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CHAPTER 1

THE PERIODIC TABLE AND PERIODICITY


1. The forms of a periodic table.
There are two forms of the periodic table.
1 The wide form.
2 The spiral form.

2. Structure of a periodic table.


The vertical columns or sets of elements are known as groups.
The horizontal rows or set of elements are known as periods.
In the periodic table, elements are arranged in the increasing order of proton number
from the left to the right across a period. The element at the right always has its proton number
one unit higher the element at its left. As the proton number of the elements increases, the
electronic structures of its atoms are building up in according to the Aufbau principle. Thus, the
arrangement of elements in the periodic table is closely related to the electronic configuration of
its atoms, especially their valence electrons. The valence electrons in turn determine the chemical
properties of the element and its compounds.

All elements in a period have similar core of electrons (fully filled shells), which is same to the
noble gas at the end of the previous period.
Example: Electronic configuration of chlorine (Period 3) is: 2.8.7
2.8 is the core, which is the same as the electronic configuration of Neon, 2.8 of
period 2.

All elements in a group have similar characteristic valence electronic configuration (eg:
Elements of group 1 have nS1 as their valence electron), which responsible to the similarity of
chemical properties among the member elements of the same group (eg: Elements of group 1
forms M+ ions).

Base on their electronic configurations of the orbital in the valence shell, elements are grouped
into different blocks.
p-block Noble
H gas
s-block

Transition elements
Lanthanide f-block d-block
Actinide f-block
Element Valence electron Valence electronic
s configuration
s-block Group 1: ns1 (Alkaline metals) Electrons are being filled
Group 2: ns2 (Alkaline earth metals) into the s orbital.
p-block Group 13: ns2np1 Electrons are being filled
Group 14: ns2np2 into the p orbitals
group 15: ns2np3
Group 16: ns2np4
Group 17: ns2np5 (Halogen)
Group 18: ns2np6 (Noble gas)
d-block Period 4,5 and 6: nd(1-10) (Transition metals) Electrons are being filled
into the d orbitals
f-block Period 5 and 6: nf (1-14) . (Known as inner transition Electrons are being filled
metals or lanthanides and actinides) into the f orbitals.

3. Periodicity of physical properties


The physical properties of elements are a function of the proton numbers.
In this chapter we study certain physical properties of the elements and to examine the pattern or
the trend of these physical properties varies across the 2nd or the 3rd period and descending a
group.
There are two main types of physical properties.
i. The atomic properties
ii. The bulk properties

3.1. The atomic properties


They are physical properties that directly related to the atomic structure of the element.

3.1a. Atomic radius


3.1a.i. The atomic radius decreases across a period from the left to the right
Across the 3rd period, atom of all elements has the same number of electron filled shell. The
nucleus charge of atom increases while electrons are being filled into the same valence shell.
As a result, the valence electrons are attracted increasingly stronger toward the nucleus. Thus,
the valence shell becomes closer to the nucleus and the atomic radius decreases.

3.1a. ii. The atomic radius increases as descending a group


Descending a group, the number of electron filled shells in atom of elements increases. The
valence electrons of atom are shielded from the attractive force of nucleus by the inner full shells
(or the cores of electrons) and at the same time, the screening effect.
(the core pushes the electrons of the valence shell further away from the nucleus)gets stronger.
As a result, the valence electrons are attracted weaker by the nucleus and the valence shell drifts
further from the nucleus. Thus, the atomic radius increases.

atomic radius (nm) atomic radius (nm)


3.1. b. The ionic radius
Isoelectronic Li ions
Na areKisoelectronic
Rb Rb ifGroup 1
Na Mg AlmeansSi Psame
S Clelectronic configuration. Two
Ar 3rd period both have the
same electronic configuration.
Cation in a period is isoelectronic with the noble gas before the period.
Example: Ions Na+, Mg2+, Al3+ and Si4+ of 3rd period are isoelectronic 2.8 and isoelectronic with
noen.
Anion in a period is isoelectronic with the noble gas at the end of the same period.
Example: Ions P3-, S2- and Cl- of the 3rd period are isoelectronic 2.8.8 and isoelectronic with
argon.
The cations of a period are isoelectronic to the anions of the previous period.
Examples: Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+ (ions of the 3rd period), N3-, O2- and F- (ions of the 2nd period) are
isoelectronic and isoelectronic with neon.

radius (nm)
Atom forms cation when loses its valence electrons. Thus, cation
atom has one shell less than its atom. Thus, cation is smaller than its
atom.
Across the 3rd period from Na+, Mg2+, Al3+ to Si4+, the nucleus
cation charge increases (11 to 14) while the number of electrons in the
core of electron remains unchanged(or these ions are
isoelectronic 2.8). Thus, the electrons are held increasingly
stronger by the nucleus. The cationic radius decreases across the
Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ Si4+ period from Na+ > Mg2+ > Al3+ > Si4+.

