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PSYCHOLOGY

Submitted by: Reyes, Jillian Iris G. Course/Section: PT 1 A


Submitted to: Ma'am Serafina Maxino Date: June 22, 2016

1.) Biology of the following Psychologists:

A. Wilhelm Wundt ( 1832 1920 )

Wilhelm Wundt, (born August 16, 1832, Neckarau, near Mannheim, Baden [Germany]
died August 31, 1920, Grossbothen, Germany) German physiologist and psychologist
who is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology.
Wundt earned a medical degree at the University of Heidelberg in 1856. After studying briefly
with Johannes Mller, he was appointed lecturer in physiology at the University of Heidelberg,
where in 1858 he became an assistant to the physicist and physiologist Hermann von
Helmholtz. There he wrote Beitrge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung (185862;
Contributions to the Theory of Sense Perception).
It was during this period, in 1862, that Wundt offered the first course ever taught in scientific
psychology. Until then, psychology had been regarded as a branch of philosophy and, hence,
to be conducted primarily by rational analysis. Wundt instead stressed the use of
experimental methods drawn from the natural sciences. His lectures on psychology were
published as Vorlesungen ber die Menschen und Thierseele (1863; Lectures on the Mind of
Humans and Animals). He was promoted to assistant professor of physiology in 1864.
Bypassed in 1871 for the appointment to succeed Helmholtz, Wundt then applied himself to
writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology,
Grundzge der physiologischen Psychologie, 2 vol. (187374; 3 vol., 6th ed., 190811;
Principles of Physiological Psychology). The Grundzge advanced a system of psychology
that sought to investigate the immediate experiences of consciousness, including sensations,
feelings, volitions, and ideas; it also contained the concept of apperception, or conscious
perception. The methodology prescribed was introspection, or conscious examination of
conscious experience.
In 1874 Wundt went to the University of Zrich for a year before embarking on the most
productive phase of his career, as professor at the University of Leipzig (18751917). There,
in 1879, he established the first psychological laboratory in the world, and two years later he
founded the first journal of psychology, Philosophische Studien (Philosophical Studies).
Wundts most important later works include Grundriss der Psychologie (1896; Outline of
Psychology) and Vlkerpsychologie, 10 vol. (190020; Ethnic Psychology).

B. Edward L. Thorndike ( 1874 1949 )


Edward L. Thorndike, in full Edward Lee Thorndike (born August 31, 1874, Williamsburg,
Massachusetts, U.S.died August 9, 1949, Montrose, New York) American psychologist
whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism,
which states that behavioural responses to specific stimuli are established through a process
of trial and error that affects neural connections between
the stimuli and the most satisfying responses.
Thorndike graduated from Wesleyan University in 1895. He studied animal behaviour with
William James at Harvard University (189597) and with James McKeen Cattell at Columbia
University, where he received his Ph.D. (1898) and where he spent most of his career. He first
proposed his two behavioural laws, the law of effect and the law of exercise, in his doctoral
dissertation, which was published in 1911 as Animal Intelligence. He regarded adaptive
changes in animal behaviour as analogous to human learning and suggested that behavioural
associations (connections) could be predicted by application of the two laws. The law of effect
stated that those behavioural responses that were most closely followed by a satisfying result
were most likely to become established patterns and to occur again in response to the same
stimulus. The law of exercise stated that behaviour is more strongly established through
frequent connections of stimulus and response. In 1932 Thorndike determined that the
second of his laws was not entirely valid in all cases. He also modified the law of effect to
state that rewards for appropriate behaviour always substantially strengthened associations,
whereas punishments for inappropriate responses only slightly weakened the association
between the stimulus and the wrong response. Thorndikes early work is regarded as the first
laboratory study of animal learning. His emphasis on measurement and the quantitative
analysis of data, as opposed to merely descriptive accounts of experiments, has been
enormously influential in modern psychology, particularly affecting behaviourist
experimentation.
While still a graduate student at Columbia, Thorndike began an association with Robert S.
Woodworth, with whom he studied transfer of learning. In a paper published in 1901,
Thorndike and Woodworth found that learning in one area does not facilitate learning in other
areas; where specific training in one task seemed to cause improvement in learning another,
the improvement could be attributed to common elements in the two exercises, not to overall
enhancement of the subjects learning abilities. This finding supported proponents of school
curricula that emphasized practical, relevant subject matter and activities.
As professor of educational psychology at Columbia from 1904 to 1940, Thorndike
contributed to the development of a more scientifically grounded and efficient type of
schooling. He emphasized the use of statistics in social science research, chiefly through his
handbook, An Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements (1904). Other
important works in the early part of his career were The Principles of Teaching Based on
Psychology (1906), Education: A First Book (1912), and Educational Psychology, 3 vol.
(191314; 2nd ed., 1921). These books were responsible for many of the earliest applications
of psychology to classroom instruction in arithmetic, algebra, reading, writing, and language
and also did much to expose the deficiencies and inequalities in the American educational
system of the time.
When his investigations in the 1920s of adult learning revealed that continued learning ability
was determined by inborn personal factors rather than age, adult education was revitalized.
Among Thorndikes later works of note were The Psychology of Wants, Interests, and
Attitudes (1935) and Human Nature and the Social Order (1940).
Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.

