You are on page 1of 51

IMAGERY AND FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE ANALYSIS

ON ROBERT FROSTS POEMS:

TO EARTHWARD AND WIND AND WINDOW FLOWER

M. DAMANHURI
NIM. 106026001009

ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF ADAB AND HUMANITIES
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2011
IMAGERY AND FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE ANALYSIS

ON ROBERT FROSTS POEMS:

TO EARTHWARD AND WIND AND WINDOW FLOWER


A Thesis
Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
Strata One Degree (S1)

M. DAMANHURI
NIM. 106026001009

ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF ADAB AND HUMANITIES
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2011
ABSTRACT

M. Damanhuri, Imagery and Figurative Language Analysis on Robert Frosts


poems: To Earthward and Wind and Window Flower. Thesis. Jakarta: English
Letters Department, Faculty of Adab and Humanities, State Islamic University
Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

In this thesis, the writer focuses on the analysis of imagery and figurative
language in Robert Frost poems. They are To Earthward and Wind and Window
Flower. The writer uses descriptive qualitative analytic method. He analyses the
structure by reading the poem carefully and giving the attention for each line that
contains imageries and figurative languages. The writer uses the theory of
imagery and figurative of language to analyze the poem. By analyzing the
structure of the poem, the writer is able to define the meaning of the lines that
contain imageries and figurative language and their contribution to the meaning of
the poems.

The result of this study shows that Robert Frost uses imagery and
figurative language in his poems. There are many kinds of imagery and figurative
language in the poems. In To Earthward, there are only four imageries from seven
types of imageries. There are visual imagery, auditory imagery, olfactory
imageries, and organic imagery. Robert Frost uses hyperbole as figurative
language. In Wind and Window Flower, Robert Frost uses a visual imagery and
auditory imagery. Robert Frost also uses metaphor, personification, and hyperbole
as figurative language.

i
APPROVEMENT

IMAGERY AND FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE ANALYSIS


ON ROBERT FROSTS POEMS:
TO EARTHWARD AND WIND AND WINDOW FLOWER

A Thesis
Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
Strata One Degree (S1)

M. DAMANHURI
NIM. 106026001009

Approved by:
Advisor,

Elve Oktafiyani, M. Hum


NIP. 19781003 200112 2 002

ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT


LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2011

ii
LEGALIZATION

Name : M. Damanhuri

NIM : 106026001009

Title : Imagery and Figurative Language Analysis on Robert Frosts Poem

To Earthward and Wind and Window Flower

The thesis has been defended before the Faculty Letters and Humanities
Examination Committee on February 28th, 2011. It has been accepted as a partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of strata one.

Jakarta, March 18th, 2011

The Examination Committee

Signature Date

1. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M.Pd (Chair Person)


19640710 199303 1 600

2. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum (Secretary)


19781003 200112 2 002

3. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum (Advisor)


19781003 200112 2 002

4. Moh. Supardi, M.Hum (Examiner I)

5. Maria Ulfa, M.A.,M.Hum (Examiner II)

iii
ACKNOLEDGEMENT

First of all, the writer would like to give the most appreciation and many

thanks to Allah Swt., the lord of the universe and the thereafter. He is sure that he

can not do anything without Him. He guides us with all of His blessed in our life.

Then, peace and blessing is upon to our beloved prophet Muhammad Saw and all

of his followers.

The writer would like to express his highest gratitude to all his family, and

special for his parent H.Damai Arimaya and Hj. Fatmah for giving spirits that

makes his strong and always give the writer prayer and motivation (I love you

mom, I love you dad). To his beloved siblings (Nana, Lia, Nisa, Ucok) for always

make him laugh and entertain him whenever he was down and also special his

beloved person, Azizatul Hamidiyah, for all inspiration, motivation, spirit and

joking that will never forget and replaceable.

The writer can not fail to mention his advisor Mrs. Elve Oktafiyani, M.

Hum for her great patients and contributions in finishing this paper. He thanks for

all of her advices that have been given to him; may Allah Swt blessing her and her

family.

The writer also wishes to say her gratitude to the following persons:

1. Dr.Wahid Hasyim, MA, the Dean of Faculty of Letters and Humanities

State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

2. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M.Pd, the Head of English Letters Department.

v
3. Mrs. Elve Oktafiyani, M. Hum as the Secretary of English Letters

Department.

4. All lecturers of English Letters Department for taught and educated him

very well during his study at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

5. For all his beloved closed friends: Novita Sari Dewi Emon Prawiradireja,

Lia Fadhilah, Phatya Sopic Nilam and Nurul MbayuKhasanah for all

supports and motivations for him. He knows that they were the best that he

ever had in his life; friendship forever.

6. All of her beloved friends at English Letters Department: Anila Emak

Safitri, Adnan Tulang Rosyid, Cahya, Zainal Muttaqin, Nanang, Lorania,

Irul, Reza, Sujad Bil Ghoram, Badriduja, Trisno, Arni Aviah, Dian

Rahmawati, Puspa Mega, Resmita 45 Siska, Tuti qiqi Zakiyah, Indah

Ponika, Zhoya, Arif Budi Djarwo Winarto, Icha, Nadya, Linda, Ninda,

Sri, jeng Elin, Jay, Ayung, Rosyid, Tirta, Mira, Anggi, etc., for struggling

with him until the end.

7. All of his friends in Bu Rashids Lodging House; special for Fauzi Choiri

Ridwan, Nurkholis Azizi, Ali Khumaeni, Helmy Hidayat, Aris Jamet

Aristiani, for the motivation, togetherness and friendship.

8. All members of UKM BAHASA FLAT

Finally, may Allah gives His blesses to us, amien.

Jakarta, 11 February 2011

The writer

vi
TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................... i

APPROVEMENT .......................................................................................... ii

LEGALIZATION .......................................................................................... iii

DECLARATION ........................................................................................... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................ v

TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................ viii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION............................................................ 1

A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Focus of Study . 5

C. Research Question 5

D. Significance of the Study . 5

E. Research Methodology 5

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ............................... 8

A. Imagery . 8

B. Kinds of Imagery 9

1. Visual Imagery ................................................................ 9

2. Auditory Imagery .. 10

3. Tactile Imagery 11

4. Olfactory Imagery 11

5. Gustatory Imagery 12

6. Organic Imagery 12

vii
7. Kinesthetic Imagery 13

C. Figurative Language .. 13

CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDING 19

A. Data Description 19

1. The Poem of To Earthward .. 19

2. The Poem of Wind and Window Flower .. 22

B. Analysis data 24

1. Imagery in To Earthward . 24

2. Figurative Language in To Earthward 30

3. Imagery in Wind and Window Flower . 31

4. Figurative Language in Wind and Window Flower ... 34

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 36

A. Conclusion . 36

B. Suggestion . 37

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................... 38

APPENDIX

viii
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Poetry is the universal language used by the poets to express their ideas in

beautiful words.1 As a universal language, poetry has existed almost in all period.

