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p of mechanical engineering
g g
November 2015

Instructor: Professor Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque

Room nono. ME231,
ME231 EME building

Text: Class lectures

available at:

Reference Book: B. J. Hamrock, Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication, McGraw Hill, N.Y., 1994.

Lecture hour: Saturday: 6:300 - 7:30 PM and Tuesday: 7:30 9:00 PM

Exams: Midterm & Final Exam Date: TBA

Assignment: All assignments are due at the beginning of the following class.

Paper presentation: At the end of the term, each student must present a recently published paper.

Grading: Midterm Exam 25%

Assignment and presentation -15%
Final Exam 60%

1 Dr. Mahbubur Razzaque

Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and
of related subjects and practices. Its popular English language equivalent is friction,
wear and lubrication. Understanding of tribology principles is essential for the
successful design of machine elements.

When two nominally flat surfaces are placed in contact, surface roughness causes
contact to occur at discrete contact spots
p and g
gives rise to friction and wear.

Friction is the resistance to motion that is experienced whenever one solid body slides
over another. Wear is the removal of material from one or both of two solid surfaces in
a contact.

Lubricants are applied to produce low friction and wear, and provide smooth running
and a satisfactoryy life for machine elements. Lubricants can be liquid,
q solid, or g
The role of surface roughness, mechanisms of friction and wear, and physical and
chemical interactions between the lubricants and the lubricating surfaces must be
understood for optimum reliability of machine elements.

The objective of the course will be to study the basic mechanisms of friction, wear and
lubrication that govern interfacial behavior and the study of the tribological
understanding of most common industrial applications.

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Definition and History of Tribology

The word Tribology was coined in 1966. It is derived from the Greek word tribos, meaning
rubbing so the literal translation would be the science of rubbing. However, it encompasses
studies of surface characterization, adhesion, friction, wear and lubrication.
According to Webster dictionary, Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces
in relative motion and of the related subjects and practices.
Tribology is an interdisciplinary field. Complex surface interactions in a tribological interface
require knowledge of various disciplines:

Materials Physics Chemistry


Solid Tribology
gy Mechanical
Mechanics Interdisciplinary Eng.

Applied Math. Rheology Reliability

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Although the name tribology is relatively new, interest in the constituent part of
tribology is older than recorded history.

Records show the use of wheels from 3500 BC, which shows our ancestors
concern with reducing friction in sliding motion.

The large statues were transported using water-lubricated sleds in 1900 BC


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) first postulated laws governing the motion of a

block sliding over a flat surface. The coefficient of friction,

Friction force
Normal force

In 1699, French physicist G. Amontons rediscovered the laws of friction for dry
sliding between two flat surfaces
Friction force (F) Normal force (W)
Magnitude of friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact.

These observations were verified by Coulomb (1785). He added a third law that
friction force is independent of velocity once motion starts.

He also made clear distinction between static friction and kinetic friction

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Fig. 1.1.1 Egyptians using lubricant to aid movement of colossus, El-Bersheh, Circa 1880 B.C.

This figure shows use of a sledge to transport a heavy statue by

i O
One man ((probably
b bl one off the
h earliest
li llubrication
b i i engineers,
standing on the sledge is pouring a liquid into the path of motion to reduce
friction. Liquid probably was water.

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Principle of hydrodynamic lubrication was made possible by the experimental
studies of Beauchamp Tower (1884) and the theoretical studies of Osborne
Reynolds (1886). This led to rapid development in bearing design and

Wear is much younger field than friction and bearing development. Ragner
H l (1946) made
Holm d one off the
th earliest
li t substantial
b t ti l contributions
t ib ti tto th
the study
t d off

The industrial revolution ((1750-1850)) led to rapid

p development
p of machinery
the use of steam power and railways. The industrial growth led to demand for
better tribology.

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Industrial Significance of Tribology

Tribology is crucial to modern machinery using sliding or rolling surfaces

Schematic diagram of a rotating shaft sup- Schematic diagram of a radial ball bearing
t dbby a th
thrustt and
d a jjournall b

Schematic diagram of (a) lubricated and Schematic diagram of a cam and a translating
(b) unlubricated piston configurations roller follower (tappet)

S h
ti di
diagram off a partially
ti ll fformed
d clip
li S h
ti di
diagram off meshing
hi spur gears
and crater (or face) and flank wear in cutting

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Examples of productive friction are brakes, clutches, driving wheels on trains and
automobiles, bolts and nuts.

E l off productive
d ti wear are writing
iti with
ith a pencil,
il shaving,
h i machining
hi i and

p of unproductive
p friction and wear are g
gears,, cams,, bearing
g and seals and
other internal combustion and aircraft engines.

According to some estimates, losses resulting from ignorance to tribology in the U.S.
4% GNP,
GNP or $200 billion/year in 1966

Approximately one-third of the worlds energy resources appear as friction in one

form or another.

Thus, the importance of friction reduction and wear control cannot be

overemphasized for economic reasons and long term reliability.

