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T H E L A N D M A R K

H E RO D OT U S
THE HISTORI ES

A New Translation by Andrea L. Purvis


with Maps, Annotations, Appendices, and Encyclopedic Index

Edited by Robert B. Strassler


With an Introduction by Rosalind Thomas

PA N T H E O N B O O K S N E W YO R K
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Copyright 2007 by Robert B. Strassler

All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Pantheon Books, a division of Random
House, Inc., New York, and in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto.

Pantheon Books and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Herodotus.
[History. English]
The landmark Herodotus : the histories / edited by Robert B. Strassler ; translated by Andrea L.
Purvis.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 9780375421099
1. History, Ancient. 2. GreeceHistoryTo 146 B.C. I. Strassler, Robert B., 1937
II. Purvis, Andrea L. III. Title.
D58.H4713 2007 930dc22 2007024149

Designed by Kim Llewellyn


Maps by Topaz Maps, Inc.
Index by Margot Levy
Photo research by Ingrid MacGillis

www.pantheonbooks.com

Printed in the United States of America

First Edition

987654321
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CONTE NTS
Introduction by Rosalind Thomas ix
Editors Preface by Robert B. Strassler xxxvii
Translators Preface by Andrea L. Purvis xlix
Dated Outline of Text li
Key to Maps lxiv
BOOK ONE 1
BOOK TWO 115
BOOK THREE 205
BOOK FOUR 279
BOOK FIVE 365
BOOK SIX 425
BOOK SEVEN 491
BOOK EIGHT 599
BOOK NINE 663
Appendix A The Athenian Government in Herodotus
Peter Krentz, Davidson College 723
Appendix B The Spartan State in War and Peace
Paul Cartledge, University of Cambridge 728
Appendix C The Account of Egypt: Herodotus Right and Wrong
Alan B. Lloyd, University of Wales 737
Appendix D Herodotean Geography
James Romm, Bard College 744
Appendix E Herodotus and the Black Sea Region
Everett L. Wheeler, Duke University 748
Appendix F Rivers and Peoples of Scythia
Everett L. Wheeler, Duke University 756
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CONTENTS

Appendix G The Continuity of Steppe Culture


Everett L. Wheeler, Duke University 759
Appendix H The Ionian Revolt
George L. Cawkwell, University College, Oxford 762
Appendix I Classical Greek Religious Festivals
Gregory Crane, Tufts University 769
Appendix J Ancient Greek Units of Currency, Weight, and Distance
Thomas R. Martin, College of the Holy Cross 773
Appendix K Dialect and Ethnic Groups in Herodotus
William F. Wyatt, Brown University 781
Appendix L Aristocratic Families in Herodotus
Carolyn Higbie, State University of New York, Buffalo 786
Appendix M Herodotus on Persia and the Persian Empire
Christopher Tuplin, University of Liverpool 792
Appendix N Hoplite Warfare in Herodotus
J. W. I. Lee, University of California, Santa Barbara 798
Appendix O The Persian Army in Herodotus
J. W. I. Lee, University of California, Santa Barbara 805
Appendix P Oracles, Religion, and Politics in Herodotus
Donald Lateiner, Ohio Wesleyan University 810
Appendix Q Herodotus and the Poets
Andrew Ford, Princeton University 816
Appendix R The Size of Xerxes Expeditionary Force
Michael A. Flower, Princeton University 819
Appendix S Trireme Warfare in Herodotus
Nicolle Hirschfeld, Trinity University 824
Appendix T Tyranny in Herodotus
Carolyn Dewald, Bard College 835
Appendix U On Women and Marriage in Herodotus
Carolyn Dewald, Bard College 838
Glossary 843
Ancient Sources 846
Bibliography for the General Reader 848
Figure Credits 850
Index 851
Reference Maps 951

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I N T RO D U C T I O N
Rosalind Thomas

1. Opening Remarks
1.1. Herodotus Histories trace the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians
which culminated in the Persian Wars in the great battles of Thermopylae, Salamis,
Plataea, and Mycale (480479),a a generation or so before he was writing. He
described his theme as comprising both the achievements of Greeks and barbarians,
and also the reasons why they came into conflict (Book 1, Proem). This suggests
that he sought the causes of the conflict in factors that took one back deep into the
past and into the characteristics of each society. He implies that he saw the deep-
seated causes in cultural antagonism of Greek and non-Greek, but he went out of
his way to describe the achievements and customs of many non-Greek peoples with
astonishing sensitivity and lack of prejudice. The Histories are the first work in the
Western tradition that are recognizably a work of history to our eyes, for they cover
the recent human past (as opposed to a concentration on myths and legends), they
search for causes, and they are critical of_ different accounts. Herodotus own
description of them as an inquiry, a historie , has given us our word history, and
he has been acknowledged as the father of history. He also has a claim to be the
first to write a major work on geography and ethnography. His interests were
omnivorous, from natural history to anthropology, from early legend to the events
of the recent past: he was interested in the nature of the Greek defense against the
Persians, or the nature of Greek liberty, as well as in stranger and more exotic tales
about gold-digging ants or other wondrous animals in the East. The Histories are
the first long work in prose (rather than verse) which might rival the Homeric epics
in scale of conception and length. Shorter works in prose had appeared before, but
the Histories must in their time have been revolutionary.
1.2. Who, then, was Herodotus? As with most ancient Greek authors, we have
little reliable information, and the later ancient biographers may have invented
biographical facts by drawing from the content of the Histories themselves, as was
common in ancient biographies of writers. He was born in Halicarnassus a in Asia
Minor,b now modern Bodrum in western Turkey. He spent much of his life in exile,
Intro.1.1a All dates in this edition of Herodotus and in Intro.1.2a Halicarnassus: Map Intro.1.
its supporting materials are B.C.E. (Before the Intro.1.2b Asia Minor (Asia): Map Intro.1, locator.
Common Era), unless otherwise specified.