C. Burrhus Frederic Skinner ( 1904 1990 )

American psychologist B.F. Skinner is best known for developing the theory of behaviorism,
and for his utopian novel Walden Two (1948).
Synopsis
Born in Pennsylvania in 1904, psychologist B.F. Skinner began working on ideas of human
behaviour after earning his doctorate from Harvard. Skinner's works include The Behavior of
Organisms (1938) and a novel based on his theories Walden Two (1948). He explored
behaviourism in relation to society in later books, including Beyond Freedom and Human
Dignity (1971). Skinner died in Massachusetts in 1990.

Early Life
Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born on March 20, 1904, in the small town of Susquehanna,
Pennsylvania, where he also grew up. His father was a lawyer and his mother stayed home to
care for Skinner and his younger brother. At an early age, Skinner showed an interest in
building different gadgets and contraptions.
As a student at Hamilton College, B.F. Skinner developed a passion for writing. He tried to
become a professional writer after graduating in 1926, but with little success. Two years later,
Skinner decided to pursue a new direction for his life. He enrolled at Harvard University to
study psychology.

The Skinner Box


At Harvard, B.F. Skinner looked for a more objective and measured way to study behavior. He
developed what he called an operant conditioning apparatus to do this, which became better
known as the Skinner box. With this device, Skinner could study an animal interacting with its
environment. He first studied rats in his experiments, seeing how the rodents discovered and
used to a level in the box, which dispensed food at varying intervals.
Later, Skinner examined what behaviour patterns developed in pigeons using the box. The
pigeons pecked at a disc to gain access to food. From these studies, Skinner came to the
conclusion that some form of reinforcement was crucial in learning new behaviours.
After finishing his doctorate degree and working as a researcher at Harvard, Skinner
published the results of his operant conditioning experiments in The Behaviour of Organisms
(1938). His work drew comparisons to Ivan Pavlov, but Skinner's work involved learned
responses to an environment rather than involuntary responses to stimuli.

Later Work
While teaching at University of Minnesota, Skinner tried to train pigeons to serve as guides for
bombing runs during World War II. This project was cancelled, but he was able to teach them
how to play ping pong. Skinner turned to a more domestic endeavour during the war. In 1943,
he built a new type of crib for his second daughter Deborah at his wife's request. The couple
already had a daughter named Julie. This clear box, called the "baby tender," was heated so
that the baby didn't need blankets. There were no slats in the sides either, which also
prevented possible injury.
In 1945, Skinner became the chair of the psychology department at Indiana University. But he
left two years later to return to Harvard as a lecturer. Skinner received a professorship there in
1948 where he remained for the rest of his career. As his children grew, he became interested
in education. Skinner developed a teaching machine to study learning in children. He later
wrote The Technology of Teaching (1968).
Skinner presented a fictional interpretation of some of his views in the 1948 novel Walden
Two, which proposed a type of utopian society. The people in the society were led to be good
citizens through behaviour modificationa system of rewards and punishments. The novel
seemed to undermine Skinner's credibility with some of his academic colleagues. Others
questioned his focus on scientific approaches to the exclusion of less tangible aspects of
human existence.
In the late 1960s and early '70s, Skinner wrote several works applying his behavioural
theories to society, including Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971). He drew fire for seemingly
implying that humans had no free will or individual consciousness. Noam Chomsky was
among Skinner's critics. In 1974, Skinner tried to set the record straight regarding any
misinterpretations of his work with About Behaviourism.

Final Years
In his later years, B.F. Skinner took to chronicling his life and research in a series of
autobiographies. He also continued to be active in the field of behavioural psychologyfield
he helped popularize. In 1989, Skinner was diagnosed with leukaemia. He succumbed to the
disease the following year, dying at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on August 18,
1990.
While many of his behavioural theories have fallen out of favour, Skinner's identification of the
importance of reinforcement remains a critical discovery. He believed that positive
reinforcement was a great tool for shaping behaviour, an idea still valued in numerous
settings including schools today. Skinner's beliefs are still being promoted by the B.F. Skinner
Foundation, which is headed by his daughter, Julie S. Vargas.

Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in with our
instinctual desires.

D. Sigmund Freud; Scholar, Psychiatrist (18561939)

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist best known for developing the theories and
techniques of psychoanalysis.

Synopsis
Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, which is now known as the Czech Republic, on May 6,
1856. Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks
unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient. His
theories on child sexuality, libido and the ego, among other topics, were some of the most
influential academic concepts of the 20th century.

Early Career
Sigmund Freud was born in the Austrian town of Freiberg on May 6, 1856. When he was four
years old his family moved to Vienna, the town where he would live and work for most of the
remainder of his life. He received his medical degree in 1881 and became engaged to marry
the following year. His marriage produced six childrenthe youngest of whom, Anna, was to
herself become a distinguished psychoanalyst. After graduation, Freud promptly set up a
private practice and began treating various psychological disorders. Considering himself first
and foremost a scientist, rather than a doctor, he endeavoured to understand the journey of
human knowledge and experience.
Early in his career, Freud became greatly influenced by the work of his friend and Viennese
colleague, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to
talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, the symptoms sometimes
gradually abated. Inspired by Breuer, Freud posited that neuroses had their origins in deeply
traumatic experiences that had occurred in the patient's past. He believed that the original
occurrences had been forgotten and hidden from consciousness. His treatment was to
empower his patients to recall the experience and bring it to consciousness, and in doing so,
confront it both intellectually and emotionally. He believed one could then discharge it and rid
oneself of the neurotic symptoms. Freud and Breuer published their theories and findings in
Studies in Hysteria (1895).