Poetry is a unique medium of communication, it is created in the form of a brief

language, and it is differs from other literary works.

Etymologically, the word 'poetry' in the Greek comes from poesis, which

means making or creates. In English, poetry is closely with poet and poem.

The word poet comes from Greek; which means make or create. In Greek, the

word poet means the person who creates through his imagination, a person who

almost seems as god or like to god. People who are perspicacious, saints, who was

also a philosopher, statesman, teacher, someone who can guess the truth is

hidden.2

Poetry (Dutch: poezie,) is flow of sense expression out from heart into a

language that has rhythmic and a value of beauty. Language used by a poet as a

tool to record their surrounding life and described it to a poetry.3 To some people,

1
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P.P.,Sound And Sense: An Introduction to Poetry Eight
Edition.(Orlando : Harcourt Brace College Publisher,1992), p.3
2
Ulysses Ronquilo, Puisi, http://www.definisi dan unsur-unsurnya.htm, 2009. p.1 (Accessed on
September 20th,2010)
3
Sapardi Djoko Damono, Susastra 5: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra dan Budaya, (Depok: 2007), p.4

1
2

poetry is difficult to be understood. This is because the power of language is

arranged by concentration of the physical and mental structures that contain very

deep meanings and need role of the heart to understand and comprehend the

meaning.

The strength of poetry is composed by intensification process and process of

imagination (imagery). In intensification process, the elements of poetry try to

reach a problem or something more profound or fundamental, and the imagination

process, in which all the elements in the poem has a function to create or build an

image or a particular image. The sound and rhyme, the connection of the lyrics

(lines) with other lyrics or a stanza with another stanza, and the choice of words

and idioms have function to build a particular imagination or picture that suggests

the poem. Then, the imagination gives a whole meaning to a poem.

In poetry, the image or picture is a representation of words or something that

the writer feels. Imagery is a composite of word that we use for various imaging.

The picture can be an object that can be seen, hearing, smell, taste, touch or

physical sensation, or feeling of tension and movement in the body. 4

According to Altenberd, imagery is the images of idea or thoughts and

language that describe it. Imagery is a tool to understand the poetic, and of course

we must understand the word used by the writer. Each imagination expressed by

the writers with the right words.5

4
Richard Ellemann and Robert Oclair, Modern Poems, An Introduction to Poetry: ( W.W.Norton
and Company, Inc, 1999). p.60
5
Ahmad Badrun, Pengantar Ilmu Sastra, (Surabaya: Usaha Nasional,2000), p.54
3

The imagery and figurative language can be seen in a poem written by

Robert Frost entitled To Earthward. Robert Lee Frost was born in San Francisco,

March 26, 1874 and died in Boston, January 29, 1963. He was one of America's

leading 20th-century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. An

essentially pastoral poet often associated with rural New England, Frost wrote

poems whose philosophical dimensions transcend any region. Although his verse

forms are traditional - he often said, in a dig at arch rival Carl Sandburg, that he

would as soon play tennis without a net as write free verse - he was a pioneer in

the interplay of rhythm and meter and in the poetic use of the vocabulary and

inflections of everyday speech. His poetry is thus traditional and experimental.6

Frosts sailed for the United States in February 1915 and landed in New

York City two days after the U.S. publication of North of Boston (the first of his

books to be published in America). Sales of that book and of A Boy's Will enabled

Frost to buy a farm in Franconia, N.H.; to place new poems in literary periodicals

and publish a third book, Mountain Interval (1916); and to embark on a long

career of writing, teaching, and lecturing. In 1924, he received a Pulitzer Prize in

poetry for New Hampshire (1923). He was lauded again for Collected Poems

(1930), A Further Range (1936) and A Witness Tree (1942). Over the years he

received an unprecedented number and range of literary, academic, and public

honors.7

6
R.H. Winnick, Biography of Robert Frost, http://www.americanpoem.com.html, 2000. p.1
(Accessed on September 20th, 2010)
7
Ibid., p.1 (Accessed on September 20th, 2010)
4

Frost's importance as a poet derives from the power and memorable of

particular poems. The Death of the Hired Man (from North of Boston) combines

lyric and dramatic poetry in blank verse. After Apple-Picking (from the same

volume) is a free-verse dream poem with philosophical undertones. Mending Wall

(also published in North of Boston) demonstrates Frost's simultaneous command

of lyrical verse, dramatic conversation, and ironic commentary. The Road Not

Taken, Birches (from Mountain Interval) and the oft-studied Stopping by Woods

on a Snowy Evening (from New Hampshire) exemplify Frost's ability to join the

pastoral and philosophical modes in lyrics of unforgettable beauty. 8

Robert Frost said, Every poem I wrote is figurative in two senses. It will

have figures in it, of course; but its also a figure in itself- a figure for something,

and its made so that you can get more that one figure out of it. 9Referring to the

definition above, the writer interested to analyze imagery and figurative language

used on two poems by Robert Frost, they are: To Earthward and Wind and

Window Flower.

8
Ibid., P.1(Accessed on September 20th,2010)
9
Anonymous, the poetic of Robert frost http://www.frost friend.org/figurative.html, 2004. p.1
(Accessed on September 20th,2010)
5

B. Focus of the Study

In doing this research, the writer focuses on the analysis of the intrinsic

element of poem; they are imagery and figurative language in Robert Frosts

poem, To Earthward (1923) and Wind and Window Flower (1913).

C. Research Question

Based on the explanation above, the research question is formulated as follow:

1. What are the imagery and figurative language described in poems Robert

Frosts poems with the titles To Earthward and Wind and Window Flower?

And what are their meanings?

D. Significance of Study

This research is expected to increase the reader's knowledge about literary

particularly in poetry and to provide accurate information about the imagery and

the figurative language in the poems of Robert Frost.