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INTRODUCTION

spending some time in Samos,c some in Athens,d and apparently ending up in Thurii,e
the Athenian Panhellenic colony founded in south Italy (Aristotle in the fourth
century knew him as Herodotus of Thurii). The Histories themselves provide the
evidence for his extensive travels in the Greek world, Asia Minor, Phoenicia, Egypt and
North Africa,f and perhaps the Black Sea g (see below). Unlike in many modern travel-
ogues, the main focus of interest is not on the traveling itself but on the information
it yields, so again the personal elements are not extensive. His life spanned much of
the fifth century: here there is no reason to doubt the ancient tradition that he was
born at roughly the time of the Persian Wars (480479), and he probably lived into
the 420s, since the Histories make references to events in Greece early in the Pelo-
ponnesian War of 431404. It is usually thought that he was active as researcher and
writer from the 450s to the 420s. The Histories clearly constituted a lifes work.

2. The Historical Background


2.1. The beginning of this period saw the triumph of the Greek mainland states
over the might of the Persian Empire, first in the initial invasion of 490 and the battle
of Marathon,a then in the second invasion of 480/79, with the battles of Thermopylae,
Salamis, Plataea, and finally Mycaleb in Asia Minor. This unexpected victory resonated
in Greek consciousness through the fifth century and indeed beyond, and it is impor-
tant to recall this when reading Herodotus, who was researching a generation or two
after the Greek victory. It helped crystallize Greeks attitudes to their own way of life
and values, intensified their supreme distrust of monarchy and tyranny, and shaped
their attitude to the Persians. In more practical terms, Athens naval success in the
Persian Wars and its enterprise immediately after led to the creation of the Athenian
Empire, which started as an anti-Persian league and lasted for almost three-quarters of a
century (479404). As the Spartansc were increasingly reluctant to continue anti-
Persian activity into the Hellespont and Asia Minor, the Athenians were free to create
their maritime league composed of many smaller Greek states situated around the
Aegean and up into the Hellespont.d Athenian power grew steadily and Athens even
tried a disastrous expedition to help Egypt rebel against the Persian King. As her radical
democracy developed from the 460s, conflict arose between her and the other power-
ful Greek states, particularly Corinth e and Sparta and the members of Spartas Pelopon-
nesian League. By the late 430s tensions had reached their height. War broke out in
431 between Athens and her allies and Sparta and hers. Athens was now a tyrant city,
the Corinthians claimed (Thucydides 1.122.3; generally, 1.6871, 1.120124), and
Greece must now be freed from Athens. Greece had been freed from the Persiansf only
to be enslaved by Athens. The great historian of this later war, Thucydides, was succes-
sor and rival to Herodotus. As he makes his Athenian speakers remark in the opening
book of his history, they are weary of pointing out that the Athenian Empire is justified

Intro.1.2c Samos: Map Intro.1. Intro.2.1b Battle sites of 480: Thermopylae and Salamis,
Intro.1.2d Athens: Map Intro.1. of 479, Plataea and Mycale: Map Intro.1.
Intro.1.2e Thurii: Map Intro.1, locator. Intro.2.1c Sparta: Map Intro.1.
Intro.1.2f Phoenicia, Egypt, and North Africa (Libya): Intro.2.1d Aegean Sea: Map Intro.1. Hellespont: Map
Map Intro.2. Intro.1, locator.
Intro.1.2g Euxine (Black) Sea: Map Intro.1, locator. Intro.2.1e Corinth: Map Intro.1.
Intro.2.1a Marathon: Map Intro.1. Intro.2.1f Persia: Map Intro.2.

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DAT E D O U T L I N E O F T E XT