Controversial Publications
After much work together, Breuer ended the relationship, feeling that Freud placed too much
emphasis on the sexual origins of a patient's neuroses and was completely unwilling to
consider other viewpoints. Freud continued to refine his own argument and in 1900, after a
serious period of self-analysis, published The Interpretation of Dreams. He followed it in 1901
with The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and in 1905 with Three Essays on the Theory of
Sexuality. The great reverence that was later given to Freud's theories was not in evidence for
some years. Most of his contemporaries felt, like Breuer, that his emphasis on sexuality was
either scandalous or overplayed. In 1909, he was invited to give a series of lectures in the
United States. It was after these visits and the publication of his 1916 book, Five Lectures on
Psycho-Analysis that his fame grew exponentially.

Lasting Legacy
Freud's many theoriesincluding those about "psychic energy," the Oedipus complex and the
importance of dreamswere no doubt influenced by other scientific discoveries of his day.
Charles Darwin's understanding of humankind as a progressive element of the animal
kingdom certainly informed Freud's investigation of human behaviour. Additionally, the
formulation of a new principle by Helmholtz, stating that energy in any given physical system
is always constant, informed Freud's scientific inquiries into the human mind. Freud's work
has been both rapturously praised and hotly critiqued, but no one has influenced the science
of psychology as intensely as Sigmund Freud.
After a life of constant inquiry, he committed suicide after requesting a lethal dose of morphine
from his doctor while exiled in England in 1939, following a battle with oral cancer.
E. Edward Bradford Titchener ( 1867 1927 )
Edward Bradford Titchener, (born Jan. 11, 1867, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.died Aug. 3,
1927, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) English-born psychologist and a major figure in the establishment of
experimental psychology in the United States. A disciple of the German psychologist Wilhelm
Wundt, the founder of experimental psychology, Titchener gave Wundts theory on the scope
and method of psychology a precise, systematic expression.
In 1890 Titchener entered Wundts laboratory at the University of Leipzig, and he received his
Ph.D. in 1892. Though he had little personal contact with Wundt, he thoroughly assimilated
and espoused the view that the concern of psychology is the systematic, experimental study
of the normal, adult mind and that its proper, not to say exclusive, method is introspection, or
the precise examination and description of conscious experience. He continued to expound
Wundts views after his arrival at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. (1892), where he became
professor of psychology (18951927).
From 1898 Titchener was the foremost exponent of structural psychology, which concerns
itself with the components and arrangement of mental states and processes. In his ambition
to transplant the psychology established by Wundt and nurtured in Germany, he translated 11
German works, including titles by Wundt and Oswald Klpe. He himself wrote eight works,
many of which went through several revised editions and were translated into a number of
languages. By far the most important was Experimental Psychology, 4 vol. (190105),
consisting of two student manuals and two teachers manuals. Designed to drill students in
laboratory method, the manuals were patterned on those used in qualitative and quantitative
experiments in chemistry.
Among Titcheners other works was A Textbook of Psychology (1910), a comprehensive, yet
concise, exposition of his psychology. Though a charter member of the American
Psychological Association in 1892, he did not remain with it for long. In 1904 he founded the
Society of Experimental Psychologists.
"We have this myth that the only way to learn something is to read it in a textbook or hear a
lecture on it. And the only way to show that we've understood something is to take a short-
answer test or maybe occasionally with an essay question thrown in. But that's nonsense.
Everything can be taught in more than one way."

F. Howard Gardener

Howard Gardner is a developmental psychologist best-known for this theory of multiple


intelligences. He believed that the conventional concept of intelligence was too narrow and
restrictive and that measures of IQ often miss out on other "intelligences" that an individual
may possess. His 1983 book Frames of Mind outlined his theory and his eight major types of
intelligence. Gardner's theory had a particular impact in the field of education where it inspired
teachers and educators to explore new ways of teaching aimed at these different
intelligences.
Best Known For:
Theory of multiple intelligences

Brief Biography
Howard Gardner was born on July 11, 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania. He described himself
as "a studious child who gained much pleasure from playing the piano." He completed his
post-secondary education at Harvard, earning his undergraduate degree in 1965 and his
Ph.D. in 1971.
While he had originally planned to study law, he was inspired by the works of Jean Piaget to
study developmental psychology. He also cited the mentoring he received from the famous
psychoanalyst Erik Erikson as part of the reason why he set his sights on psychology.
"My mind was really opened when I went to Harvard College and had the opportunity to study
under individualssuch as psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, sociologist David Riesman, and
cognitive psychologist Jerome Brunerwho were creating knowledge about human beings.
That helped set me on the course of investigating human nature, particularly how human
beings think," he later explained.
Career and Theories
After spending time working with two very different groups, normal and gifted children and
brain-damaged adults, Gardner began developing a theory designed to synthesize his
research and observations. In 1983, he published Frames of Mind which outlined his theory of
multiple intelligences.
According to this theory, people have many different ways of learning. Unlike traditional
theories of intelligence that focus on one, single general intelligence, Gardner believed that
people instead have multiple different ways of thinking and learning. He has since identified
and described eight different kinds of intelligence:
Visual-spatial intelligence
1. Linguistic-verbal intelligence
2. Mathematical intelligence
3. Kinaesthetic intelligence
4. Musical intelligence
5. Interpersonal intelligence
6. Intrapersonal intelligence
7. Naturalistic intelligence
He has also proposed the possible addition of a ninth type which he refers to as "existential
intelligence."
Gardner's theory has perhaps had the greatest impact within the field of education, where it
has received considerable attention and use.
His conceptualization of intelligence as more than a single, solitary quality has opened the
doors for further research and different ways of thinking about human intelligence.
Researcher Mindy L. Kornhaber has suggested that the theory of multiple intelligences is so
popular within the field of education because it "validates educators' everyday experience:
students think and learn in many different ways. It also provides educators with a conceptual
framework for organizing and reflecting on curriculum assessment and pedagogical practices.
In turn, this reflection has led many educators to develop new approaches that might better
meet the needs of the range of learners in their classrooms."
Gardner currently serves as the Chairman of Steering Committee for Project Zero at the
Harvard Graduate School of Education and as an Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Harvard
University.