Radius(nm)
To form anion, atom accepts electrons and completing the octet of
anion its valence shell. Thus, anion has stronger screening effect and is
bigger than its atom.
Across the period from P3-, S2- to Cl-1 ions, The nucleus charge
atom increases (15 to 17),while the number of electron remains
unchanged (isoelectronic 2.8.8). Thus, the electrons are attracted
stronger by the nucleus. anionic radius is gets smaller, P3- > S2- >
Cl-1.
P3 S2 Cl
The changes of the atomic radii and the ionic radii of elements in the 3rd period are shown as in
the graphs below. It is important to note that, in the same period, the cation is always smaller
than its atom, whereas the anion is always larger than its atom.

radius(nm) radius(nm) radius(nm)


anion

atom

cation

across a period Li Na K Rb Cs F Cl Br I
Group 1 Group 17
Descending a group, radii of cation and anion increase. This is due to the increase in the number
of completely filled electron shells and the increase of the screening effect. Thus, the electrons
are held increasingly weaker by the nucleus. Consequently, the cationic and the anionic radii
increase descending a group.

Isoelectronic and ionic radii of two neighbouring period.


Ionic radii of anions of 2nd and the cations of 3rd periods decreases as N3- > O2- > F- > Ne > Na+ >
Mg2+ > Al3+. Ions are isoelectronic 2.8 and the nucleus charge increases from 7 to 13. Electrons
are attracted increasingly stronger. Ionic radii decrease.e ionic radii decrease form
radius(nm)

N3- O2- F-Ne Na+ Mg2+ Al3+

3.1c. The ionization energy.


The first ionization energy refers to the minimum energy requires to eliminate one mole of
valence electron from one mole of gaseous atom, against the attractive force of its nucleus.
M(g) M+(g) + e

Hence, if the valence electron is held stronger by the positively charge nucleus, higher energy is
required to eliminate the electron.

Across a period, the ionization energy increases across a period in a zig-zag pattern.
As crossing a period, atomic radii decrease and electron in the valence shell are held stronger by
the nucleus.

Ionization energy, kJ/mol Ionization energy, kJ/mol


Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 3rd period Li Na K Rb Cs Group 1

The ionization energies of magnesium, phosphorus and argon are distinctively higher due to their
more stable electronic configurations of the valence shell.(Mg: fully fill;
P: halh filled 3p and Ar: Octet (3s23px23py23pz2))

The ionization energy of magnesium atom is higher than aluminium atom. The 3s orbital of
magnesium atom is fully filled (3s2) and has higher stability than the electronic configuration of
aluminum.
The ionization energy of phosphorus atom is higher than that of sulfur atom.The 3p of
phosphorus atom is half filled( 3s23px13py13pz1). This electronic configuration has higher stability
than that of sulfur.
The ionization energy of argon atom is highest. The valence electronic configuration of argon
atom is 3s2 3p6, the 3rd shell is fully filled (or acquired octet) and most stable.

The ionization energy generally decreases as descending group.


Descending a group, atomic radii increase. Thus, Valence electrons are held increasingly less
strongly by the nucleus. Consequently, the ionization energy decreases.
.
3.1 d. Electron affinity and electronegativity
Electron affinity is defined as the energy change when one mole of gaseous atom receives one
mole of electrons in order to produce one mole of gaseous anions.
X(g) + e X-(g)
It measures the readiness of an atom to capture a free electron to form an anion.
Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom to attract bonding electron toward the
atom in a covalent bond.

Electron affinity and electronegativity of an element increases across a period.


Across a period, the atomic radius decreases. The force of attraction of the nucleus becomes
stronger across the period. Thus, atom becomes increasing easy to capture free electron or attract
bonding electrons in a covalent bond.

Electron affinity and electronegativity of an element decreases as going down a group.


Descending a group, the atomic radius increases. As a result, the force of attraction of the
nucleus becomes weaker. Thus, atom becomes increasingly less ready to capture free electron or
attract bonding electrons in a covalent bond.
electronegativity electronegativity
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl 3rd period F Cl Br I Group 17

In the periodic table, elements at the right top most of the table always have the highest
electronegative. Examples: nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine (non metals of the 2nd period). On the
contrary, elements at the left bottom most of the table have the lowest electronegativity.
Examples: cesium and francium (metals of group 1).

3.2. The bulk properties.


Bulk properties are physical properties that depend on the atomic structure and the types of
crystal lattice of the element or compounds.
Across the 3rd period, the metallic property changes form metal, metalloid and non metal. This
lead to the crystal lattice structures of elements change.

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
Metallic Metal Metalloid Non-metal
properties

Crystal lattice Giant metallic Giant covalent Discrete covalent


molecule molecule

Bonding and Metallic bonding


particles between positive Covalent bond van der Waals forces
metal ions and between atoms between molecules.
electron cloud.

Breaking of Strong metallic Strong covalent bond Weak van der Waals
bond/ forces bond between metal between atoms forces between discrete
between ions and electrons molecules
particles Cloud

3.2a. The melting point, boiling point, heat of fusion and heat of evaporation.
Across the 3rd period, the melting point, the boiling point, the heat of fusion and the heat of
evaporation increase from sodium to silicon. Then, they drop sharply from silicon to phosphorus
and remain low from phosphorus to chlorine.
Temperature, oC. Energy, kJ/mol
heat of
evaporation
Boiling point heat of fusion
Melting point
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Na Mg Al Si P S Cl

Fusion, evaporation and boiling involved the change of states of mater and required energy.
Energy is used for breaking the bond or van der Waals forces (depend on the type of substance)
during change of state of the substance.
Energy is used to break the metallic bonds in the metallic crystal lattice, or the covalent bond in
the giant covalent molecular crystal lattice or the van der waals forces in the discrete covalent
molecule crystal lattice.
Since the metallic bond and the covalent bond are much stronger than the van der Waals forces,
more energy is required to break these bonds. Thus, the melting point and the boiling point of
Na, Mg, Al and Si are high. However, the van der waals forces are much weaker than those
bonds. Thus, the melting point and the boiling of P, S and Cl are low.