Book 1
Proem, 1.1 Herodotus identifies himself, describes his subject, and states
his purpose in writing the Histories. 450420?
1.25 ASIA-GREECE Abductions of various Greek and Asian women.
1.629 LYDIA HISTORIES BEGIN: CROESUS OF LYDIA 716547/46
1.712 LYDIA Gyges kills Kandaules and becomes king of Lydia. 716?
1.1314 LYDIA Gyges is confirmed by Delphic oracle; his reign. 716678
1.15 LYDIA Ardys reign; captures Priene, invades Miletus, Cimmerians. 678629
1.1617 LYDIA Sadyattes reign; drives out Cimmerians, takes Smyrna. 629617
1.1822 LYDIA-MILETUS Alyattes reign; makes peace with Miletus. 617560
1.23 CORINTH Periandros (r. 627587) informs Thrasyboulos of the oracle.
1.24 TARAS-CORINTH The tale of Arion.
1.25 LYDIA-DELPHI Alyattes gifts to Delphi. 617560?
1.2692 LYDIA CROESUS REIGN: CONQUERS GREEKS IN ASIA;
DEFEATED BY CYRUS 560547/46
1.2933 LYDIA Croesus and Solon.
1.3445 LYDIA The story of Adrastus; death of Atys, Croesus son.
1.4656 LYDIA Croesus decides to attack Persia, tests oracles, rewards some. 550?
1.5758 Herodotus speculates on language of the Pelasgians.
1.5964 ATHENS Peisistratos rise to tyrannical power at Athens. (r. c. 561556, 555??, 546528)
1.65 SPARTA Lykourgos reforms and establishes the Spartan government.
1.6668 SPARTA Spartan conflict with Tegea.
1.6970 SPARTA Spartans agree to assist Croesus. 548547
1.711.73 CAPPADOCIA Lydians cross the Halys River into Persian-controlled territory. 547?
1.7475 CAPPADOCIA Thales predicts eclipse (585); diverts Halys River (547?).

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Key to Maps

Map Configurations Typography

AS I A
Locator map Continents; regions
AEOLIS

Athens
Large cities; other locations
Main map Heliopolis

Kadousians Peoples and tribes


Inset map
Halys R. Bodies of water; islands; promontories

MT. OLYMPUS Mountains

Cultural Features Natural Features

Settlements Mountain; mountain range

Deme
Cliff or escarpment
Fortified place
River
Temple

Battle site Marsh


Road
Seas and lakes
City walls and fortifications (approximate extent in Classical Period)

Distance Conversions
Wherever possible and appropriate, I have converted Herodotus original units of distance
(stades, plethra, cubits, etc.) into miles and feet, and noted in a footnote the original units
that are cited in the text. In calculating modern units, unless the text specifies other units, I
have assumed the use of the Attic stade of 583 feet and the more or less standard cubit of one
and a half feet. The reader should realize, however, that different standard stade and cubit
units were in use in the ancient Mediterranean world, and Herodotus might have had one of
them in mind when he gave his measurements, so that we can never know the actual lengths
with any precision. See Appendix J, Units of Currency, Weight, and Distance.

Dates
All dates in this volume and in its supporting materials are B.C.E. (Before the Common Era),
unless otherwise specified.

lxiv
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BOOK TWO
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W
hen Cyrus died, the kingship was
inherited by Cambyses. He was the son of Cyrus by Cassandane daughter
2.1
530
Cambyses succeeds Cyrus
of Pharnaspes. Cassandane had died before Cyrus, and he had grieved for and prepares to attack Egypt.
her with great sorrow and ordered all of his subjects to grieve for her, too.
[2] As the son of this woman and Cyrus, Cambyses considered the Ioniansa
and Aeoliansb as his slaves whom he had inherited from his father, and when
he made his expedition to Egypt,c he took with him these Hellenes who
were under his rule, along with the rest of his subjects.
Now, before Psammetichos became king, the Egyptians used to believe 2.2
that they were the earliest humans. But upon assuming the kingship, Psam- EGYPT
Psammetichos (r. 664610)
metichos became eager to ascertain which people were really the first; and of Egypt determines by
ever since his reign, the Egyptians consider that the Phrygiansb lived before experiment that Phrygians
they did, but that they themselves existed prior to all the rest of humanity. were the earliest people
on earth.
[2] Unable to find a means of discovering who were the first humans by
making inquiries, Psammetichos devised an experiment. He selected two
newborn children from ordinary people and gave them to a shepherd to
take into his flocks and raise according to the following instructions: no one
was to utter a word in their presence; the shepherd should place them in a
secluded hut by themselves and at appropriate intervals bring in the goats,
give the children their fill of milk, and then tend to the rest of their needs.
[3] The reason he gave these instructions was because he wished to listen to
the children after they had outgrown their inarticulate crying and to find
out what word they would speak first. And everything turned out as he
planned, for the shepherd had followed his orders for two years when one
day, as he opened the door and entered, both children rushed at him with
outstretched hands, crying out bekos. [4] At first the shepherd kept quiet
about having heard this, but when the word bekos was repeated again and
again as he came and went in his care for the children, he told his master. At
his command the shepherd brought the children into his presence, and

2.1.2a Ionia: Map 1.204, inset. Account of Egypt: Herodotus Right and
2.1.2b Aeolis: Map 1.204, inset. Wrong, 1.
2.1.2c Egypt: Map 1.204. See Appendix C, The 2.2.1b Phrygia: Map 1.204.

