researches the mineralogical If sulfates participate in reactions, the rapid-setting
compos iti on of lake s sedimentar y deposit s concrete massive is formed. By-products of
sapro pels and mineral s ediment trepel were hydrati on reactio ns are hydroxides of calci um,
studied to recognize separate minerals in aluminum or iro n. Thus hydrate d materials ,
sediments. received from calcinated sediments, have alkali ne
Trepel is bottom sediment of an ancient sea. It reacti on. Ther mal actio ns tr ansfo rm hydroxides in
pract ical ly does not co ntain t he organic substance s. corre sponding oxides again. Dehydrati on and
One important practical use of trepel is destruction of cemented materials gives in results
manufacturi ng of buildi ng material s, for example, simple silicates: CaO*SiO2 wollastonite,
cements [1]. From c rushe d raw miner als pr epare a amor phous olivine [1]. Thus cl inker minerals and
homo geneous mix to produce a ceme nt cli nker. hydrated compounds can be expected i n processed
The mi x of clinke rs miner als unde rgoes the sapro pels and tre pel.
physic al and che mical tr ansfo rmations duri ng high Acco rdingl y, in case of alte rnati ng high
temperature processing when sinte ring pro cesses ther mal events and hydr atio n stage s on Mars , the
occur. In the structure of trepel the smallest presence of cli nker minerals , hydrate d calci um and
particles of various minerals form the aluminum silic ates , end products of destr ucti on,
homo geneous mi x natural ly. This f eatur e incl uding UV, can be e xpected i n the dus t st ructure .
infl uences on phase tr ansfo rmations and re acti ons Some inert to water or low active end products can
between minerals dur ing the calc inati ons. be accumulated, probably, mullite, wollastonite,
Calcinations and new compounds. Most oxides of aluminum and iron.
important result of calcinations of clinker mix is IR-spectra and experiments. To analyze and
appeari ng of new phases and new compo unds dist inguis h specif ic c ompo unds in the composition
mainly silicates of calcium. Trepel includes clinker of Martian dust , in the same range of the
minerals : cal cium carbo nate, clay, amorpho us wavele ngths, spectr al data o f diff erent ins truments
sil ico n and oxides . The structure of the miner al were used. Data o f emissio n and trans missio n
base of sapro pels varies but usual ly amorphous infr ared spectr a of Martian sur face and dust ( MGS
silic a prevails . Dur ing heat ing of se dimentary TES, IRIS) [2] and laborato ry data of transmission
deposit s clay miner als ar e decompos ed. Fo llo wing infrared spectra of minerals [3] and terrestrial
calcinations decompose carbonates. And calcium sedimentary de posits sapro pels and tre pel were
oxide reacts with silica, aluminum and iron oxides compared.
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV (2004) 1291.pdf

In the infrar ed spectra o f Mar tian s urfac e and Conc lus io ns. Martian dus t can be observed as
dust c an be noted t wo appreciabl e dist inct ive product o f physi cal and c hemical tr ansfo rmations
feature s. Adsorptio n increases by a ste p in t he of the ancient Martian sedimentary deposits. They
interval approximately from 1250 cm-1 or 1000 could be formed in seas and lake s the n may be
cm-1 and furt her up to 400 cm -1 . Such trans forme d during the rmal processes [5],
characteristic spectra bright regions of Mars have. processes of hydrati on, de hydrati on and
The "steps" increasing o f abso rpti on is not destruc tio n. Mart ian dust and soil inc lude vario us
observed in s pectra o f ic e and clouds. Infr ared products of destruc tio n of surf ace materials. And it
spectra of Martian dark surface and Martian dust can incl ude also signi fic ant amounts o f si nter ed
show the smoo th peak o f abso rpti on near 910 cm -1 products similar to clinker silicates.
[4]. And specific is also a bimodal distribution in In connectio n with pre sence of sulfates [6] it
peaks of abso rpti on (spectr a of Hebe s Chasma, will be probable the fast cementation with creating
Syrti s Majo r) on a background of "step" increasing of crusts in places where water condensates.
absorpti on. Creating of cement crusts can occur on surfaces in
Infrared spectra of cement and c alci um places with gradient of temperatures.
silicates have the smooth peak of absorption with a Thus Martian dust , may be, i s colored ceme nt
maximum 910 cm -1 about. The spectr al cur ve is dust t hat can c ause fail ures of landi ng apparatus .
almost symmetric in the range 700 1250 cm-1 .
Hydrated clinke r si lic ates have no sharp peaks of Sig nature s of l ife . Sedimentary depo sit s of
OH-oscillations, characteristic for spectra of lakes and seas acc umulate subst ances in specific
micas. The shape of OH-absorpti on in hydrate d compos iti on and high ho moge ny form that allow
silicates is stretched from 1000 cm-1 or 1250 cm-1 ther mal synthes is o f spe cif ic co mpounds . The
to side of long waves (similar to Palygorskite, for presence of such signature as clinker silicates or
example). Inter esting t hat mullite spectrum has two cements in the infrared spectra can help to specify
smooth peaks also: near 1100 and 900 cm-1 . the pas t of plane ts.
After heating and c alci natio ns (o n diffe rent
temperatures) of samples of sapropels (Grodno Acknowledements. I would like t o thank my
region, Bel arus) and tre pel ( Mogi lev re gion, adviser Prof. Bruce W. Hapke for advices,
Belarus) a set of products was received. Using an questio ns and long pat ienc e , and also my che f Prof.
infr ared s pectro scopy transmiss ion inst rume nt Markow P. I. for my free-thinki ng.
IRS-29 (FTIR) spectra of received products were
recorded. Infrar ed tr ansmission spectr a showed the References: [1] Pashenko A. A. et al. (1985)
appearanc e of new synthetic compounds during Knitting materials [2] Bell, J.F. et al. (2000) JGR,
high te mper ature (up to 1100 C) pro cessing of 105, 1721-1755. [3] Salisbury, J. et al. (1991)
samples. The infrared spectrum of calcinated trepel Infrared (2.1-25 microns) Spectra of Minerals. [4]
show the presence of calcium silicates and McSween H. Y Jr , Hamil ton V. E. and Hapke B. W.
hydrated silicates formed at contact with water (2003) LPS XXXIV #12 33 [5] Blaney D. L. (1998)
from air even. In received spectra the characteristic LPS XXIX, #1655. [6] Coo per C.D. and Mus tard
step-incr easing of abso rpti on (fro m Chri sti ansen J.F. (2003) LPSC XXXI, #1747.
feature to side of long waves) is observed.
Connected with oscillations of tetrahedral SiO4
(peak is ne ar 910 cm-1 ) the spectral feature of
calcium silicates appear in spectra of carbonates
sapro pels (Ant-lake) . Sapropels incl ude amor phous
silica that causes a similarity of their ashes spectra
to spectra of Martian dust that evidently show
ratios of spectra. However the most similar, on
shape and peaks posit ion, is a spectr um of the
product prepared arti fic iall y by processing of
tre pel. It inc ludes amor phous sil ica ( peaks near
1080 cm-1 ) and new sinte red compounds (weak
peak at 910 cm-1 ). Also computer simulations with
use of a set of transmission spectra select hydrated
compone nts, amo rphous sili ca and si lic ates of
calc ium for a mode led s pectrum of dust.