E. Research Methodology

a. The Objective of Research

The purposes of this research is to know and understand kinds of imagery

and figurative language in two poems of the Robert Frost, To Earthward

(1923) and Wind and Window flower (1913) in order to understand the

poems.
6

b. Research Methods

In this research, the writer uses qualitative method with the analytic-

descriptive writing method. He analyses the unit analysis by using every

reference related to the study and then describe imagery and figurative

language contained in the poem.

c. Technique of Data Analysis

In this study, the writer uses a qualitative analysis technique. The analysis

is based on the methods and relevant theories or approaches. The writer

classifies several lines of the poems that have imagery and figurative

language and then the writer analyzes and explains them.

d. Instrument of the Research

The instrument of this research is the writer himself. The writer reads two

poems of Robert Frost and analyzes kinds of imagery and figurative language

of the poems.

e. Analysis Unit

The unit of analysis in this research is Robert Frosts poems entitled: To

Earthward (taken from: Robert Frost, To Earthward Volume, published by

New Hampshire in 1923) and Wind and Window Flower (taken from: Robert

Frost, Wind and Window Flower, published by A boys will in 1913).


7

f. Time and Place Research

This research was conducted on 8th semester, 2010 in English letters

department, Adab and Humanities Faculty of State Islamic University Syarif

Hidayatullah Jakarta.
CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Imagery

According to Steven Croft and Hellen Cross, an image is a language use in

such a way as to help us to see, hear, feel, thing about or generally understand

more clearly or vividly what is being said or the impression that the writer wishes

to convey.1

Siswantoro explains that imagery can be meant as a mental picture, a

picture, portrait or picture illusion created as a result of a reader's reaction in

understanding the poem. Imagery emerges as a process to continue imagism

developing an active reader to find explicit meanings in the text. To find the

imagery, the readers must have good readings supported by the mastery of

vocabulary, grammar, and cultural aspects. The readers have to be aware that the

text is not our language, so we must adjust with enthusiasm the other text.

Because of that the readers will be able to understand imagery by having a good

participant with cognitive and emotional.2

Laurence Perrine and Thomas explain that the word image perhaps most

often suggest a mental picture, something sense in the minds eye. Therefore

visual imagery is the kind of imagery that occurs most frequently in poetry. An

image also represents a sound (auditory imagery); a smell (olfactory imagery); a

taste (gustatory imagery); touch, such as hardness, softness, wetness, or heat and

1
Steven Croft and Hellen Cross, Literature, Criticism, and Style. (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2000), p.56
2
Siswantoro, Apreasi Puisi-Puisi Sastra. (Surkarta: Muhammadiyah University Press, 2002), p.49
1
8
2

cold (tactile imagery); an internal sensation, such as hunger, thirst, fatigue, or

nausea (organic imagery); or movement or tension in the muscles or joints

(kinesthetic imagery).3

Imagery usually calls a mental picture in a poem, where the readers can

experience what the poem says. Essentially the true meaning of a poem lies in

the total effect that it has upon the readers. Very often that effect stimulates a

response which is not just a reaction to what poet has to say, but which draws on

the readers intellectual and emotional experience. Imagery can be of central

importance in creating this response within the readers.4

The image function is: to provide a clear picture, to create a special

atmosphere, making life images and thoughts and senses and also to attract the

readers to poetry.5

B. Kinds of Imagery

1. Visual Imagery

Ahmad Badrun explains that visual imagery is an imagery which relates to

the visual imagination and it is a kind of imagery that appears mostly in the poem

because almost words represented in the poem are basically seeable. Sometimes,

that seen in the mind eye which called by sight effect. Without visual imagery, a

poem may hard to produce. For example:

Continuous as the stars that shine


And twinkle on the Milky Way
They stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay
3
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P.P. op.cit, p.49
4
Steven Croft and Hellen Cross, op.cit., p.56
5
Ahmad Badrun, Pengantar Ilmu Sastra, (Surabaya: Usaha Nasional, 2000), p.54
3

Then thousand saw I at glance


Tossing their heads in sprightly dance

in our imagination, appear the daffodil stretches along line like the start that

shine on the Milky Way. The daffodils stretched in never ending line along the

margin of a bay. 6

2. Auditory imagery

Auditory imagery is an imagery which relates to the auditory. This image

represents sounds like words buzzing, tinkling, chiming and others related to

the sound. This imagery is developed by the poet to make an auditory imaginative

in poem. The auditory imagery that evokes in poem is not like auditory

perception. It means, when the reader reads it, he only fell the sense of hearing but

not really hearing in purpose. For example:

Hear the sledges with the bells


With silver bell!
What a world of merriment their melody foretells!
How they are tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,

The speaker invites us to hear the bells. The silver bells not iron or the copper

bells, it makes the bell more melodious, then the start follows the bell jingle. The

reader can feel strong sense of hearing in this poem.7

3. Tactile imagery

Tactile imagery is an imagery which relates to tactile sense such as cold

and warm. This imagery has relationship with the temperature like heat and cold

or our touch sense. For example:


6
Ibid., p. 52
7
Ibid., p. 53
4

A dungeon horrible, on all sides round,


As one great furnace flamed

These two simple lines bring the reader to fell the heat of hell, which is described

like as dungeon. We will fell stuffy and tight, then all wall around the dungeon

feel like a great furnace flamed. 8

4. Olfactory imagery

Olfactory imagery is an imagery which relates to olfactory or smelling

sense like fragrant, unpleasant smell and the others related to the aroma. For

example in Robert Frost poem Out Out:

The buzz-saw snarled and rattled in the yard


And made dust and dropped stove-length sticks of wood,
Sweet-scented stuff when the breeze drew across it.

In the first line, the speaker invites the reader to hear the buzz-saw snarled which

is rattled in the yard. Then, in the second line, the readers will see the dust and

dropped stove-length sticks of wood. Finally, in line three this are made a sweet-

scented when the wind blew across it. Olfactory imagery appears in the third line,

and the first and the second line which were contained as a way to bring the reader

to feel smell sense in this poetry. 9

5. Gustatory imagery

8
Ibid., p. 55
9
Ibid., p. 54
5

Gustatory imagery is an imagery which relates to the taste 10 such as sweet

and briny and others related to the flavor. For example: She is as sweet as red

apple, the word Apple represent sweet taste to our imagination.

6. Organic imagery

Organic imagery is an imagery which relates to internal sensation of

human body such hunger, thirst, pain, etc. for example:

O where have ye been, Lord randal, my son?


O where have ye been, my handsome young man?
I here been to the wild wood; mother, make my bed soon,
For Im weary will hunting, and fain wald lie down.

Where gat ye your dinner, Lord randal, my son?