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Herodotus Egyptian sources EGYPT BOOK TWO

Psammetichos himself heard the word. When he inquired which people


might use the word bekos, he discovered that the word bekos means bread
in the Phrygian language. [5] Thus the Egyptians accepted this evidence and
concluded that the Phrygians are older than themselves. I heard this account
from the priests of Hephaistos at Memphis.a Hellenes tell many different silly
storiesfor example, there is one that Psammetichos cut out the tongues of
some women and made the children live with them.
2.3 Such are the stories told about how the children were raised. But I heard
EGYPT other things in Memphis, too, when I conversed with the priests of Hephais-
Herodotus lists some of his
Egyptian sources. tos. And I also went to Thebes a and Heliopolis,b since I wanted to see if they
agreed with what was said in Memphis. For of all the Egyptians, the
Heliopolitans are said to be the most learned in tradition. [2] I have no desire
to relate what I heard about matters concerning the gods, other than their
names alone, since I believe that all people understand these things equally.
But when my discussion forces me to mention these things, I shall do so.
2.4 As to all matters concerning the human world, they were in agreement.
EGYPT They said that the Egyptians were the first of all peoples to discover the
The Egyptian calendar is
superior to the Greek. year, by dividing up the seasons into twelve parts to total one year, and that
Herodotus is told that the they discovered how to do this from the stars. The Egyptians seem to me to
first ruler of all Egypt is Min, be much wiser than the Hellenes in the way they regulate the timing of the
who is thought to have
reigned c. 3000. seasons. While the Hellenes attempt to preserve the timing of the seasons
by inserting an intercalary month every other year, the Egyptians divide the
year into twelve months of thirty days each and add just five days each year
beyond that number, and thus their seasons do return at the same periods
in the cycle from year to year.
[2] They said that the Egyptians were also the first to establish the tradi-
tion of identifying namesa for the twelve gods, and that the Hellenes adopted
this practice from them. They were also the first to assign altars, statues, and
temples to the gods and to carve their figures in relief on stone. The priests
in fact demonstrated with proofs that these claims were valid, but they could
only assert that the first man to be king of Egypt was Min.b [3] During his
reign, they said, all Egypt was swamp except for the district of Thebes, and
none of it protruded above water beyond what is now the lake of Moeris,a
which lies at a seven-day voyage upriver from the sea.
2.5 It seemed to me that they accurately described the nature of their land.
EGYPT For even if one has not heard about it in advance, it is obvious to anyone
Egypt consists of mud
deposited by the Nile River. with common sense when he sees it for himself: the Egypt to which the
Hellenes sail is land that was deposited by the riverit is the gift of the river
to the Egyptians, as is also the area south of the lake as far as a three-day
voyage upriver. Although they said nothing further about this, there is
2.2.5a Memphis: Map 2.6, Egypt inset. means that the Egyptians were the first to
2.3.1a Thebes, Egypt: Map 2.6, Egypt inset. use specific and particular names for each
2.3.1b Heliopolis: Map 2.6, Egypt inset. The divinity in contrast to theoi/godsa col-
name means City of the Sun; in Egypt- lective designation.
ian, the House/Abode of Ra/Re. 2.4.2b Min is Menes. See 2.99.
2.4.2a Herodotus uses a word which literally 2.4.3a Lake Moeris: Map 2.6, Egypt inset.
means epithet here. He probably

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BOOK TWO EGYPT Length of the coast of Egypt

something more to add; [2] the nature of Egypt is such that if you are in a
boat one whole days sail distant from the land and you let down a sound-
ing line, you will bring up mud even to the depth of eleven fathoms.a This
shows just how far the alluvial deposit of the land extends.
The length of the Egyptian seacoast, as we Hellenes define the territory of 2.6
Egypt, is 60 schoinoi,a from the Gulf of Plinthine b to Lake Serbonis,c along EGYPT
Length of the Egyptian
which extends Mount Casius.d It is from this place that the 397 miles are mea- seacoast.
sured. [2] Whoever possesses very little property here measures his land in
fathoms; those who have somewhat more, in stades; those who have much, in
parasangs; and those who have an extremely sizeable portion, in schoinoi. [3]
A parasang is equal to thirty stades; each schoinos, an Egyptian unit of mea-
sure, is equal to sixty stades.a Thus the coast of Egypt is 397 miles in length.b
From the coast, Egypt extends inland as far as Heliopolis in a broad 2.7
expanse, entirely flat, wet, and muddy. The road from the sea to Heliopolis is EGYPT
A description of the
about as long as the road leading from the Altar of the Twelve Gods at dimensions of Egypt.
Athens a to the temple of Olympian Zeus in Pisa.b [2] If one measured the
length of both these roads, one would discover that they are not exactly equal
in length, but that the difference between them is negligible, no more than
one and a half miles by which the road from Athens to Pisa is shorter than the
165 miles a which is the full length of the road from the sea to Heliopolis.
From Heliopolis, Egypt becomes narrow as one travels farther inland. 2.8
For on one side, toward Arabia,a there extends a mountain range from NILE VALLEY
Mountains border both sides
north to south, and toward the south it winds all the way to the sea called of the narrow Nile valley
Erythraean.b In these mountains are the stone quarries from which the above Heliopolis.
stones for the pyramids near Memphis were cut. The mountain range ends
2.5.2a The fathom = 6 feet. See Distance Con- 2.6.3b If one schoinos = 60 stades, then the 60
versions, p. lxiv, and Appendix J, Ancient schoinoi of the coast of Egypt would
Greek Units of Currency, Weight, and equal 3,600 stades, or about 397 miles.
Distance, 4, 5, 19. Herodotus This is a significant overestimate. Just
measurement is wrong; a depth of 11 under 300 miles would be more accurate.
fathoms is encountered much nearer the 2.7.1a Athens: Map 2.6, Aegean inset.
coast of Egypt than a full days sail. 2.7.1b Pisa (Olympia): Map 2.6, Aegean inset.
2.6.1a Herodotus 60 schoinoi comes to 2.7.2a Herodotus actually writes that the differ-
approximately 397 miles. Schoinoi ence between the two distances (Athens to
(skhoinoi): literally, ropes, were an Pisa and the Egyptian coast to Heliopolis)
Egyptian unit of measurement whose is negligible, that between Ayhens and
length can vary. See Appendix J, 57, 19. Pisa (Olympia) being barely one percent
Herodotus occasionally shows off his less than the 1,500 stades which he says
knowledge of foreign terms and units of separate the Egyptian coast from Heliopo-
measure. lis. The distances are not really equivalent
2.6.1b Plinthine Gulf: Map 2.6, Egypt inset. at all. The 1,500 stades between the
2.6.1c Lake Serbonis: Map 2.6, Egypt inset. Egyptian coast and Heliopolis would
Herodotus calls it the Serbonian Marsh in come to some 165 miles, whereas the the
3.5.2. length of the road from Athens to Pisa
2.6.1d Mount Casius: Map 2.6, Egypt inset. (Olympia) is closer to 110 miles. Of
2.6.3a The fathom = 6 feet. course, the coast of Egypt has extended a
The Attic stade = 583 feet. good deal farther north into the sea today
The parasang (30 stades or .5 schoinos) = than it was in Herodotus day. See Appen-
17,490 feet = 3.3 miles. dix C, 3.
The schoinos (60 stades) = 34,980 feet = 2.8.1a Arabia: Map 2.6. The Arabian mountains
6.6 miles. extend along the western bank of the Nile.
But Herodotus may have had different 2.8.1b Erythraean Sea, in this case the sea to the
units in mind when he made his estimate. east of the Nile, i.e., the modern Red Sea:
See Appendix J, 47, 19. Map 2.6 and Egypt inset.