Awards
1981, MacArthur Prize Fellowship
1987, William James Award, American Psychological Association
1990, University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award in Education
2000, John S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship
2011, Prince of Asturias Award in Social Sciences

Multiple Intelligences versus Learning Styles


In his 2013 book The App Generation, Gardner and co-author Katie Davis suggest that the
theory of multiple intelligences has too often been conflated with the idea of learning styles.
The two are not the same; Gardner explains and uses a computer analogy to demonstrate the
differences between the ideas.
Traditional conceptions of a single intelligence suggest that the mind possesses a single,
central and all-purpose "computer" suggests Gardner in his book. This computer then
determines how people perform in every aspect of their lives. Gardner's conception of multiple
intelligences, on the other hand, proposes that the mind possess a number of "computers"
that act mostly independently of one another and contribute to different mental abilities.
Gardner believes that people may have somewhere between seven and 10 distinctly different
intelligences.
Learning styles, on the other hand, relate to an individual's personality and learning
preferences. The problem with the concept of learning styles, Gardner explains, is that not
only are they only vaguely defined, research has found little evidence that teaching to a
student's preferred style has an effect on learning outcomes.
Gardner distinguishes between his multiple intelligences and the idea of learning styles by
defining intelligences as a mental computational power in a certain area such as verbal ability
or spatial intelligence. He defines learning styles as how an individual learner approaches
different educational materials.
G. Max Wertheimer, Czech psychologist (1880-1943)
Max Wertheimer, (born April 15, 1880, Praguedied Oct. 12, 1943, New Rochelle, N.Y.,
U.S.) Czech-born psychologist, one of the founders, with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Khler, of
Gestalt psychology, which attempts to examine psychological phenomena as structural
wholes, rather than breaking them down into components.
During his adolescence, Wertheimer played the violin, composed symphonic and chamber
music, and generally seemed destined to become a musician. In 1900 he began to study law
at Charles University in Prague but was soon drawn to the philosophy of law and then to the
psychology of courtroom testimony. The following year he left Prague to study psychology at
Friedrich-Wilhelm University in Berlin, under Carl Stumpf, noted for his contributions to the
psychology of music.
Wertheimer received his Ph.D. from the University of Wrzburg in 1904, developing a lie
detector for the objective study of testimony and devising a method of word association as
part of his doctoral dissertation. He then carried out research in various areas at Prague,
Berlin, and Vienna, becoming particularly interested in the perception of complex and
ambiguous structures. He discovered that feebleminded children can solve problems when
they can grasp the overall structures involved, and he began to formulate the ideas that would
later take root in Gestalt psychology.
While on a train trip in 1910, Wertheimer became intrigued by the phenomenon of perception
of motion and stopped at Frankfurt long enough to buy a toy stroboscope with which to test
his ideas. He noted that two lights flashed through small apertures in a darkened room at
short intervals would appear to be one light in motion; this perception of movement in a
stationary object, called the phi phenomenon, became a basis for Gestalt psychology. He
studied the phi phenomenon with two assistants, Wolfgang Khler and Kurt Koffka.
Convinced that the segmented approach of most psychologists to the study of human
behaviour was inadequate, Wertheimer, Khler, and Koffka formed the new Gestalt school.
During his early work leading to Gestalt psychology, Wertheimer was on the faculty of the
University of Frankfurt, leaving to become a lecturer at Friedrich-Wilhelm University in Berlin
(191629). In 1921, with others, he founded Psychologische Forschung (Psychological
Research), the journal that was to be the central organ of the Gestalt movement. Wertheimer
returned to Frankfurt as professor of psychology (1929), directing research in social and
experimental psychology. Wertheimer criticized the current educational emphasis on
traditional logic and association, arguing that such problem-solving processes as grouping
and reorganization, which dealt with problems as structural wholes, were not recognized in
logic but were important techniques in human thinking. Related to this argument was
Wertheimers concept of Pragnanz (precision) in organization; when things are grasped as
wholes, the minimal amount of energy is exerted in thinking. To Wertheimer, truth was
determined by the entire structure of experience rather than by individual sensations or
perceptions.
Although much of Wertheimers work dealt with perception, the Gestalt school soon was
extended to other areas of psychology, always emphasizing dynamic analysis and the relation
of elements within a structured whole, taking as its basic attitude the concept that the whole is
greater than the sum of its parts.
Wertheimer fled from Germany to the United States shortly before the Nazis came to power in
1933. He became a professor at the New School for Social Research in New York City, where
he remained until his death. During the last years of his life, Wertheimer devoted himself to
problems of psychology and social ethics. His Productive Thinking, which discussed many of
his ideas, was published
H. Alfred Adler (1870 1937)
Alfred Adler was an Austrian doctor and therapist who is best-known for forming the school of
thought known as individual psychology. He is also remembered for his concept of the
inferiority complex, which he believed played a major part in the formation of personality. Alder
was initially a colleague of Sigmund Freud, helped establish psychoanalysis, and was a
founding member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.
Adler's theory focused on looking at the individual as a whole, which is why he referred to his
approach as individual psychology. Adler was eventually expelled from Freud's psychoanalytic
circle, but he went on to have a tremendous impact on the development of psychotherapy. He
also had an important influence on many other great thinkers including Abraham Maslow and
Albert Ellis.