Where gat your dinner, my handsome young man?
I dined will my true-love; mother, make my bed soon,
For Im weary will hunting, and fain wald lie down.

We can feel how weary Lord Randal is and how he wants to lie down! we

can feel it through the question asked by his mother to him such as in line ..O

where have ye been, Lord Randal, my son but the Lord Randal just say ..i

dined will my true love;, mother, make my bed soon, For Im weary will hunting,

and fain wald lie down. These lines describe how tired Lord Randal is! This

imagery that is built by speaker calls our imagination up to feel as same as the

speaker.11

7. kinesthetic imagery

Kinesthetic imagery conveys a sense of movement or tension in the muscles

or joints. In the ghost house could be studied how the poet describes the

10
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P.P. op.cit, p.49
11
Ahmad Badrun , op cit, p. 54
6

kinesthetic imagery. The statement the black bats tumble and dart impress us

about it sense of movement or tension in the muscle or joints.12

C. Figurative language

Figure of speech is the way to use language that says the power and

appeal, or both of them added.13 Figure of speech can increase or give the effects

and cause certain connotations. Figurative language causes poetry became

prismatic, its means that poetry will present a lot of meaning or rich in meaning.

Figurative also called figure of speech. Figurative language or figure of speech is

a word or group of words used to give particular emphasis on an idea or

sentiment. The special emphasis is typically accomplished by the users conscious

deviation from the strict literal sense of a word, on from the more commonly used

from of word order or sentence construction. Figure of speech is any way of

saying something other than the ordinary way 14, so we can say more by these

figurative statement rather than literal statement. Figure of speech offers another

way of adding extra dimension to language. There are many kinds of Figure of

Speech:

a) Metaphor

According to Barnet a metaphor asserts the identity, without a connective

such as like or a verb such as appears, of a term that are literally

12
Ibid., p. 54
13
Jakob Sumardjo dan Saini K.M, Apreasi Kesusastraan. (Jakarta: Gramedia, 1986), p.127
14
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P.P, op.cit. p.61
7

incompatible.15 According to Perrine metaphor is a figure of speech in which

comparison is made between two things essentially unlike. The principle of

metaphor is to compare two things unlike but have same quality.16 Metaphor like

a simile that is to comparison, but in metaphor does not use as or like to

create the comparison. Often the metaphor actually describes the subject being the

thing to which it is compared.17 Those are some definition of metaphor. Those

definitions explain that metaphor is figure of speech that compare two different

things directly without use a connective word such as like, as, if, similar to, etc.

for example in A red, red rose poem by Robert Burns :

Oh, my love is a red, red rose.18

He was comparing the word (my love) to a red rose. He did not say, Oh, my love

is like a red, red rose, but stated the comparison directly: oh, my love is a red,

red rose.

b) Simile

Like a metaphor, simile also compares two different things, but it uses a

connective word. According to Perrine simile is a figure of speech used to

compare two different things. In a simile the comparison is expressed by use of

15
Barnet, Silvian, Berman, Morton, and burto, William., An Introduction to Literature, (United
States of America: 1961), p. 63
16
Sapardi Djoko Damono, Bilang Begini, Maksudnya Begitu, Buku Apresiasi Sastra, (Ciputat :
2010), p.56
17
Croft, Steven and Cross Hellen, loc. cit. p. 56
18
XJ Kennedy and Dana Gioia., An Introduction to Poetry Eleventh Edition. (Longman, Pearson.
2005), p.121
8

some word or phrase, such as like, as, than, similar to, resembles, or seem 19. The

similar definition said that simile is figure of speech in which a comparison is

expressed by the specific use a word or phrase such as: like, as, than, seems or as

if. for example:

And life is too much like a pathless wood


Where your face burns and tickles with the cobwebs
Broken across it, and one eye is weeping
From a twigs having lashed across it open
(Frost, Birches)20

c) Personification

Personification comes from the Latin persona (of people, actors, actor) and

fie (create). That's why when we use personification; we use characteristic or

personal qualities of the object. Personification is a type of metaphor in which

distinct human qualities, e.g., honesty, emotion, volition, tec., are attributed to an

animal, object or idea. This definition similar to Perrine explanation, that

personification consists in giving the attribute of human being to an animal, an

object or a concept. It is a really a subtype of metaphor, an implied comparison in

which the figurative term of the comparison is always a human being. 21

Personification occur when poet attribute an inanimate object or abstract idea with

human qualities or actions. For example, when Shakespeare asks, in a sonnet:

O! how shall summers honey breath hold out


Against the wreckful siege of battring days,

19
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P, loc.cit. p.61
20
Richard Ellemann and Robert Oclair, loc.cit. p.61
21
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P, op cit, p.64
9

How can a breath confront the battering ram of an invading army? But it is

summers breath and, by giving it to summer, Shakespeare makes the season a

man or woman.22

d) Hyperbole

Hyperbole is a figure of speech that is in intentional exaggeration for

emphasis or comic effect. 23 According to Perrine, overstatement or hyperbole is a

simply exaggeration, but exaggeration in the service of truth.24According to

Kennedy, hyperbole or overstatement can be used also for humorous purposes.

For example in Robert Frost line:

One could do worse than be a swinger of birches

The conclusion of the poem that has suggested that to swing on a birch

tree is one of the most deeply satisfying activities in the world.25

e) Apostrophe

Apostrophe is a way of addressing someone or something invisible or not

ordinarily spoken to. In apostrophe, a poet may address an inanimate object, some

dead or absent person, an abstract thing, or a spirit. The poet uses apostrophe to

announce a lofty and serious tone.26According to Perrine, closely related to

personification is apostrophe, which consists in addressing someone absent or

22
XJ Kennedy and Dana Gioia., loc cit, p.128
23
Croft, Steven and Cross Hellen, loc cit, p. 57
24
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P, op.cit, p.101
25
XJ Kennedy and Dana Gioia., loc cit, p.130
26
Ibid., p. 129
10

something nonhuman as if that person or thing were present and alive and could

reply to what is being said. For example:27

Western wind, when wilt thou blow


The small rain down can rain
Christ! If my love were in my arms,
And I in my bed again

f) Litotes

Litotes is opposite from hyperbole, is a figure of speech that contains a

statement that the small-reduce, reduced from the actual reality. Usually used to

servile. Litotes is kind of understatement where the speaker uses negative of a

word ironically, to mean the opposite. For example: She is not the friendliest

person I know. (It means that she is an unfriendly person).28

g) Irony

Irony has a meaning that extends beyond its use merely as a figure of

speech.29 There are three kind of irony: Verbal Irony is a figure of speech when an