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Mountains border both sides of the Nile valley NILE VALLEY BOOK TWO

E U RO P E

AS I A A S S Y
RI A

SY
Mediterranean Sea

RI
A
ARABIA
L I BYA
Erythraean
Sea
E
TH
IO
Nile R.

PI
A

0 2000 km 2000 mi

Mt. Casius
Plinthine
Gulf Lake
Serbonis
Troy Heliopolis
Achelous R.
Memphis
AEOLIS Lake
Moeris
E G YP T
Teuthrania
Aegean
ACARNANIA Sea
UPPER EGYPT
IONIA
Echinades Athens Erythraean
Islands Ephesus Sea
R.
N

nder
Pisa M a ea
i le
R
.

Thebes

Elephantine
0 200 km 200 mi

0 200 km 200 mi

MAP 2.6
here at the quarries and slopes down toward the Erythraean Sea. This is the
broadest part of the range, so I am told, requiring a two-month journeyc
from east to west, and at its eastern extremity the land produces frankin-
cense. [2] Such is this mountain range, but there is another one on the
Libyan side of Egypt where the pyramids are located, which is composed of
stone. It is coated with sand and it extends parallel to the Arabian mountain
to the south. [3] From Heliopolis a to the south, the land area of Egypt is
not large but becomes a narrow strip which is so long that it requires a four-
2.8.1c There is no place where it can be a two- 2.8.3a Heliopolis: Map 2.6, Egypt inset.
month journey from the Nile west across
this mountain range to the Red Sea.

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APPENDIX A
The Athenian Government in Herodotus

1. Attica, the triangular peninsula of ancient Athens, has a number of plains in


addition to the one around Athens itself: the Plain of Marathon beyond Mount Pente-
likon to the northeast, the Plain of the Mesogaia beyond Mount Hymettos to the east,
and the Thriasian Plain beyond Mount Aigaleos to the west.a These plains might have
supported numerous independent city-states (poleis) of a typical size. According to
Athenian tradition, the legendary Bronze Age hero Theseus had united the twelve
poleis of Attica long ago, although many scholars today place the unification later,
some as late as the end of the sixth century. Certainly Athens in the archaic period
played only a limited role on the broader Greek stage, struggling even to keep its neigh-
bor Megarab from annexing the island of Salamis,c just off the west coast of Attica.
2. At the time of the Persian Wars, the Athenians had a democratic government
in which every adult male citizen was entitled to vote in the Assembly. King Theseus
himself was said to have made a democratic proclamation reducing the powers of
Athens traditional kings in some way, perhaps by recognizing certain families as
Eupatrid (well-born) and creating the Council of the Areiopagos as an advisory
body. But the man Athenians generally credited with creating their democracy was
Solon, archon in 594/93,a who was given extraordinary powers to write laws, not
necessarily in 594/93 but certainly within the first four decades of the sixth century.
3. Legend said that centuries before Solon, Eupatrid archons (leaders or magis-
trates) replaced the kings, at first archons ruling for life, later for ten-year terms, and
finally for a single year. The basileus (king), the polemarchos or polemarch (war
leader), and the eponymous archon (who gave his name to the year) were the first to
be created. Later six thesmothetai (lawgivers) were also named annually, for a total of
nine archons, who became life members of the Council of the Areiopagos after they
left office. The archons had the authority to give final judgments in legal disputes,
and the Council of the Areiopagos supervised the citys affairs.
4. Solons special appointment grew out of increasing tension between rich and
poor. Poor Athenians had fallen into debt, some being sold into slavery when they
A.1a Attica, Athens, Marathon Plain, Mount Pente- A.1b Megara: Map A, inset.
likon, Mesogaia Plain, Mount Hymettos, Thriasian A.1c Salamis: Map a, inset.
Plain, Mount Aigaleos: Map A, inset. A.2a Solon appears at 1.2933. See n. 1.29.1a.