The melting point, the boiling point, the heat of fusion and the heat of evaporation increase from
sodium < magnesium < aluminium.
The electronic configurations of these elements are: Na (2.8.1), Mg (2.8.2) and Al (2.8.3). The
number of valence electrons available for formation of metallic bond increase from 1 in each
sodium atom to 3 in each aluminium atom. While the ionic charge of metal ion increases from 1+
in sodium ion to 3+ in aluminium ion. As a result, the metallic bonds formed in these metals
become increasingly stronger. Thus, require increasingly more heat to break these bonds.

Silicon has extremely high melting point and boiling point. Silicon has giant covalent molecular
lattice. In the lattice, each silicon atom is bonded covalently with 4 other Si atoms with strong
and stable Si-Si bonds. Thus, it requires very high energy to break these bonds.

Phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine form P4, S8 and Cl2 molecules respectively. They have discrete
covalent molecular structure. In between these molecules, there are weak van der waals forces.
Since the van der waals forces are much weaker than the metallic bond and the covalent bond,
hence, energy requires to break the van der waals forces is lesser. Consequently, their melting
point and the boiling point are low.
However, the strength of van der waals forces decreases as S8 > P4 > Cl2 due to the molecule sizes
decrease as S8 > P4 > Cl2. Thus, the melting and the boiling point decreases as S8 > P4 > Cl2.

3.2b. The electrical conductivity.


Sodium, magnesium and aluminium are metal and Conductivity
thus are good conductors of electricity. Silicon is
metalloid and a semiconductor. Phosphorus, sulfur
and chlorine are non-metals. They are non-conductors
of electricity.
When metal atoms are arranged closely in the crystals
lattice positions, the atomic orbital of the valence shell
of these atoms overlapped each other adjacently through
out the crystal lattice to form enormously large number
of bonding orbital with very close energy level. They can
be group into two groups called bands. They are the
conduction band, which is higher energy level and Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
the valence band, which is lower energy level.
The valence band is filled with the valence electrons whereas the conduction band is empty.
energy
Conduction band Conduction band Conduction
band

Small energy gap big energy gap


overlap

Valence band Valence band


Valence band
Conductor semiconductor non-conductor /
insulator

In metals, the valence band and the conduction band overlap each other. Electrons in the valence
band are easily promoted into the conductive band and become mobile. Thus, these mobile
electrons can be transported when a different of potential is applied on a piece of metal. Metal
conducts electricity.
The conductivity of electricity reduces as the temperature increase. Metal ions and the mobile
electrons vibrated faster at higher temperature. As a result, it disrupts the smooth flowing of
mobile electrons.
The conductivity of electricity increases from sodium to aluminium. This is due to the number of
valence electrons that can be contributed into the valence band increase from one in each sodium
atom to three in each aluminium atom. Thus, more valence electrons can be promoted into the
conduction band of aluminium than sodium. Consequently, the conduction band of aluminium
has more mobile electrons than that of sodium.

In a semiconductor such as the silicon, the valence band is separated from the conduction band
by a small energy gap. At room temperature only limited electrons from the valance band can be
promoted into the conduction band. Thus, semiconductor is a weak conductor of electricity at
room temperature.
As the temperature increase, more electrons from the valance band are being promoted into the
conduction band. Thus, the conductivity of a semiconductor increases as the temperature
increases.

Non conductor such as the phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine, have bigger energy gap between the
two bands than that in the semiconductor. Therefore, no electron can be promoted into the
conduction band. Thus, they do not conduct electricity.

4. Periodicity of physical properties of d-block elements.

Elemen Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
t
Valence 3d14s 3d24s 3d34s 3d54s 3d54s 3d64s 3d74s 3d84s 3d104s 3d104s
electron 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2

s
Atomic 160 146 131 125 129 126 125 124 128 133
radius
(pm)
1stH ion 631 658 650 650 717 759 758 737 746 906
kJ/ mol

2 H
nd
1235 1310 1414 1592 1509 1561 1646 1753 1958 1732
ion kJ/ mol
Density 2.99 4.50 5.96 7.20 7.20 7.80 8.90 8.90 8.92 7.14
g/cm3
Melting 1541 1680 1900 1890 1240 1540 1500 1450 1080 ----
point
o
C

4.1. The atomic properties.

4.1a. the atomic radius.


The d-block elements have relatively smaller atomic radius than the s-block and the p-block
elements of the same period.
Among the members of the d-block elements of the same period, their atomic radius are almost
similar.
Across the period from scandium to zinc, the additional of electrons are being filled into the 3d
orbital of the second last shell instead of the 4p orbital of the outer shell. At the same time the
nucleus charge increases as the proton number increase. As a result, the increase in attractive
force of the nucleus is cancelled off by the increasing of the screening effect. Thus, causes slight
change in atomic radius of these elements across the period from Scandium to zinc.