expression used is the opposite of the thought in the speakers mind, thus

conveying a meaning that contradicts the literal definition. Dramatic irony is a

literary or theatrical device of having character utter words which the reader or

audience understands to have a different meaning, but of which the character

himself is unaware. in dramatic irony, the discrepancy is not between what the

speaker says and what the speaker means but between what the speaker says and

27
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P, loc cit, p.56
28
Anonymous, litotes, http://usingenglish.com/glossary/litotes.html. p.1 ( Accessed on August 10th,
2010)
29
Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P, loc cit, p.104
11

what the poem means. Irony of the situation is when a situation occurs which is

quite the reverse of what one might have expected. For example, when a character

says to another: "I'll love you until I die!"30

30
Ibid., p.104
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH FINDINGS

To make a better literary competence in this research, the writer uses the

descriptive analysis objective approach, to describe and analyze the intrinsic

element that was used by Robert Frost, in order to have a good understanding

about the meanings of the poems. This chapter discusses about kinds of imagery

and figurative language, their meanings, and the explanation of the kind of

imagery and figurative language that appears in Robert Frosts To Earthward and

Wind and Window flower.

A. Data Description

1. The Poem of To Earthward

To Earthward is one of Robert Frost poems. This poem was published

in 1923. The poem consists of eight stanzas of four lines each. The poem splits in

the middle, temporally at least. The first four stanzas are about the past told about

what the speaker feel at the youth. The latter four stanzas are about the present,

what the speaker feels and believe "now".

The speakers described his experience with love, when he was young, all

things that were sweet: kisses, scents in the air (honeysuckle, musk and more), the

feel of a rose petal. Those sweet things were too much for him and make him like

lived on air. He was able to live off the scents in the air and gets the sense of a

young romantic intoxicated by the pretty, pleasant things of life.

1
19
2

"Now" are references to all about things that are salty in the poem that the

speakers feel. References to taste opposites (sweet vs. salty) are entirely

intentional, as the poet works uses all of his senses. Hes including smell, taste,

touch and sound as well. The speaker described when the happiness of love was

lost. He feels no jot like before and something lack salt to him. The salt of tears is

appears as the aftermath of having loved too much. The smell that he feels before

like the sweet smell of honeysuckle and musk now changed and felt like smell of

bitter bark and burnt cloves.

The speaker sits on the ground, his hand pressed flat to the earth, leaning

heavily on his arm, wrist flexed. When he stands, the pain and soreness he feels is

not enough for him; he wishes he could feel the roughness of the earth along the

full length of his body. Now, pain does not diminish his pleasure - and, in fact,

pain appears to contribute to his pleasure.


3

(1) Table list of Imageries found in To Earthward

Types of
No Phrases Stanza Line Words
imagery

1. Down hill at dusk 2 8 Dusk


Visual Imagery
2. The petal of the rose 4 15 Rose

3. As sweet as I could bear; 1 2 Sweet

That crossed me from sweet


4. 2 5 Sweet
things

I craved strong sweets, but Gustatory Imagery


5. 4 13 Sweets
those

6. Now no joy but lacks salt 5 17 Salt

7. The sweet of bitter bark 6 23 Sweet

8. The flow of -was it musk 2 6 Musk

9. from sprays of honeysuckle 3 10 Honeysuckle Olfactory Imagery


10. And burning clove 6 24 Burning clove

11. That is not dashed with pain 5 18 Pain


Organic Imagery
12 The hurt is not enough 8 29 Hurt

(II) Table list of figure of speech in To Earthward

No Sentence/ Statement Stanza Line Figure of speech


And once that seemed too
1. much; 1 3-4
I lived on air Hyperbole

2. To feel the earth as rough 8 31 - 32


To all my length
4

2. The Poem of Wind and Window Flower

Wind and Window Flower is one of Robert Frost poems. This poem was

published in 1913. The poem consists of seven stanzas of four lines each. Wind

and Window Flower is a story of a man who falls in love with a woman who is to

different from himself and has his heart broken when she will not return his love.

The speaker described to the Lovers, forget your love for an instance, and listen to

the love of these two people. The characters in the poem are a Winter Breeze and

a Window Flower. The man is the Winter Breeze. This man is a man who comes

and goes; you never know exactly when he is coming or when he is going. He has

a cold presence to him. The woman is the Window Flower. This woman is a

mature, pretty, and warm woman. She is in full bloom, which means she has

experienced love, and she is now ready for romance.

(II1) Table list of Imageries found in Wind and Window Flower

Types of
No Phrases Stanza Line Words
imagery

Window
1. 1 3 Visual Imagery
She a window flower Flower

When the frosty window


2. veil 2 5-6 Melted Down
Was melted down at
noon
3. And the caged yellow 2 7 Yellow
bird

4. He marked her through 3 9 Pane


5

the pane

He was a winter wind, 4


5. 13-14 Ice and Snow
Concerned with ice and
snow,
And the caged yellow 2 Auditory
6. 7-8 Tune
bird
Imagery
Hung over her in tune,

(IV) Table list of figure of speech in Wind and Window Flower

No Sentence/ Statement Stanza Lines Figure of speech

1 She a window flower 1 3

2 And he a winter wind 1 4


Metaphor
3 4 13
He was a winter wind,

4 And the caged yellow bird 2 7-8


Hung over her in tune,
5 But he signed upon the sill 5 17
Personification
6 But the flower leaned aside 7 25

7 A hundred miles away 7 28 Hyperbole


6

B. The Analysis of Data

In analyzing the data, the writer analyzes imageries and figure of speech

which are found in several lines to understand the meanings of the poems. The

writer also will identify the words or phrases can build the imageries and figure of

speech in this poem.

1. Imagery in To Earthward

a) Visual imagery

The writer found the visual imagery in the second stanza, line 8:

The low of was it musk


From hidden grapevine springs,
Down hill at dusk?

From the above phrases, the writer identifies those lines as a visual

imagery. The phrases From hidden grapevine springs, Down hill at dusk? is an

utterance which invites the readers to use their sight senses organ to understand

the speakers idea and it deals with visual imagery that recreates our minds eyes.

This line described about the flow of musk from hidden grapevine in the spring.

The next line, down hill at dusk, describes about when the flow of musk

happen. This line contains visual imagery because this line brings the readers to

see the image of the flow of musk that down hill at dusk.