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G L O S S A RY
Achaimenids: royal family of Persian empire. Founded by Cyrus in 550.
acropolis: the citadel or high point of a Greek city; often the site of the original settlement, and in
historic times well stocked with temples and sacred sites, enclosed by its own set of defensive walls.
Aeolians: an ethnic group of Greeks, inhabiting Aegean islands and the west coast of Asia Minor
north of Smyrna.
aegis: Athenas shield or short cloak, with a fringe of snakes and device of Medusas head.
Agiads and Eurypontids: Spartan royal hereditary families, each one supplying one of the two
reigning kings of Sparta.
agora: the agora was the civic center of a Greek polis where all political, commercial, and much
social activity took place. A fundamental feature of every Greek city, it was a marketplace where cit-
izens could buy and sell goods, gossip, and discuss politics or other topics.
akinakes: a type of Persian and Scythian sword. An akinakes was short and straight.
Amphiktyonic League/Amphiktyones: a league made up of representatives from mostly neighbor-
ing states who were selected to maintain, protect, and defend the sanctuary of Delphi. They had
responsibility for administering the sanctuary, and could impose fines, declare sacred wars, and award
contracts for building projects.
angareion: a system organized by the Persians of mounted couriers riding in relays to swiftly carry
royal messages.
archon: a magistrate at Athens, chosen by lot in the later fifth century. The nine archons were con-
cerned with administering justice, overseeing foreign residents of Athens, adjudicating family prop-
erty disputes, and carrying out a variety of other tasks. The eponymous archon gave his name to
the civil year.
Argonauts/Argo : the subject of an ancient Greek epic legend with common themes. To rid himself
of Jason, a dangerous pretender to the throne, King Pelias of Iolkoss in Thessaly, sends him far away
on a journey to bring back the Golden Fleece. Jason gathers a group of noble Minyans, together
with other heroes such as Herakles and Orpheus, and sails off in a ship built by the hero Argos, and
called the Argo, to Colchis on the Black Sea, where the fleece is located. After many harrowing
adventures they arrive at Colchis, where King Aeetes gives them further dangerous tasks to accom-
plish. With the help of Medea, the kings daughter, they successfully complete the tasks and obtain
the Golden Fleece. Then, taking Medea with them, Jason and the Argonauts return to Greece.
battos : a North African word for king.
Bosporus: a narrow strait separating two lands Thracian Bosporus separates Europe from Asia,
the Cimmerian Bosporus separates the Crimea from Eastern Scythia.
Council of Elders/the Gerousia: the senate and highest council of Sparta. The Council was made
up of thirty members over the age of sixty, although it included the two reigning kings of Sparta at
any age. Members, who were limited to certain aristocratic families, were elected and served for life.

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A N C I E N T S O U RC E S
Aelian (c. 170235 C.E.): Roman author and teacher of rhetoric, author of Historical Miscellany.
Aeschylos (525/24426): Athens most successful early tragic playwright. He fought the Persians
at Marathon and probably at Salamis. The titles of 82 plays that he wrote are known to us, but only
seven have survived in their entirety. One of those plays The Persians, is the only eyewitness account
we have of the battle of Salamis.
Aesop: supposed sixth-century author of instructive fables, but there is doubt that he ever existed
as one person.
Alkaios: an aristocrat from Mytilene on Lesbos who wrote lyric poetry c. 620580. Only frag-
ments of his work survive. They include drinking songs, love songs, hymns and political songs. The
work mentioned by Herodotus in 5.95.2 has survived.
Alkman (fl. 654 611): lyric poet who lived in Sparta.
Anaximander (610547): Greek philosopher and mathematician. A friend and pupil of Thales.
Archilochus: Greek lyric poet who flourished c. 650.
Ctesias: a late-fifth-/early-fourth-century doctor at the Persian court, author of a history of Persia,
a geographical treatise, and the first separate work on India, now all lost except for a few fragments.
Diodorus Siculus (fl. 6030): wrote a world history in 40 books, which reproduces elements of
many historians, such as Hekataios, Ctesias, and others.
Hekataios: author of geographical and historical accounts of Asia Minor and the East, late sixth
century, and a source both used and criticized by Herodotus. He also plays a role in Herodotus
account of Ionian history. See 5.36, 5.125126, and 6.137.
Hesiod: flourished c. 700. Poet and author of two works which have come down to us: Works and
Days and Theogony.
Homer: the poet who the Greeks believed to be the author of the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey,
which are thought to have been composed and compiled in the late eighth or early seventh century.
Isocrates: Athenian speechwriter and pamphleteer of the fourth century; he encouraged Greeks to
unite and attack Persia, even under Macedonian leadership.
Pausanias: a travel writer of the second century A.D. who wrote Description of Greece (Periegesis
Hellados).
Pindar (518438): a lyric poet active in the first half of the fifth century until c. 446. He was espe-
cially known for the victory odes he composed for victorious athletes throughout the Greek world.
Pliny the Elder (c. 2379 C.E.): Roman encyclopaedic writer; author of both a history (lost) and a
Natural History which has come down to us.
Plutarch (46120 C.E.): author of a series of biographies known as Plutarchs Lives, and a large
number of essays (Moralia) which have survived.