4.1b. the ionization energy.


During the ionization, electrons are being eliminated first from the 4s orbital of the valence shell
then followed by the 3d electrons in further ionizations.
The ionization energies are depending on the atomic radius and the electronic configuration of
atoms.
The first ionization energies are relatively low and increase slightly across the period from
scandium to zinc. This is due to the slight change in atomic radius of these elements across the
period from Scandium to zinc.
The first ionization energy of Zinc is highest because 3d and 4s orbital are fully filled.

The subsequent ionization energies are higher due to smaller ionic radius and the stability of
electronic configuration of the metallic ions.
Second ionization involves removing an electron from an M+ ion.
The second ionization energy of chromium and copper are higher than expected. This is due to
both of the Cr+ ion [(Ar) 3d5, 3d orbital are half filled] and the Cu+ ion [(Ar) 3d10, 3d orbital are
fully filled] have more stable electronic configurations.
The third ionization involves removing an electron from an M2+ ion.
The third ionization energy of chromium and copper are higher than expected. This is due to both
of the Mn2+ ion [(Ar) 3d5, 3d orbital are half filled] and the Zn2+ ion [(Ar) 3d10, 3d orbital are
fully filled] have higher electronic configurations.

Ionization energy kJ/mol.

Sc3+: (Ar)
Fe3+: 3d5
4th ( M3+ M4+ + e )

Mn2+: 3d5 Zn2+: 3d10


3rd ( M2+ M3+ + e )

Cu+: 3d10
Cr +: 3d5 2nd ( M+ M2+ + e )
Zn: 3d104s2
1st( M M+ + e )

Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn

4.2 The bulk properties.


4.2a. the density of element.
d-block elements have much higher densities than the s-block and the p-block elements because
the metal atoms in the d-block elements are packed closer in their crystal lattices, have higher
atomic mass and smaller atomic radius.
The densities of d-block elements increase across the period from scandium to zinc. This is due
to the increase of atomic mass across the period while the atomic radius remains almost
unchanged.

4.2b. the melting point.


Elements of d-block exhibit high melting point as well as the boiling point and the heat of fusion
and evaporation. This is due to the combination of factors like small atomic radius, high ionic
charge, the giant metallic crystal structure and the electronic configuration of metals ions.
Atoms of d-bock elements have many valence electrons from their valence 3d and 4s orbitals
that can be donated into the sea of electron during the formation of metallic bond. As a result, the
sea of electrons is expected to have high number of delocalized electrons. On top of that, the
metal ions have high ionic charge and small ionic radius. Thus, strong metallic bond is formed.
In addition to this, d-block elements have giant metallic crystal structure. Consequently, the
melting points of d-block elements are high.
The melting point of manganese and zinc are lower as the atoms of these elements have more
stable electronic configuration. The atoms of manganese and zinc use only 4s electrons to form
metallic bond and keep all electrons in the 3d orbitals to make up half filled 3d5 (in Mn2+) and
3d10 (in Zn2+) respectively. Consequently, less bonding electron is found in the sea of electron, the
metallic bond formed is weaker.
The melting points of Sc, Ti, V and Cr are higher than Fe, Co and Ni. The former group of metal
have their 3d orbital filled with single electrons while later group of metal have their 3d orbitals
filled with pairs of electrons. As the number of pairing electron increases, the electronic
configuration becomes more stable. Thus, the melting point becomes lower.

Melting point /oC 3d5, half filled

Number of electron pair


In 3d orbital increases

Number of single
un-pair electron
In 3d orbital increases 3d10 fully filled.

Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu

5. The periodicity of chemical properties of elements in period three.

Elements Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Electronic 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8
configuratio
n
Metallic metallic metalloi non-metal
properties d

5.1. Chemical properties of elements.


Sodium, magnesium and aluminium are metal. They are strong reducing agents. The chemical
reactivity and the strength of reducing agent decrease from Na > Mg > Al.
5.1a. Reaction with water.
Sodium reacts vigorously with water to form hydrogen and an alkali solution. The reaction is
usually characterized by explosion, burning into flame and extremely exothermic.
2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2

Magnesium reacts aggressively with steam to form magnesium oxide and hydrogen.
Mg + H2O MgO + H2

Aluminium reacts slowly with steam to form aluminium oxide and hydrogen.
4Al + 3H2O 2Al2O3 + H2
Silicon reacts very slowly with steam at high temperature.
Si + H2O SiO2 + H2

Phosphorus and sulfur do not react with water whereas chlorine reacts with water to produce
acidic solution
Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl

5.1b. Reaction with oxygen.


They react vigorously with oxygen and the reactions are usually characterized by explosion,
burning into flame and extremely exothermic. Stable ionic oxides are formed.
4Na + O2 2Na2O
2Mg + O2 2MgO
4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
Magnesium and aluminium usually turns passive when exposed to oxygen due to the thin layer
of oxide formed at its surface of the metals, preventing them from contact with oxygen. Thus,
stop the further reaction.

Silicon reacts with oxygen when it is heated.