From the two lines of visual imagery above, the writer finds the picture of

the flow of musk that down hill at dusk from hidden grapevine spring. In these

lines, Frost builds imagery by literal imagery. He uses daily words to shows what

he wants to tell us about the flow of musk.


7

In the fourth stanza, line 15:

The petal of the rose


It was that stung

From the above phrase, the writer identifies those lines as a visual

imagery. The phrase The petal of the rose describes about how the petal of the

rose that was stung. The writer considers that the petal of the rose can be

classified into visual imagery. This line describes about something beautiful and

many people like a rose. This line also brings the readers to see the image petal of

the rose, although rose is known as a beautiful flower, but it has thorn that can

wound.

From the two lines of visual imagery above, the writer finds the picture of

the petal of the rose. In these lines, Frost builds imagery by literal imagery. He

uses daily words to shows what he wants to tell us about the petal of the rose.

b) Gustatory imagery

The speaker uses a gustatory imagery in the beginning of the poem when

the speaker tries to give the readers imagination about what the speaker feels. This

is stated in the first stanza, line 1-4:

Love at the lips was touch


As sweet as I could bear;
And once that seemed too much;
I lived on air

By using gustatory imagery, the speaker tries to bring the readers into the

speakers taste. The speaker uses word Sweet to give imagination what the

speaker could taste when the love was touched by the lips. This line contains
8

gustatory imagery that describes what the speaker feels at the first, when love was

touch at the lips, he could felt sweet too much and make him like lived on air.

This line brings the readers to imagine the taste of sweet that the speaker feels in

the poem.

From the lines of gustatory imagery above, the speaker awakens by tasting

of sweet when love at the lips was touch; Frost builds imagery by literal imagery.

He uses daily words to show what he felt in the poem.

The speaker also describes the gustatory imagery in this poem by making

some images about taste, as in the second stanza, line 5:

That crossed me from sweet things,


The flow of - was it musk

From the above phrase, the writer analyzes them as gustatory imagery. The

word that shows a gustatory imagery in this line is represented by the word

sweet, it means that our imagery is built by that word and the speaker guides the

readers to imagine what the speaker feels in this poem that is sweet.

In the fourth stanza line 13, the speaker also uses gustatory imagery to

describe about taste in this poem. The speaker feels strong sweet when he was

young:

I craved strong sweets, but those


Seemed strong when I was young;

From the above phrase, the writer analyzes this as gustatory imagery. The

word that shows a gustatory imagery in this line is represented by the word
9

sweet that means that the word guides the readers to imagine the taste of sweet

as the speaker feels in this poem.

The speaker also uses gustatory imagery in the fifth stanza, line 17 which

is also described about taste in this poem:

Now no joy but lacks salt

The above phrase impresses us about the taste of salt as the speaker feel

now no joy and lack salt to him. It can be classified into gustatory imagery. The

word that contains a gustatory imagery in this line is represented by the word

salt, which brings the readers to imagine of what the speaker feels in this poem.

Then, the speaker also uses gustatory imagery in the sixth stanzas, line 23:

The sweet of bitter bark


And burning clove

The phrase of The sweet of bitter bark and burning clove show the taste

of sense, these lines contain gustatory imagery that described about something

dislike, the speaker feels the taste sweet of bitter bark and burning clove. It

happens because love too much to his girlfriend. When he feels the pain, the

happiness is lost and he feels the sweet of bitter bark and burning clove.

c) Olfactory imagery

Olfactory imagery can also be seen in the poem in the second stanzas, line

six:

The flow of - was it musk


from hidden grapevine spring
10

The above phrase shows that the speaker uses his smell sense to describe

the event that he caught and translated it to his smell sense. The word that shows

olfactory imagery in this line is represented by the word musk. This line

contains olfactory imagery that described about smell sense of musk. This line

brings the readers to smell the aroma of musk that flow from hidden grapevine

spring.

Furthermore, olfactory imagery is also found in the third stanzas, line 10:

I had the swirl and ache


from sprays of honeysuckle

The writer identifies that the above phrase is to describe the speakers

smell sense. The word that shows olfactory imagery in this line is represented by

the word honeysuckle. This line contains olfactory imagery that describes about

smell sense of honeysuckle. This line brings the readers to smell the aroma of the

spray of honeysuckle.

Finally, the writer also identified that the phrase And burning clove, in

the six stanza line 24 used by the speaker to described his smell sense. The

speaker invites the readers to feel the aroma of burning clove, so it can be

classified into olfactory imagery. This line contains olfactory imagery that

described about smell sense of burning clove. This line brings the readers to smell

the aroma of burning clove that produced unpleasant aroma.


11

d) Organic imagery
Organic imagery also can be found in Robert Frosts poem To Earthward,

For example, in the fifth stanza, line 18:

Now no joy but lacks salt


That is not dashed with pain

The above phrase shows an organic imagery is represented by word

pain. That is called an organic imagery because it uses internal feeling or

internal sensation. The speaker invites the readers to imagine what he feels now

no joy and lack salt fully with pain. These lines contain organic imagery that

describes about the pain that the speaker feel in the poem. He feels no joy and

everything lacks salt. These lines show the pain of the speaker after he feels no

joy and lack salt to him. This imagery that is built by the speaker calls our

imagination to get his feeling.

Another organic imagery is in the eighth stanza, line 29:

The hurt is not enough:


I long for weight and strength

Based on the writer identification, the phrases above are classified into

organic imagery, because these phrases build up internal sensation. The word

which shows organic imagery is hurt. The speaker invites the readers to imagine

what he feels. He feels hurt but it is not enough. These lines describe the hurt of

the speaker after he feels no joy again and lack salt. This imagery that is built by

the speaker calls our imagination up to feel the speakers feeling.


12

2. Figurative language in To Earthward

a) Hyperbole

In the first stanza, the speaker use hyperbole to describe his feeling.

Love at the lips was touch

As sweet as I could bear


And once that seemed too much;
I lived on air

From the phrases above, the speaker exaggerates his feeling of love by

using the word sweet and too much and make him like lived on air. The

speaker uses hyperbole by the words I lived on air. In fact, the speaker lives on

the earth but his feeling makes him like lived on air. The writer argues that

hyperbole used to make an effect of exaggeration in the poem. This means he

feels sweet when love at the lips was touch, and once seemed too much for him,

and it makes him like lived on air.

In the last stanza, the speaker also uses hyperbole; by using the words to

all my length, as can be seen in the following stanza.