846
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B I B L I O G RA P H Y F O R
T H E G E N E RA L R E A D E R
Bakker, Egbert J., Irene. J. F. de Jong, and Hans van Wees, eds. Brills Companion to Herodotus
(Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers, 2002).
The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press):
Vol. 3, The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C. (1982).
Vol. 4, Persia, Greece, and the Western Mediterranean c. 525479 B.C. (1998).
Vol. 5, The Fifth Century B.C. (1992).
Cartledge, Paul. Thermopylae, The Battle that Changed the World (Woodstock and New York: Over-
look Press, 2006).
Cawkwell, George L. The Greek Wars (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
Dewald, Carolyn, and John Marincola, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Evans, J. A. S. Herodotus: Explorer of the Past: Three Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1991.
Gould, John. Herodotus. (New York: St. Martins Press, 1989).
Green, Peter. The Greco-Persian Wars (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press,
1996).
Holland, Tom. Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West (London: Little,
Brown, 2005, and Abacus, 2006).
Hornblower, Simon, and Anthony Spawforth, eds. The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed. (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
Lateiner, Donald. The Historical Method of Herodotus (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989).
Munson, Rosaria Vignolo. Telling Wonders: Ethnographic and Political Discourse in the Work of
Herodotus (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2001).
Myers, John. Herodotus: Father of History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958).
Redfield, James. Herodotus the Tourist, Classical Philology 80 (1985): 97118.
Romm, James. Herodotus (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).
Strauss, Barry. The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter that Saved Greece and Western Civiliza-
tion (New York: Simon & Schuster; Reprint, 2005).
Talbert, Richard J., ed. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 2000).
Thomas, Rosalind. Herodotus in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, New ed., 2002).

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RE F E RE N C E MA PS
Directory
This directory lists all the sites known, or possibly known (?) that appear in Herodotus text. Places mentioned only in
the Introduction or appendices have not been included. Places mentioned in the text, but whose locations are not
known are not listed. Names given are the ancient ones used in the text. The numbers that follow each name indicate
the reference map (Ref.15) or the map within the text (identified by book and chapter) on which the location can be
found. Letters, if any, indicate map coordinates.