Si + O2 SiO2

Phosphorus reacts with oxygen to form P4O10 and sulfur reacts with oxygen to form SO2 when
heated. However, chlorine does not react with oxygen.
P4 + 5O2 P4O10 S8 + 8O2 8SO2

5.2. Physical and chemical properties of oxides.

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
Formula Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO3 Cl2O7
Melting point, 1275 2852 2027 1610 24 17 -92
o
C
Structure and Giant ionic crystal lattice Giant Discrete covalent molecular
bonding covalent structure
molecule
Particles / force Ionis of opposite charge/ Atoms/ Discrete molecules/ van der
ionic bond covalent Waals forces
bond
Acidity Base amphoteri acidic
c

i. melting point
temperature, oC

Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO3 Cl2O7 oxides


Na2O, MgO and Al2O3 have giant ionic structure and strong ionic bond. Thus, they have very
high melting point. The melting point of oxides of metals increases as Na2O < Al2O3 < MgO.
Metal ionic radius decreases as Na+ > Mg2+ > Al3+ and the ionic charge increases from 1+ to 3+.
As a result the charge density increases as Na+ < Mg2+ < Al3+.
Due to charge density of Al3+ ion is extremely high, the ionic bond of Al2O3 becomes highly in
covalent characteristic. Consequently, the ionic bond of Al2O3 becomes weaker than MgO. So
Al2O3 has lower melting point.
SiO2 has giant covalent molecular structure. Atoms of Si and O are bonded with strong covalent
bond. Thus, it has high melting point.
P4O10, SO3 and Cl2O7 have discrete covalent molecular structure. Molecules are held together by
weak van der waals forces. Thus, they have very low melting points.
The strength of van der waals forces decreases as P4O10 > SO3 > Cl2O7. As a result, the melting
point decreases as P4O10 > SO3 > Cl2O7.
P4O10 O
SO3 (solid)
(solid)
O O
P
O
O O
S S
O
O S O O
P P
O O
O O P O
O O
O O
ii. Acidity of oxide across the third period
O
Na2O and MgO are basic oxide.

Na2O dissolves in water to form an alkali solution. It reacts with dilute acid to form salt and
water.
Na2O + H2O 2NaOH
Na2O + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O
MgO is insoluble in water but dissolve in dilute acid.
MgO + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O

Al2O3 is insoluble in water. However, it is amphoteric and reacts with both hot dilute acid and
alkali solution.
Al2O3 + 6H+ 2Al3+ + 3H2O
Al2O3 + 2OH- + 3H2O 2[Al(OH)4]-

SiO2, P4 O10, SO3, and Cl2O7 are acidic oxide.


SiO2 is a weak acid. It does not dissolve in water but reacts with hot concentrated alkali solution.
SiO2 + 2OH- SiO32- + H2O

P4 O10, SO3, and Cl2O7 are stronger acid. They dissolve in water to form acidic solution and react
with alkali solution in neutralization reaction to form salt and water.
P4 O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4
P4 O10 + 12NaOH 4Na3PO4 + 6H2O

SO3 + H2O H2SO4


SO3 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Cl2O7 + H2O 2HClO4


Cl2O7 + 2NaOH- 2NaClO4 + 2H2O

PAST YEARS QUESTIONS:


OBJECTIVE
1990/13. Which of the following graphs represent the change of electric conductivity of elements
in period three of the Periodic Table?
A Conductivity B Conductivity
Al

Na Mg Mg
Na Si
P
Al S
Si P Cl

S Cl Ar Ar

C Conductiviry D Conductivity
Al
Na
Mg
Mg Na
Al
Si
Si

P S Cl Ar P S Cl Ar

E Conductivity
Al
Na

Mg

Si

P S Cl Ar

1990/14. X, Y and Z are elements from the third period of the Periodic Table. The observations
were gathered when the oxides of these elements react with water.
i. Oxide of X is insoluble in water.
ii. Oxide of Y dissolved in water to give a solution of pH 13.
iii. Oxide of Z dissolved in water to give a solution of pH 3.

Which of the following series shows the correct arrangement of these elements from the left to
the right in the third period of the Periodic Table?
A X, Y, Z B X, Z, Y C Y, X, Z D Y, Z, X
E Z, X, Y

1991/13. The properties of hydrides of X, Y and Z in the third period of the Periodic Table are
shown in the following table.

Element Properties
X Neutral
Y Acidic
Z Reacts with water to form H2

Which of the following series shows the correct arrangement of these elements in the order of
increasing in proton number?
A X, Y, Z B X, Z, Y C Y, X, Z D Z, Y, X E Z, X, Y

1992/13. The graph below shows the changes of first ionization energy against proton number of
elements in the Periodic Table.
First ionization energy

x Y

Proton number
Y could be
A Magnesium B Nitrogen C Sulphur D Chlorine E Argon

1992/14. The properties of oxides of elements R, S and T from the third period of the Periodic
Table are shown as the following.
i Oxide of R dissolves in water to give a solution of pH 3.
ii Oxide of S dissolves sparingly in water but is fully soluble in dilute HCl.
iii Oxide of T is not soluble in water but soluble in dilute aqueous solution of HCl and
NaOH.
Which of the following arrangement is the correct order of acidity of oxides in descending order?
A R, S, T B R, T, S C S, R, T D T, R, S E T, S, R