Best Known For:


Individual Psychology
The concept of the inferiority complex
President of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, 1910

Birth and Death:


Alfred Adler was born February 7, 1870. He died May 28, 1937.

Early Life
Alfred Adler was born in Vienna, Austria. He suffered rickets as a young child which prevented
him from walking until the age of four. Due to his health problems as a child, Adler decided he
would become a physician and, after graduating from the University of Vienna in 1895 with a
medical degree, began his career as an ophthalmologist and later switched to general
practice.
Career and Later Life:
Alder soon turned his interests toward the field of psychiatry. In1902, Sigmund Freud invited
him to join a psychoanalytic discussion group. This group met each Wednesday in Freud's
home and would eventually grow to become the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. After serving
as President of the group for a time, Adler left in part because of his disagreements with some
of Freud's theories.
While Adler had played a key role in the development of psychoanalysis, he was also one of
the first major figures to break away to form his own school of thought. He was quick to point
out that while he had been a colleague of Freud's, he was in no way a disciple of the famous
Austrian psychiatrist.
In 1912, Alfred Adler founded the Society of Individual Psychology. Adler's theory suggested
that every person has a sense of inferiority. From childhood, people work toward overcoming
this inferiority by asserting their superiority over others. Adler referred to this as 'striving for
superiority' and believed that this drive was the motivating force behind human behaviors,
emotions, and thoughts.

Contributions to Psychology
Alfred Adler's theories have played an essential role in a number of areas including therapy
and child development. Alder's ideas also influenced other important psychologists including:

Abraham Maslow

Carl Rogers
Karen Horney
Rollo May
Erich Fromm
Albert Ellis
Today, his ideas and concepts are often referred to as Adlerian psychology.
While Adler had converted to Christianity, his Jewish heritage led to the Nazi's closing down
his clinics during the 1930s. As a result, Adler immigrated to the United States to take a
professor position at the Long Island College of Medicine. In 1937, Adler went on a lecture
tour and suffered a fatal heart attack in Aberdeen, Scotland.
His family lost track of his cremated remains shortly after his death and the ashes were
presumed lost before being discovered in 2007 at a crematorium in Edinburgh, Scotland. In
2011, 74 years after his death, Adler's ashes were returned to Vienna, Austria.
I. Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Carl Rogers was a 20th century humanist psychologist and the founder of person-centered
psychotherapy.

Early Life
Carl Rogers was born and raised in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois. He was the
fourth of six children of Walter Rogers and Julia Cushing. Rogers was schooled in a strict,
religious environment. Originally, he planned to study agriculture at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, with an undergraduate focus on history and religion.
In school, his interests shifted away from agriculture and toward religion; after receiving his
bachelors degree in 1924, he entered a liberal Protestant seminary in New York City, to the
dismay of his conservative father. Rogers spent two years in seminary before transferring to
Columbia University Teachers College, where he worked with John Dewey. Rogers received
his masters in 1928 and a PhD in clinical psychology in 1931.

Professional Life
Rogers began his professional career in child psychology in 1930 as the director of the
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. He also lectured at the University of
Rochester between 1935 and 1940. He published The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child
in 1939 and accepted a position as professor of clinical psychology at Ohio State University in
1940. Rogers published his views in Counselling and Psychotherapy, in 1942, outlining his
theory that a person could gain the awareness necessary to transform his or her life by
developing a respectful, nonjudgmental, and accepting relationship with a therapist.
Rogers moved to Chicago in 1945 to work as a professor. He established a counselling centre
there and published results of his research in Client-Centered Therapy, in 1951 and
Psychotherapy and Personality Change in 1954. Later, Rogers returned to the University of
Wisconsin, where he remained until he moved to California in 1963 to join the staff of Western
Behavioural Sciences Institute. In 1968, some of the staff at the institute joined Carl Rogers in
developing the Centre for Studies of the Person. He remained in La Jolla, California until his
death in 1987.