Abai, Ref.5, BX Aleion Plain, 7.75 Archandropolis, Ref.4, AX Bermion, Mount, 8.134, AX Carthage, Ref.1, BW
Abdera, Ref.2, AX Alopeke (deme), 5.63 Areia, Ref.1, BZ Bisaltia, Ref.2, AX Casius, Mount, Ref.4, AZ
Abydos, Ref.2, AY Alpenos, Ref.5, AX Areiopagos, 8.47, inset Bisanthe, 7.98, AY Caspian Sea, Ref.1, AY
Acarnania, 1.59, BX Amathous, 5.108, inset Argilos, 7.111, AX Bistones, 7.111, AY Caucasus Mountains, Ref.1,
Achaea, Ref.2, CW Ambracia, Ref.2, BW Argos, Ref.5, DX Bistonis, Lake, 7.111, AY AY
Achaea Phthiotis, Ref.5, AX Ammonion, Ref.1, CX Argos, Gulf of, Ref.5, DX Bithynia, Ref.2, AZ Caunus, Ref.2, DZ
Achelous River, Ref.2, BW Ampelos Promontory, Arisba, 1.149, AX Black Cloaks?, Ref.1, AY Cayster River, Ref.2, CY
Acheron River, 8.47, AX 7.123, BY Armenia, Ref.1, BY Black Gulf, 7.58 Cephallania, Ref.2, CW
Achilleion, 5.97, AY Amphiareion, Ref.5, BZ Artace, Ref.2, AY Black River, 7.58 Cephisus River, 8.32, AX
Achilles, Racecourse of, Amphikleia, 8.32, AX Artemision, Ref.5, AY Boebeis, Lake, 7.128, BY Chaeronea, 6.34
4.53, inset Amphipolis, Ref.2, AX Asbystaians, 4.175, BY Boeotia, Ref.5, BY Chalastra, 7.123, AX
Acropolis, 6.105, inset Amphissa, 8.32, BX Ascalon, 1.103, BX Bolbitinic Mouth, Ref.4, AX Chalcedon, Ref.2, AZ
Adramyttium, 7.42 Anactorium, Ref.2, BW Asia, Ref.1, BY Borysthenes (Olbia), Ref.1, Chalcidice, Ref.2, AX
Adramyttium, Gulf of, 7.42 Anagyrous (deme), 8.86, Asian Thrace, 3.90 AX Chalcis, Ref.5, BZ
Adriatic Sea, Ref.1, AX inset Asine, 8.72, BX Borysthenes River, Ref.1, Chalybes, 7.75
Adyrmachidians, 4.175, BY Anaphlystos (deme), 4.93, Asopos River, Ref.5, BY AX Charadra, 8.32, AX
Aegae, 1.149, AY inset Assa?, 7.123, BY Bosporus (Cimmerian), Chemmis, Ref.4, AY
Aegean Sea, Ref.1, BX Anaua, 7.34 Assyria, Ref.1, BY Ref.1, AY Chemmites?, Nome, 2.165,
Aegina, Ref.5, CY Andros, Ref.2, CX Atarbechis, Ref.4, BY Bosporus (Thracian), Ref.2, AX
Aeolis, Ref.2, BY Angites River, 7.111, AX Atarneus, Ref.2, BY AZ Chersonese (Thracian),
Aetolia, Ref.2, CW Angrus River?, 4.53, AX Athena Skiras, 8.86, inset Bottiaia, Ref.2, AX Ref.2, AY
Agathyrsoi, Ref.1, AX Anopaia Path, 7.213, inset Athens, Ref.5, CZ Boubastis, Ref.4, BY Chios, Ref.2, CY
Aglauros Cave, 8.47, inset Anopaia, Mount, 7.213, inset Athos (peninsula), 7.123, Boubastites, Nome, 2.165, Choaspes River?, 1.183
Agora, 8.47, inset Antandros, 5.31, AY BY BY Chorasmia, 3.110
Agrianes River, Ref.2, AY Anthela, 7.213, inset Athos Canal, Ref.2, AX Boudinoi?, Ref.1, AY Chorasmians, Ref.1, AZ
Agrianians, 5.14 Anthemous, 5.97, AX Athos, Mount, Ref.2, BX Boura, 1.146, AX Cilicia, Ref.1, BY
Agylla (Caere), 1.166 Anthylla, 2.97, inset Athribites, Nome, 2.165, Bousiris, Ref.4, AY Cimmerian Bosporus, Ref.1,
Aigai, 1.146, AX Antikyra?, Ref.5, AX BY Bousirites, Nome, 2.165, AY
Aigaleos, Mount, 8.86, inset Anysis?, 2.165, inset, AY Athrys River, 4.53, AX AY Cimmerians?, Ref.1, AY
Aige, 7.123, BY Aparytai, 3.94, AY Atlantic Ocean, Ref.1, AW Bouto, Ref.4, AY Cithaeron, Mount, Ref.5,
Aigeira, 1.146, BX Aphetai?, Ref.5, AY Attica, Ref.5, CZ Brauron, 6.136 CY
Aigilia?, 6.105, AY Aphidna (deme), Ref.5, BZ Augila, 4.175, BY Brindisi, Ref.3, AY Cnidus, Ref.2, DY
Aigion, 1.146, AX Aphrodisias Island, 4.165 Auschisians?, 4.175, BY Brongus River?, 4.53, AX Colchis, Ref.1, AY
Aigospotamos, 9.107, inset Aphytis, 7.123, BX Auseans, Ref.1, BW Brygoi?, 7.186, AX Colophon, Ref.2, CY
Aineia, 7.123, BX Apidanos River, Ref.2, BW Axios River, Ref.2, AX Bucolic Mouth, Ref.4, AY Colossae, 7.34
Ainis, Ref.2, BW Apis, 2.19 Axos, 4.150, BY Bybassian Peninsula, 1.173, Copais, Lake, 8.134, inset
Ainos, Ref.2, AY Apollonia (Hellas), Ref.2, Azania, 6.125, BX inset Corcyra, Ref.2, BW
Aiolidai?, 8.32, BY AW Aziris, 4.165 Byzantium, Ref.2, AZ Corinth, Ref.5, CX
Aisa, 7.123, BX Apollonia (Thrace), Ref.1, Azotos, 2.155 Corinth, Isthmus of, Ref.5,
Akanthos, Ref.2, AX AX Caere/Agylla, 1.166 CY
Akragas, Ref.3, BX Apsinthis, Ref.2, AY Babylon, Ref.1, BY Caicus River, Ref.2, BY Coronea, 6.34
Akraiphiai, 8.134, inset Arabia, Ref.1, CY Babylonia, 3.94, BX Camarina, Ref.3, BX Corsica/Kyrnos, Ref.1, AW
Akrothooi, Ref.2, BX Arabian Gulf, 2.155 Bakalians?, 4.175, BY Canal (Egypt), Ref.4, BZ Cos (island), Ref.2, DY
Alabanda, Ref.2, CY Arados, 7.98, locator Baktria, Ref.1, AZ Canobic Mouth, Ref.4, AX Crathis River, Ref.3, AY
Alalie, Ref.1, AW Aral Sea, Ref.1, AY Baktrians, 3.94, AY Canopus, Ref.4, AX Crete, Ref.1, BX
Alarodians, Ref.1, BY Araxes River, Ref.1, BY Barke, Ref.1, BX Cappadocia, Ref.1, BY Crimea, 4.18, BX
Alazones, 4.53 Arcadia, Ref.2, CW Belbina, Ref.5, DZ Caria, Ref.2, DZ Croton, Ref.3, AY

951
Hdt_RefMaps_951-960_1stPass 8/31/07 3:14 PM Page 954

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