1992/31. The boiling point and the heat of evaporation increase in the following order.
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Chlorine
This is because
1 the covalent radius increases. 2. the number of electrons increases.
3. the inter-molecular attraction force becomes stronger.
1993/13. If 0.10 mol of this oxide is dissolved in 1.0 dm-3 of water, which of the following oxides
would produce an aqueous solution with lowest pH?
A SO3 B Na2O C Cl2O D Al2O3 E P4O10
1993/38. Which of the following molecule is planar?
1. CH4 2. C2H4 3. C6H6

1994/3. Which of the following equation represent the first ionization energy of beryllium?
A Be(g) Be+(g) + e B Be(g) Be2+(g) + 2e
C Be(p) Be+(g) + e D Be(p) Be2+(g) + 2e
+ 2+
E Be (g) Be (g) + e

1994/5. Which of the following pairs of element in the following periodic table form ionic bond?

P
S

Q R T

A R and S; R and T B P and Q; Q and T C P and S; R and T


D P and S; P and T E Q and S; Q and T

1994/13. Which of the graphs correctly shows the change of melting point across the second
period of the periodic table?

Melting point Melting point Melting point Melting point Melting point
Ne Li C
Li Ne

F B Be Ne F
N F O
Be O
O B Be B N N
C C
Be N
B O Li Be B C
Li F N C
Ne O F Ne Li

A B C D E

1995/13. Which of the following statements explain the reduction in the strength as a reducing
agent for the elements in the third period of the Periodic Table from sodium to chlorine?
A. Covalent radius of element increases.
B. Reduce in the standard potential of element.
C. Increase in the oxidation number of element.
D. Increase in the electronegativity of element.
E. Reduce in the ionization energy of element.

1995/14. X, Y and Z are the elements of the third period in the Periodic Table. Chlorides of these
elements have the following chemical properties.
i. Chloride of X dissolves in water and hydrolyzed to produce white fume.
ii. Chloride of Y dissolves in water to form an aqueous solution with pH 6.
iii. Chloride of Z dissolves in water without being hydrolyzed.
Arrange X, Y and Z in the ascending order of their proton numbers.
A. X, Y, Z B. Y, X, Z C. Y, Z, X D. Z, X,Y E Z, Y, X

1996/7. Which of the following graph represents the change of ionic radii of nitrogen, oxygen,
fluorine, sodium, magnesium and aluminum?
A. ionic radius B. ionic radius

N3- O2- F- Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ N3- O2- F- Na+ Mg2+ Al3+
C. ionic radius D. ionic radius

N3- O2- F- Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ N3- O2- F- Na+ Mg2+ Al3+
E ionic radius

N3-O2- F- Na+ Mg2+Al3+

1996/23. W, X, Y and Z are elements of the third period of the Periodic Table. The oxides of
these elements have the following properties.
i. Oxide of W is insoluble in water and acid, but is soluble in hot and concentrated
NaOH solution.
ii. Oxide of X is soluble in both aqueous KOH and aqueous HCl.
iii. Y forms two stable oxides.
iv. Oxide pf Z is sparingly soluble in water and it reacts with aqueous H2SO4.
Arrange these elements in the ascending order of their proton numbers.

A. Y,X,W,Z B. Y,W,Z,X C. Z,W,X,Y D. Z,X,W,Y E. W, X, Y, Z


1996/49. Which of the following statement correctly explain the formation of metallic bond in a
metal?
1 Only positive ions present in the metallic crystal lattice.
2 Valence orbitals of metal atoms overlap to form the negatively charge sea of electrons.
3 Metallic bond strength reduces as the electrons involve in the bonding increases.
1997/30. The following table shows the observations obtained when elements of the third period
of the Period Table reacts with oxygen.

Element Observations
Na Very aggressive
Mg Slightly aggressive
Al Aggressive
Si Slow
P Slow
S Slow
Cl No reaction
Ar No reaction
These observations show that, across the third period from sodium to argon,
A. Element becomes increasingly more inert.
B. Element becomes increasingly more difficult to donate electron.
C. Strength as oxidizing agent.
D. The reaction between the elements with oxygen becomes increasingly more
exothermic.
E. Bond strength in oxides of the elements becomes increasingly weaker.

1997/49. Which of the following molecule is linear?


1. CS2 2. SCl2 3. SO2

1998/4. Which of the following statement explains the decrease in ionic radius across the period
three from Na+ to Al3+?
A. The sum of electron and the sum of proton in the nucleus increases.
B. The sum of electron and the sum of proton in the nucleus decreases.
C. The sum of electron and the sum of proton in the nucleus remains unchanged.
D. The sum of electron remains unchanged but the sum of proton in the nucleus
increases.
E. The sum of electron increases but the sum of proton in the nucleus remains
unchanged.

1998/23. Which of the following statement is true about the oxides of elements in the third
period of the Periodic Table?
A. Acidity of oxide decreases from sodium to chlorine.
B. None of the oxide is emphotheric.
C. Silicon forms oxide with the highest oxidation state than other oxides.
D. Oxides of phosphorus do not dissolve in water.
E. Chlorine forms more than two oxides.