Contribution to Psychology
Rogers embraced the ideas of Abraham Maslow's humanism, and he also believed that
personal growth was dependent upon environment. This belief became the basis for his
development of client-centered therapy, later renamed person-centered therapy.
While teaching at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Rogers wrote one of his most famous
books, On Becoming a Person, in which he claimed that people have their own resources for
healing and personal growth. Rogers introduced the concepts of congruence, empathic
understanding, acceptance, and unconditional positive regard into the therapeutic
environment to enhance the outcome for clients. He encouraged counsellors to demonstrate
each of these aspects in order to help the client gain insight, recognize feelings, express self-
concept, and achieve self-acceptance and self-actualization.
Rogers claimed that a self-actualized, fully functioning person had seven key traits:
1. Openness to experience and an abandonment of defensiveness.
2. An existential lifestyle that emphasizes living in the moment without distorting it.
3. Trust in oneself.
4. The ability to freely make choices. Fully functioning people take responsibility for their
own choices, and are highly self-directed.
5. A life of creativity and adaptation, including an abandonment of conformity.
6. The ability to behave reliably and make constructive choices.
7. A full, rich life that involves the full spectrum of human emotions.
Roger's person-centered approach to therapy has widespread acceptance and is applied in
areas of education, cultural relations, nursing, interpersonal relations, and other service and
aid-oriented professions and arenas. Rogerss psychological theories have influenced modern
psychotherapy and have directly impacted the field of mental health.
Rogers also helped to popularize humanism in psychology. The humanistic psychology
movement focused on the human experience of freedom, choice, values, and goals. It
departed from traditional psychoanalysis and behaviourism in that it focused on the complete
psychological health of a client, rather than simply treating symptoms, and it empowered the
client to reach his or her full potential and direct the course of therapy, rather than the
therapist diagnosing and assessing the client objectively.
Rogers spent many of his final years working to end oppression and cultural conflict. He
helped unite Catholics and Protestants in Ireland and fought to end apartheid in South Africa.
J. Stanley Hall (1844 1924)
American psychologist
G. Stanley Hall, in full Granville Stanley Hall (born February 1, 1844, Ashfield,
Massachusetts, U.S.died April 24, 1924, Worcester, Massachusetts) psychologist who gave
early impetus and direction to the development of psychology in the United States. Frequently
regarded as the founder of child psychology and educational psychology, he also did much to
direct into the psychological currents of his time the ideas of Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud,
and others.
Hall graduated from Williams College in 1867. Although he originally intended to enter the
ministry, he left Union Theological Seminary in New York City after one year (186768) to
study philosophy in Germany (186871). He became a lecturer at Antioch College in Ohio in
1872. His decision to adopt psychology as his lifes work was inspired by a partial reading of
Physiological Psychology (187374), by Wilhelm Wundt, generally considered the founder of
experimental psychology. Hall resigned his post at Antioch in 1876 and returned to Germany
for further study, becoming acquainted with Wundt and the German physicist and physiologist
Hermann von Helmholtz. There Hall discovered the value of the questionnaire for
psychological research. Later he and his students devised more than 190 questionnaires,
which were instrumental in stimulating the upsurge of interest in the study of child
development.
After returning to the United States, Hall in 1878 earned from Harvard University the first
Ph.D. degree in psychology granted in America. He then gave special lectures on education
at Harvard, and he used questionnaires from a study of Boston schools to write two significant
papers: one dealing with childrens lies (1882) and the other with the contents of childrens
minds (1883).
A lectureship in philosophy (1883) and a professorship in psychology and pedagogics (1884)
at Johns Hopkins University followed. There Hall was given space for one of the first
psychological laboratories in the United States. The philosopher-psychologist-educator John
Dewey was one of the first to use it. In 1887 Hall founded the American Journal of
Psychology, the first such American journal and the second of any significance outside
Germany.
Hall was entering the most influential period of his life. The following year (1888), he helped to
establish Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, and, as the universitys president and
a professor of psychology, he became a major force in shaping experimental psychology into
a science. A great teacher, he inspired research that reached into all areas of psychology. By
1893 he had awarded 11 of the 14 doctorates in psychology granted in the United States. The
first journal in the fields of child and educational psychology, the Pedagogical Seminary (later
the Journal of Genetic Psychology), was founded by Hall in 1893.
Halls theory that mental growth proceeds by evolutionary stages is best expressed in one of
his largest and most important works, Adolescence (1904). Despite opposition, Hall, as an
early proponent of psychoanalysis, invited Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to the conferences
celebrating Clark Universitys 20th anniversary (1909). Hall was a leading spirit in the
founding of the American Psychological Association and served as its first president (1892).
He published 489 works covering most of the major areas of psychology, including
Senescence, the Last Half of Life (1922) and Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology
(1917). Life and Confessions of a Psychologist (1923) was his autobiography.

K. Raymond Cattell (1905-1998)


Raymond Cattell was a 20th century psychologist who developed the concepts of fluid and
crystallized intelligence and identified 16 Personality Factors.

Personal Life
Raymond Cattell was born in a small town in England in 1905. He was raised in Torquay,
Devon, England, where he spent his time sailing and experimenting with science. He received
a scholarship to the University of London, where he studied chemistry and physics as an
undergraduate.
Cattell was fascinated by the cultural effects of World War I and grew increasingly interested
in psychology. He changed his major and graduated from the University of London with a PhD
in psychology in 1929. Cattell settled in Leicester, England, and founded the first guidance
clinic for children in England while in Leicester.

Professional Life
Cattell was offered a teaching position at Columbia University in 1937 and moved to the
United States, where he worked closely with Edward Thorndike. Next, he accepted the G.
Stanley Hall professorship with Clark University; and in 1941, Cattell joined the faculty at
Harvard University at the invitation of Gordon Allport. He married a student from Radcliffe
College, Alberta Karen Schuettler, and worked with her over the years to conduct much of his
research.
In 1945, Cattell left Harvard to begin a new research laboratory at the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, lured by grant money and the first electronic computer. Cattell
established the Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behaviour at the University
of Illinois, and later established the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. Cattell was
instrumental in the creation of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology and the
journal, Multivariate Behaviour Research. Throughout his life, he worked with researchers
around the world to explore human behaviour with multivariate statistics that allowed the
researchers to evaluate the whole person, rather than measuring one variable against
another as traditional research demonstrated.
After his retirement from the University of Illinois, Cattell settled in Hawaii, where he worked
part-time as a professor at the University of Hawaii. He married again and worked with his
wife, Heather Birkett, to develop the 16-Factor Personality Model. Cattell remained in Hawaii,
sailing, researching, and writing, until his death in 1998. Cattell won the American
Psychological Association's Lifetime Achievement Award when he was 92.