The hurt is not enough:


I long for weight and strength
To feel the earth as rough
To all my length

From the phrases above, the speaker exaggerated what the speaker feel

about the earth as rough to all his length. The words that show hyperbole are

represented by to all my length. In fact, the speaker feels hurt not to all his

length. The writer argues that the hyperbole is used to make an effect of
13

exaggeration in the poem. This line contains hyperbole that exaggerated that he

feels the earth as rough to all his length.

3. Imagery in Wind and Window Flower

a) Visual Imagery

The writer finds the visual imagery in the first stanza, in the third line from

Robert Frosts Wind and Window Flower:

She a window flower

The phrase she a window flower describes about a woman (window

flower). The speaker invites the reader to see a window flower; the visual imagery

in this line is represented by the word window flower. This line brings the

readers to see the image of the window flower in the poem. This woman is

mature, pretty and warm woman.

The phrase above contains the visual imagery; in this case, the speaker

develops the visual imagery by using figurative language, metaphor. The speaker

makes a comparison between she and window flower. The readers can see the

image of window flower that described as a woman in this poem.

The visual imagery can also be found in the second stanza, line 5-6:

When the frosty window veil


Was melted down at noon

The above phrase shows that the speaker invites the readers to see about

the condition of the frosty window veil that was melted down at the noon. The

words that show visual imagery are melted down. These words guide the readers

to imagine that the frosty window veil that was melted down at noon. These lines
14

contain visual imagery that describe about how the frosty window veil was melted

down at the noon because affected by sunlight.

In the second stanza, line 7-8, Frost also uses visual imagery:

And the caged yellow bird


Hung over her in tune,

The visual imagery is described in this line by the word yellow, which

means that our imagination is built by that word. These lines contain visual

imagery that describes about the caged yellow bird hung over in her tune. These

lines bring the readers to see the image of the yellow bird hung over in her tune.

In the third stanza, line 9-10 Frost shows another visual imagery:

He marked her through the pane,


He could not help but mark

These lines contain visual imagery that described about the condition

when he (winter wind) come to window flower, but he just marked her through by

the pane and he could not help but just give a mark. These lines show visual

imagery by the word pane, which means that readers imagination are guided to

imagine he (winter wind) that gave a sign to window flower through the pane.

These lines bring the readers to see the image of winter wind when he cant do

anything; he only can give a sign to her (window flower) through the pane. He

also cant help her and just give a mark when he comes to window flower and

want to bring him outside.

The other visual imagery is in the fourth stanza, lines 13-14:

He was a winter wind,


Concerned with ice and snow,
15

The lines contain visual imagery that described about a man (winter wind).

The speaker invites the reader to see a winter wind that concerned with ice and

snow. The visual imagery in this line is represented by the words ice and snow.

This line brings the readers to see the image of the winter wind that concerned

with ice and snow.

The phrase above contains the visual imagery; in this case, the speaker

develops the visual imagery by using figurative language metaphor. The speaker

makes a comparison between he and winter wind. The readers can see the image

of winter wind that described as a man in this poem that concerned with ice and

snow. The writer can conclude that the visual imagery in this line is developed

using metaphor in developing it.

b) Auditory Imagery

Auditory imagery also can be found in Wind and Window Flower in the

second stanza line 7-8:

And the caged yellow bird


Hung over her in tune,

From the phrases above, the word tune shows auditory imagery which

means that our imagination of sound is built by that word. This line contains

auditory imagery that invites the readers to hear the sound of tune that produced

by the yellow bird that hung over in the caged.


16

4. Figurative language in Wind and Window Flower

a) Metaphor

In Wind and Window Flower poem, the speaker uses metaphor as in the

first stanza, line 3-4:

She a window flower


And he a winter wind

From the above phrases, the speaker uses metaphor in comparing two

things: she and window flower and he and winter wind. The speaker describes a

window flower as a woman and winter wind as a man. These phrases described

about a couple of sweetheart and they are love each other.

In line 7 of the poem, the speaker also uses metaphor:

And the caged yellow bird


Hung over her in tune

From the above phrases, the speaker used metaphor in comparing two

things, the flower compared to a caged yellow bird. The metaphor gives the

readers a sense that the window flower feels trapped, and this condition is like the

yellow birds condition that hung over in the caged

b) Personification

The speaker personifies a winter breeze in the fifth stanzas in the first line:

But he sighed upon the sill

Here, the speaker gives an attributing human being. The word he above

refers to Winter Breeze. The speaker describes the Winter Breeze sighed upon the

sill. The line that contains personification is represented by the phrase But he

sighed upon the sill.


17

Personification also appears in the last stanza in the first line:

But the flower leaned aside


And thought of naught to say

From the above phrase, the speaker gives an attribute of human being to

the flower. The speaker describes the flower leaned aside. The line that contains

personification is represented by the phrase but the flower leaned aside. Frost

uses personification by attributing the flower like a human being. Personification

is used to visualize the object (the flower) in human being. On the poem, Frost

gives attribute of human being to the flower as if it is human that could lean aside

and think about. The speaker describes about the flower leaned aside and thought

of naught to say.

c) Hyperbole

The writer also finds hyperbole in the last stanza. As we know, hyperbole

or overstatement is simply an exaggeration to get the greater effect.

And morning found the breeze


A hundred miles away

From the above phrases, the speaker exaggerates that morning found the

breeze a hundred miles away. The words that contain hyperbole are represented

by hundred miles. In fact, it is impossible that morning found the breeze in a

hundred miles away. The writer argues that hyperbole uses to make an effect of

exaggeration in the poem. By giving this exaggeration, the speaker tries to

describe when the morning comes; the breeze leaves the window flower.
CHAPTER 1V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. CONCLUSION

To understand the poem in detail, the readers have to know the elements in

the poem, such as intrinsic elements. Some important elements in a poem are

imagery and figurative language. Imagery refers to the picture that we perceive

with our minds eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and though we experience the

duplicate word created by poetic language. Imagery evokes the meaning and the

truth of human experiences not only in abstract term, as in philosophy, but also in

more perfectible and tangible forms. This is a device by which the poet makes his

meaning strong, clear and sure. The speaker uses sound word and word of color

and touch in strengthening figure of speech as well as to concrete detail that

appeal to the readers senses which are used to built up images.

Robert frosts poems with the title To Earthward and Wind and Window

Flower contain the deep meaning. Imagery in each poem is the developed from

word of choice that are concrete and specific. The speaker uses imagery in his

poem in order to make the readers feel the authors feeling in the poem.