1998/49. The structural formulae of water and hydrogen sulphide are shown as the following.
O S
H x H H y H

Which of the following statement is true for both molecules?


1 Bond angle x is bigger than bond angle y.
2 Both sulphur and oxygen atoms have two non-bonding pairs of electron.
3. The oxygen atom in water molecule is less electropositive than sulphur atom in
the hydrogen sulphide molecule.

1999/4. Which of the following pair of elements has the biggest different in boiling point?
A. Silicon and argon. B. Sodium and argon.
C. Sodium and silicon. D. Aluminium and chlorine.
E. Aluminium and phosphorus.

2000/4. The following is the successive ionization energy of an element, X.


940, 2080, 3090, 4140, 7030, 7870, 16000, 19500
X is possibly an element of
A. Group 13 B Group 14 C Group 15 D Group 16
E. Group 17

2000/5. Which of the following correctly match the physical properties of a transition element?
Melting point, oC Boiling point, oC Density, g cm-3 Electric conductivity
A. 327 1750 11.3 good
B. 650 1150 1.7 good
C. 1539 2800 7.9 good
D. 1410 2500 2.3 weak
E. 3500 3900 2.3 weak

2000/20. Which of the following is correct regarding to the oxides of the elements of the third
period of the Periodic Table?
A. Sodium oxide is basic because sodium is the most electropositive element in period-3.
B. Oxide changes from basic to acidic from sodium to chlorine because bond formed
between the element and oxygen becomes stronger.
C. Aluminum oxide is amphoteric.
D. Phosphorus oxide is the strongest acid because it is most soluble in water.
E. Silicon oxide does not react with sodium hydroxide because the oxide is neutral.

2000/47. Which of the following is only explained by the force of inter-molecular attraction?
1 Complex ion V(H2O)62+ is purple, while complex ion V(H2O)63+ is green.
2 CO2is gas, while SiO2 is solid.
3 The boiling point of sulphur is higher than the boiling point of phosphorus.

2001/4. Mendeleev arranged the elements in the Periodic Table according to


A. the ascending order of proton numbers.
B. the ascending order of relative atomic mass.
C. the ascending order of molar volume of element.
D. the ascending order of atomic size.

2001/5. Across the third period of the Periodic Table from sodium to chlorine,
A. electronegativity of element decreases.
B. ionization energy of element decreases.
C. standard electrode potential of element increases.
D. strength as a reducing agent of element increases.

2001/6. Which of the following elements form ionic hydride?


A sodium B silicon C Sulphur D Chlorine

2001/20. Which of the following element form oxide with the highest oxidation number?
A. Silicon B. Phosphorus C. Sulphur D. Chlorine

2001/48. Which of the following organic compounds form hydrogen bond with its own
molecules and also with water molecules?
1. HCHO 2. C2H5OH 3. C2H5NH2

2002/2. The proton numbers of four elements are given as below.


Element P Q R S
Proton number 24 25 26 29
Which of the following is the correct arrangement of the second ionization energy for these
elements in the ascending order?
A. P, Q, R, S B. P, Q, S, R C. Q, R, P, S D. Q, P, R, S

2002/3. The proton number of elements X, Y and Z are 14, 19 and 26. Which of the following
statements is true for X, Y and Z?
A X is d-block element.
B Y is strong oxidizing agent.
C Z has only one oxidation state in its compounds.
D Oxide of X with this formula (XO3)2- , exist as a polymer.

2002/4. Which of the following statements is true for elements in the Periodic Table?
A Reactivity of elements increases descending a group.
B Atomic size increases when nucleon number increases.
C The metallic property of elements increases descending a group.
D The number of metal is more than the number of non metal.

2003/5. The energy band diagram for a substance is shown as follows.

Conduction band
energy narrow energy gap
Valance band
Which statement about the substance is true?
A The substance is a metalloid.
B Its electrical conductivity decreases with temperature.
C The electrons flow from the valence band to the conduction band at high pressure.
D The valence band comes into contact with the conduction band at high temperature.

2003/7 The table below shows the proton number of four elements represented by letter which
are not the usual symbol for the elements concerned.
Element P Q R S
Proton number 3 11 13 19
Which element has the strongest metallic bond?
A P B Q C R D S

2003/10 The first four ionization energies of some elements are given below.
Elements Ionization energy / kJ mol-1
1st 2nd 3rd 4th
W 736 1450 7740 10500
X 653 1590 2990 4770
Y 900 1760 14800 21000
Z 577 1820 2740 11600
The element which is located in the d-block of the Periodic Table is
A W B X C Y D Z

2003/12 Which sequence of isoelectronic ions shows that the ionic radius increases
continuously?
A Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < S2- < P3- B Ca2+ < K+ < P3- < S2- < Cl-
+ 2+ - 2- 3-
C K < Ca < Cl < S < P D P3- < S2- < Cl- < K+ < Ca2+

2003/17 The diagram below shows a sketch of the Periodic Table which some elements being
represented by letters which are not the usual symbol for the elements concerned.