Contribution to Psychology
Recognized as one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century, Cattell is best
known for his development of the 16 Personality Factors model, developed over several
decades of research. In this model, personality is determined by the degree to which a person
possesses each of the 16 personality factors:
1. warmth,
2. reasoning,
3. emotional stability,
4. dominance,
5. liveliness,
6. rule consciousness,
7. social boldness,
8. sensitivity,
9. abstractness,
10. vigilance,
11. privateness,
12. apprehension,
13. openness to change,
14. self-reliance,
15. perfectionism, and
16. tension
Cattell developed the 16 Personality Factory Questionnaire (16PF) for adults and two
separate personality tests for children and adolescents. The examination of these traits has
been applied in a variety of settings to evaluate human traits, such as motivation,
interpersonal skill, conformity, cognitive style, and openness to change. Cattell emphasized
that research should evaluate cultural, genetic, physiological, and familial factors, and it must
be drawn from three domains:
1. Life data: The collection of information from a person's everyday life, including their
reaction to life circumstances and usual behaviour.
2. Experimental data: A subject's reactions to standardized experiments.
3. Questionnaire data: A subject's self-reported personality traits and behaviours.
Questionnaires enable researchers to discern subtle viewpoints and justifications for
behaviours that are otherwise challenging to uncover.
Cattell also developed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence is
the ability to think abstractly, solve problems, and recognize patterns and is unrelated to
knowledge and experience. Logic games tend to evaluate fluid intelligence, and most IQ tests
evaluate both. Crystallized intelligence, by contrast, is a direct result of learning and
experience. Vocabulary, mastery of a foreign language, and learning mathematical formulas
are examples of crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence increases with age, while
fluid intelligence decreases.
L. John B. Watson (1878-1958)
John B. Watson was an early 20th century psychologist who established the psychological
field of behaviourism.

Professional Life
John B. Watson was born on January 9, 1878 in South Carolina. His mother, Emma, was
devoutly religious and named him after a Baptist minister in the hope that he would join the
clergy. She disavowed smoking, drinking, and other vices, but Watson grew into an adult who
openly opposed religion. He had a troubled adolescence, getting arrested for fighting and
disorderly behaviour twice, and performed poorly academically.
With the assistance of his mother's professional connections, Watson was accepted to
Furman University in South Carolina. His academic life turned around dramatically, and he
graduated with a masters degree by the time he was 21. Next, he enrolled in a graduate
program at the University of Chicago, where he studied psychology and began to develop his
behaviourist theories. Watson was heavily influenced by Vladimir Bekhterev and Ivan Pavlov,
and he used principles of experimental physiology to examine all aspects of behaviour. In
1903, Watson presented his dissertation at the University of Chicago and remained there as a
research professor, focusing on learning and sensory input in animals.
In 1908, Watson accepted a faculty position at Johns Hopkins University. During this time,
Watson entered into an affair with one of his graduate students, Rosalie Rayner, while
married to his first wife, Mary Ickes Watson. Watson was asked to leave his position at John
Hopkins University in 1920, and Watson and Rayner were married in 1921. The couple
remained together for 15 years until Rayner's death at the age of 36. After leaving the
teaching profession, Watson entered the field of advertising, rising to an executive position in
only two years. He spearheaded many enormously successful advertising campaigns,
including ads for Ponds Cold Cream and Maxwell House Coffee.
Watson was the grandfather of actress Mariette Hartley, who argued that she developed
psychological problems as a result of being raised according to behaviourist principles. Prior
to his death, Watson burned most of his letters and personal papers. Watson served as
president of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1915, and he received a Gold
Medal for his contributions to his field by the APA shortly before his death in 1958.

Contribution to Psychology
Watson published his groundbreaking article on behaviourism in 1913, Psychology as the
Behaviourist Views It, often referred to as The Behaviourist Manifesto. Because there was
little evidence of a specific behaviour mechanism in his theory, many of Watsons colleagues
did not accept his beliefs as scientifically valid. His 1919 text, Psychology from the Standpoint
of a Behaviourist, was more readily accepted, though Watsons behaviourist theories were not
fully adopted into academia and mainstream psychology for another decade.
Watsons behaviourist theory focused not on the internal emotional and psychological
conditions of people, but rather on their external and outward behaviours. He believed that a
persons physical responses provided the only insight into internal actions. He spent much of
his career applying his theories to the study of child development and early learning.
Watson conducted several experiments exploring emotional learning in children. One of his
most famous experiments was the Little Albert experiment, which explored classical
conditioning using a nine month-old baby boy. In the experiment, Watson demonstrated that
Little Albert could be conditioned to fear something, like a white rat, when no such fear existed
initially. Watson combined a loud noise with the appearance of the rat, in order to create fear
in the baby. The experiment was highly controversial and would likely be considered unethical
by today's research standards.
In 1928, Watson published Psychological Care of Infant and Child, in which he cautioned
against providing children with too much affection, and instead endorsed the practice of
treating children like miniature adults. He believed that excessive early attachments could
contribute to a dependent, needy personality in adulthood, emphasizing that people do not
receive excessive comfort in adulthood and therefore should not receive it in childhood. He
specifically argued against thumb-sucking, coddling, and excessive sentimentality, and he
emphasized that parents should be open and honest with children about sexuality. While the
book sold well in its first year, some found Watsons unsentimental advice chilling. Two years
after the books publication, Watson's wife published an article entitled "I am a Mother of
Behaviourist Sons" in Parents magazine that encouraged the displays of affection that her
husband admonished.
Watson's behaviourism has had a long-lasting impact on the nature-versus-nurture debate,
and his work illuminated the strong role early experiences play in shaping personality. Watson
paved the way for subsequent behaviourists, such as B.F. Skinner, and behaviourism remains
a popular approach for animal training. Some mental health professionals use behaviourist
principles to condition away phobias and fears. In addition, advertisers frequently use
behaviourist conditioning to encourage consumers to purchase products.