The writer concludes that the imagery and figurative language in two

poems by Robert Frost describes every subject and activity in those poems. He

uses both literal and figurative imagery as a way in developing imagery.

1
2

There are only four imageries found in To Earthward from seven types of

imagery. They are visual imagery, auditory imagery, olfactory imagery, and

organic imagery. Robert frost also uses hyperbole as figurative language.

in Wind and Window Flower, Robert Frost uses a visual imagery and

auditory imagery as imagery. Robert frost also uses metaphor, personification and

hyperbole as figurative language in this poem.

B. SUGGESTIONS

Through this study, the writer suggests the readers who are interested in

studying about poetry, especially in Robert Frosts poems, to study and

understand his poems from different aspects such as explication, theme, tone and

mood, rime, etc. This because there are many other ideas and messages that can be

explained in the poems.

Finally, the writer hopes this thesis can give a positive contribution for the

readers who want to know the poem and help the readers to have better

understanding of the poem in literature study, especially for the students of

English letters department, letters and humanity faculty, state Islamic university of

Jakarta.
3

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barnet, Silvian, Berman, Morton, and Burto, William. An Introduction Literature,


United States of America: 1961.

Damono, Sapardi Djoko, Susastra 5: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra dan Budaya .Depok:
Himpunan Sarjana-Kesusastraan indonesia, 2007.
Damono, Sapardi Djoko, Bilang Begini, Maksudnya Begitu, Buku Apresiasi
Sastra, Ciputat: Editum, 2010.
Drs.Ahmad Badrun, Pengantar Ilmu Sastra, Surabaya: Usaha Nasional, 2000.

Farkhan, Muhammad, Penulisan karya ilmiah, Jakarta, Penerbit Cella, 2006.

Jakob Sumardjo dan Saini K.M.Apreasi Kesusastraan.Jakarta: Gramedia, 1986.

Kennedy, XJ and Gioia, Dana. An introduction to Poetry Eleventh Edition.


Longman, Pearson. 2005.

Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P.P, Sound And Sense: An Introduction to


Poetry Eight Edition.Orlando : Harcourt Brace College Publisher,1992.

Richard Ellemann and Robert Oclair, Modern Poems,An Introduction to Poetry:


w.w.Norton and company,inc.1999.
Steven Croft and Hellen Cross, Literature, Criticism, and Style. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000.

Siswantoro, Apreasi Puisi-Puisi Sastra. Surkarta:Muhammadiyah University


Press, 2002.

Ulysses ronquilo, Puisi, http://www.definisi dan unsur-unsurnya.htm, 2009.


(Accessed on September 20th, 2010)

Annymous, Litotes, http://usingenglish.com/glossary/litotes.html, 2009. (Accessed


on August 10th, 2010)

Anonymous, The Poetic of Robert Frost, http://www.frost


friend.org/figurative.html, 2004. (Accessed on September 20 th, 2010)

R.H. Winnick, Biography of Robert Frost, http://www.americanpoem.com.html,


2000. (Accessed on September 20th, 2010)

38
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barnet, Silvian, Berman, Morton, and Burto, William. An Introduction Literature,


United States of America: 1961.

Damono, Sapardi Djoko, Susastra 5: Jurnal Ilmu Sastra dan Budaya .Depok:
Himpunan Sarjana-Kesusastraan indonesia, 2007.
Damono, Sapardi Djoko, Bilang Begini, Maksudnya Begitu, Buku Apresiasi
Sastra, Ciputat: Editum, 2010.

Drs.Ahmad Badrun, Pengantar Ilmu Sastra, Surabaya: Usaha Nasional, 2000.

Farkhan, Muhammad, Penulisan karya ilmiah, Jakarta, Penerbit Cella, 2006.

Jakob Sumardjo dan Saini K.M.Apreasi Kesusastraan.Jakarta: Gramedia, 1986.

Kennedy, XJ and Gioia, Dana. An introduction to Poetry Eleventh Edition.


Longman, Pearson. 2005.

Laurence Perrine and Thomas R.A.P.P, Sound And Sense: An Introduction to


Poetry Eight Edition.Orlando : Harcourt Brace College Publisher,1992.

Richard Ellemann and Robert Oclair, Modern Poems,An Introduction to Poetry:


w.w.Norton and company,inc.1999.
Steven Croft and Hellen Cross, Literature, Criticism, and Style. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000.

Siswantoro, Apreasi Puisi-Puisi Sastra. Surkarta:Muhammadiyah University


Press, 2002.

Ulysses ronquilo, Puisi, http://www.definisi dan unsur-unsurnya.htm, 2009.


(Accessed on September 20th, 2010)

Annymous, Litotes, http://usingenglish.com/glossary/litotes.html, 2009. (Accessed


on August 10th, 2010)

Anonymous, The Poetic of Robert Frost, http://www.frost


friend.org/figurative.html, 2004. (Accessed on September 20 th, 2010)

R.H. Winnick, Biography of Robert Frost, http://www.americanpoem.com.html,


2000. (Accessed on September 20th, 2010)

11
APPENDIX

To Earthward By Robert Frost

Love at the lips was touch


As sweet as I could bear;
And once that seemed too much;
I lived on air

That crossed me from sweet things,


The flow of - was it musk
From hidden grapevine springs
Down hill at dusk?

I had the swirl and ache


from sprays of honeysuckle
That when they're gathered shake
Dew on the knuckle.

I craved strong sweets, but those


Seemed strong when I was young;
The petal of the rose
It was that stung.

Now no joy but lacks salt


That is not dashed with pain
And weariness and fault;
I crave the stain

Of tears, the aftermark


Of almost too much love,
The sweet of bitter bark
And burning clove.

When stiff and sore and scarred


I take away my hand
From leaning on it hard
In grass and sand,

The hurt is not enough:


I long for weight and strength
To feel the earth as rough
To all my length.
Wind and Window Flower By Robert Frost

Lovers, forget your love,


And list to the love of these,
She a window flower,
And he a winter breeze.

When the frosty window veil


Was melted down at noon,
And the caged yellow bird
Hung over her in tune,

He marked her through the pane,


He could not help but mark,
And only passed her by
To come again at dark.

He was a winter wind,


Concerned with ice and snow,
Dead weeds and unmated birds,
And little of love could know.

But he sighed upon the sill,


He gave the sash a shake,
As witness all within
Who lay that night awake.

Perchance he half prevailed


To win her for the flight
From the firelit looking-glass
And warm stove-window light.

But the flower leaned aside


And thought of naught to say,
And morning found the breeze
A hundred miles away.