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Tribology Affects Day-to-Day Life

Writing is a tribological process. Writing is accomplished by a controlled transfer of

lead (pencil) or ink (pen) to the paper. For example, during writing with a pencil
there should be good adhesion between the lead and paper so that a small quantity
of lead transfers to the paper and the lead should have adequate
toughness/hardness so that it does not fracture/break.

Objective during shaving is to remove hair from the body as efficiently as possible
with minimum discomfort to the skin. Shaving cream is used as a lubricant to
minimize friction between a razor and the skin (discomfort)

Friction is helpful during walking and driving. Without adequate friction, we would
slip and a car would skid!

Tribology is also important in sports. For example, a low friction between the skis
and the ice is desirable during skiing.

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Significance and Origin of Micro/Nanotribology

At most interfaces of technological

g relevance,, contact occurs at numerous asperities.
It is of importance to investigate a single asperity contact in studies of the
fundamental tribological studies.

Development of scanning probe microscopies (scanning tunneling microscope or

STM and atomic force microscope or AFM) and computational techniques for
simulation of tip-surface interactions has led to development of the field on

These studies are needed

to develop fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena on a small scale

to study interfacial phenomena in micro- or nanostructures and performance of

ultra-thin films such as in magnetic storage and MEMS components

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Fig. 1.3.1 Comparisons between macrotribology and micro/nanotribology.

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STM was developed by Drs. Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer and their colleagues
at IBM Zurich Research Lab. In 1981. It allows 3-D images of electrically
conducting surfaces with atomic resolution.

Based on their design of STM, AFM was developed by Dr. Gerd Binnig and his
colleagues in 1985 to measure ultrasmall forces (< 1 N) present between the AFM
tip surface and the sample surface. It can be used for all kinds of surfaces. AFM
and its modifications are used for measurement of surface topography, adhesion,
friction, scratching, wear, lubrication, surface temperatures and elastic/plastic
mechanical properties (such as indentation hardness and modulus of elasticity) on
micro- to nanoscales.

Surface force apparatus (SFA) first developed in 1969, is used to study both static
and dynamic properties of the molecularly thin liquid films sandwiched between two
molecularly smooth surfaces.

Advances in computer-based modeling and simulation methods has allowed

theoretical studies of complex interfacial phenomena with high resolution in space
and time.

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Areas of tribology studies
Definition and History of Tribology
Industrial Significance of Tribology

S lid Surface
S f Characterization
Ch t i ti
Nature of Surfaces
Analysis of Surface Roughness
Measurement of Surface Roughness
Comparison of Measurement Methods

Contact Between Solid Surfaces

Apparent and Real Area of Contact
Analysis of Real Area of Contact
Measurement of Real area of Contact


Solid-Solid Contact
Liquid-Mediated Contact
Friction of Materials

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Interface Temperatures
Thermal Analysis
Temperature Measurements

Wear of Mechanics
Wear of Materials

Fluid Film Lubrication

Regimes of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hydrodynamic Lubrication
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants

Boundary Lubrications
Liquid Lubricants

Definition of Micro/Nanotribology
Friction, Wear and Lubrication
U i and
Using d AFM/RRM

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Fluid Film Lubrication

Fluid film lubrication occurs when opposing bearing surfaces are

completely separated by a lubricant film.

The applied load is carried by pressure generated within the fluid,

andd frictional
f i ti l resistance
it t motion
to ti arises
i entirely
ti l from
f th shearing
the h i
of the viscous fluid.

The performance of fluid film bearings can be determined by

applying well-established principles of fluid mechanics, usually in
terms of slow viscous flow.

Boundary lubrication, where considerable contact between the

f occurs, uses less
l established
t bli h d principles
i i l b t is
but i still
commonly encountered.

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Conformal and Nonconformal Surfaces

Conformal surfaces fit snugly into each

other with a high
g degree
g of ggeometrical
conformity so that the load is carried
over a relatively large area. For
example the lubrication area of a
journal bearing would be 2 times the
radius times the length. The load-
carrying surface area remains
essentially constant while the load is
c e sed.

Fluid film journal bearings (Fig. 1.1) and slider bearings have
conformal surfaces.
surfaces In journal bearings the radial clearance between
the journal and the sleeve is typically one-thousandth of the journal
diameter; in slider bearings the inclination of the bearing surface to
the runner is typically one part in a thousand.
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Many machine elements that are fluid film lubricated have surfaces
h dod not conform
f to eachh other
h well.ll The
Th full
f ll burden
b d off the
h load
l d
must then be carried by a small lubrication area.

The lubrication area of a

nonconformal conjunction is
yp y three orders of
magnitude less than that of a
conformal conjunction. In
general the lubrication area
between nonconformal surfaces
enlarges considerably with
increasing load, but it is still
smaller than the lubrication area
be wee conformal
co o surfaces.
su ces.
Some examples of nonconformal
surfaces are mating gear teeth,
cams and followers,
followers and rolling-
element bearings (Fig. 1.2).
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