M. Abraham Maslow (1908 1970)


Abraham Maslow was a 20th century psychologist who developed a humanistic approach to
psychology. He is best known for his hierarchy of needs.

Early Life
Abraham Harold Maslow was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York; he was the oldest of
seven children. At the prestigious Boys High School in Brooklyn, Maslow excelled
academically and was active in the Latin and physics clubs. Maslow attended the College of
the City of New York and spent one semester at Cornell. Eventually, he transferred to the
University of Wisconsin where he was exposed to psychology courses; he earned his
bachelors degree in psychology in 1930. He taught as an assistant instructor at the university,
and worked under psychologist Harry Harlow, earning his MA in 1931 and PhD in 1934.
He married Bertha Goodman in 1928, and the couple raised two children. Maslow died of a
heart attack in 1970.

Professional Life
In 1935, Maslow returned to New York to work at Columbia Teachers College where he met
and was mentored by Alfred Adler. Later, he worked as a psychology instructor at Brooklyn
College, beginning in 1937, where he developed a relationship with Max Wertheimer, a gestalt
psychologist, and an anthropologist named Ruth Benedict. These two people were not only
Maslows friends, but quickly became the subject of his research. He observed and assessed
them and this formed the foundation for his theories on human potential and psychological
well-being.
From 19511969, Maslow was chair of the psychology department at Brandeis University in
Massachusetts. In the late 1950s, humanistic psychology became increasingly popular, with
Maslow widely regarded as its founding father. He was recognized for his contributions to the
humanistic approach to psychology when he received the honour of Humanist of the Year by
the American Humanist Association in 1967.

Contribution to Psychology
Maslows humanistic psychology is based on the belief that people are born with the desire to
achieve their maximum potential or reach a point Maslow termed self-actualization. Maslow
chose to focus his research on the experiences of emotionally healthy people, and he
identified their peak experiences, moments when they were in complete harmony and
unison with the world around them. Rather than focusing on deficiencies, humanistic
psychologists argue in favour of finding people's strengths.
Maslow argued that his philosophy was a complement to Freudian psychology. He pointed out
that, while Sigmund Freud focused on treating sick people, his approach focused on helping
people discover positive outcomes and choices.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the framework around which humanistic psychology is built.
Like other theories of development, it is a stage-based theory. A person must complete one
level of the hierarchy to move on to the next, but not all people move through all stages. The
original five-stage hierarchy was expanded to a seven-stage model in the 1970s with the
addition of cognitive and aesthetic needs:
Basic physiological needs such as food, shelter, and sleep.

Safety needs such as security, stability, and order.


Social needs such as love, belonging, and friendship.
Esteem needs include acceptance by others, a sense of achievement, and
independence.
Cognitive needs such as intellectual fulfilment and knowledge.
Aesthetic needs include harmony, balance, and beauty.
Self-actualization is the goal of human development and occurs when a person meets
his or her full potential. Self-actualized people are joyful, empathetic, giving, and
fulfilled.
Maslow argued that self-actualized people are driven by metamotivation: rather than seeking
fulfilment of basic needs, they are driven to fulfil their full potential.
Maslow identified two types of cognitition. Deficiency cognition, sometimes called D-cognition,
is a way of thinking that focuses on what one doesn't have and how to get it. Being-cognition,
by contrast, is a form of thinking for people who are self-actualizing. They focus on
acceptance, justice, harmony, simplicity, and similar goals and values.
Maslow's concept of self-actualization continues to be a part of contemporary psychology.
Although only a small portion of therapists identify as humanists, therapists often encourage
their clients to embrace humanistic values by pursuing goals and dreams. Self-actualization is
also a part of the colloquial lexicon, with many people using the term when they're fulfilling a
long-term goal or pursuing activities that lead to greater happiness and fulfilment. Maslow
himself called his work positive psychology, rather than humanist psychology, and positive
psychology has recently gained in popularity.
2.) School of Psychology

School of: Proponent: Year of existence: Major:


1. Functionalism William James 1842-1940 Thinking, learning,
sensations, images
and feelings.
2. Associationism Edward L. Thorndike 1874 1949 Concerned with the
concept that learning
is the formation of
bonds or connections
in the nervous system
3. Behaviourism John Watson 1912 Conscious
experience, conscious
activity, connection or
bonds
4. Gestalt School Max Wertheimer 1912 Maintains that
behaviour is a whole
pattern of organized
experience
5. Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud 1911-1912 To cure or to treat
School abnormal behaviour;
Psychological Type
Theory of Personality
6. Purposivism Views objects,
movements in the
behaviour