S T
P R
Q

If the ionic compounds PT, QU and RS formed have the same lattice structure, which sequence
of ionic compounds shows the increase in the magnitude of lattice energy?
A RS < QU < PT B RS < PT < QU
C PT < QU < RS D QU < PT < RS

2004/6 Elements X and Y form ionic compound XY. Which of the following pairs of electronic
configuration is correct of X and Y ?
X Y
1
A 1s 1s22s22p63s23p5
B 1s22s2p5 1s22s22p63s23p5
2 2 6 1
C 1s 2s 2p 3s 1s22s22p4
D 1s22s22p63s2 1s22s22p4

2005/2 The energy gap between valence band and conduction band of element P is bigger than
element Q. For element Q, its valence band and conduction band are overlap.
What are the valence electronic configuration of elements P, Q and S ?
P Q S
2 2 2 2
A 2s 2p 6s 6p 3s2
B 4s24p2 5s25p2 3s23p1
2 3 2 2
C 3s 3p 2s 2p 3d64s2
D 3s23p4 3s23p2 3s2

2005/17 The following graph shows the variation of physical property of Period 3 elements in
the Periodic Table.

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
What is the physical property?
A Electronegativity B Electrical conductivity
C First ionization energy D Enthalpy of vaporization

STRUCTURED
1991/4. a. Define the first ionization energy of an atom. [4]
b. The diagram below shows the changes in the fist ionization for elements in the
Third Period of the Periodic Table.

Ionization energy kJ/mol


Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

i. Explain why the first ionization energy of aluminium is lower than the first
ionization energy of magnesium. [2]
ii. Sketch a graph to show the subsequent ionization energies for aluminium.
The proton number of aluminium is 13. [1]
iii. State two factors that causes the third ionization energy of magnesium is
higher than it second ionization energy. [2]

(c) i. Arrange the following elements: Ca, Cl, F, Mg and P in the order of
increasingly more electronegative. [1]
ii. Which of these compounds, CaF2 or PF5, has higher covalent characteristic?
Explain your answer. [2]

1994/1. The graph below shows the subsequent ionization energies of an atom X.
Ionization energy kJ/mol

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
i Determine the number of proton in an atom X. [1]
ii Write the electronic configuration of atom X. [1]
iii If atom forms a cation, predict the most possible charge of the cation. Explain your
answer. [3]
iv X reacts with oxygen to form an oxide with the following formula, XO. State the
thermal stability of this oxide compares to the other oxides of the elements below X.
[1]
v State an industrial usage of XO and explain your answer. [2]
vi What would you observe if the nitrate of X is strongly heated? Write a balance
chemical equation to show the reaction that occurs. [2]

1999/1. (a) Lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, fluorine and neon are elements from
the Period 2 of the Periodic Table.
i. State the change in atomic radii of these elements across the period. [1]
ii. State two factors the affect the change in atomic radii of these elements across
the period. [2]
iii. Among these elements, which of these elements has the highest melting point?
[1]

2002/2a. (a) Arrange the elements in


i. Period 3 of the Periodic Table in the descending order of atomic radius.
ii. Group 17 of the Periodic Table in the ascending order of ionization energy.
[2]

ESSAY
1991/3(b) why copper is a conductor of electricity? Explain. [4]

1991/4.(a) What do you understand by the terms


(i) atomic radius,
(ii) affinity of electron and
(iii) ionization energy ?
Explain these terms by referring to the factors that influent them. [12]
1992/4. (c) Write the electronic configuration for magnesium atom and iron atom. Explain why
magnesium has only one oxidation state whereas iron has more than one oxidation states in their
compound respectively. [6]

1994/4. a. Explain; how the following properties change across the Third Period of the periodic
table from sodium to sulfur. Write all chemical reaction involved.
i The reactivity of these elements as they react with chlorine.
ii Bonding and electric conductivity of molten or aqueous solution of the
chloride for these elements. [10]
(b) State the change in acidity of oxide for the elements in the Third Period of the
periodic table ( sodium to chlorine). For each group of these oxides, write an equation to
represent their acidity as mentioned above. [6]
(c) Compare and explain the acidity of aqueous solution for HCl and H2S. [4]

1997/4. (a) Explain what it means by the term the second ionization energy. [2]
(b) Plot a graph to show the changes of second ionization energies against the proton
number of the elements in the third period (Na to Ar) of the periodic table. [5]
(c) Explain the periodicity of the following physical properties across the third period
of the periodic table.
i Atomic radius. (ii) Melting point.
(iii) Conductivity of electricity. [13]
2001/7. (a) A scientist has recently discovered a new element with its proton number is 119 and
the electronic configuration of the valence shell of this atom is 8s1. Predict the location of this
element in the periodic table. State three physical properties and one chemical property of the
element. [5]
(b) Cesium, Cs, an element that was used in a photoelectric cell because its atom can
produce free electron by absorbing light. Explain why a cesium atom behaves as such.
[4]

2001/8. (b) Aluminum, silicon, phosphorus and sulfur are elements from the third period of the
periodic table. The melting points of these elements are show as the following table.

Element Melting point, oC


Aluminum 660
Silicon 1410
Phosphorus 44
Sulfur 119

Explain the changes of the melting points of these elements by referring to their bonding and
structure. [8]

A B C D
1 only 1 and 2 2 and 3 1,2 and 3