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boardfoot computation

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Board Foot- is the unit of measure used in computing volume of lumber. One Board Foot

simply means one square foot by one inch thick or equivalent to 144 cu. inches.

The formula being used in computing board foot is:

txwx

L Board Foot =

12 Where t =thickness in inches

w = width in inches

L = Length in feet

Example:

Compute the board foot of the following lumber: 5 pcs- 2"x6"xl4'

5x2x6x

l4 Bd. ft. =

12 = 70

The above formula could not be used in finding the board foot of logs.

Instead, the following formula is applied:

(D-4)2 x L

16 Bd. ft. =

Where D = smaller diameter of the logs in inches

L =Length of log in feet

4 and 16 = are slab deduction allowance which are constant in the formula

Example:

Find the net board feet of a log with the smaller diameter of 24 inches and 18 feet long.

Solution: 2 (20)2

(24-4) x

x 18 = 450 Bd. Ft.

18

16 CONCRETE

16

Concrete is an artificial stone made out from the mixture of cement, sand, gravel and

water; this is known as plain concrete. Concrete in which reinforcement is embedded in

such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces is called

Reinforced Concrete.

PORTLAND CEMENT

The type of cement that is widely used in various small and large construction including

roads and highways.

ADMIXTURE

A material other than water; aggregates or Portland cement that is used as an ingredient

in concrete added to the batch immediately before or during mixing.

CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS/CHB

The most widely used masonry material for all types of construction such as walls,

partitions, dividers, fences etc.

CONCRETE PROPORTION (VOLUME METHOD)

Class Mixture Cement in Bag Sand Gravel

40 kg. 50 kg. cu. m. cu. m.

A 1:2:4 9.0 7.0 .50 1.0

B 1:2:5 7.5 6.0 .50 1.0

C 1: 3 : 6 6.0 5.0 .50 1.0

Example:

A proposed concrete pavement has a general dimension of 10 cm. thick, 3.00

meters wide and 5.00 meters long. Determine the quantity of cement in bags, sand and

gravel in cubic meters required using class "C" mixture.

SOLUTION -1 (Using 40 kg. Cement)

1. Determine the volume of the proposed concrete pavement.

Volume = Thickness x Width x Length

V = .10 x 3.00 x 5.00

V = 1.5 cubic meters

2. Refer to the Table. Using 40 kg. Cement class C mixture; multiply the

volume by the

Corresponding values:

Cement: 1.5 x 6.0 =9.0 bags

Sand: 1.5 x .50 = .75 cu. m.

Gravel: 1.5 x 1.0 =1.50 cu. m.

3. Take note that the computation is for a 40 kg. cement. Suppose there is

no 40 kilograms

Cement and what is available are 50 kilograms per bag. How many bags will

shall be ordered?

SOLUTION - 2 (Using a 50 kg. Cement)

1. Knowing the volume to be 1.5 cubic meters, refer again to the table. Under

50 kg. cement, using class "C" mixture; multiply the volume by the

corresponding values.

Cement: 1.5 x 5.0 = 7.5 bags

Sand: 1.5 x .50 =.75 cu. m.

Gravel: 1.5 x 1.0 =1.5 cu. m.

Estimating Concrete Hollow Block for masonry work could be done in either of the

following methods:

By Fundamental methods

By the Area methods

Example:

A concrete hollow block wall has a general dimension of 3.00 meters high by 4.00 meters

long. Determine the number of CHB required to construct the wall.

SOLUTION -1 (By Fundamental Method)

1. Divide the height of the fence by the height of one block.

3.00 = 15 layers

.20

2. Divide the length of the fence by the length of one block

4.00 = 10 pieces

.40

3. Multiply the result of step 1 by step 2

15 x 10 = 150 pieces

SOLUTION - 2 (By the Area Method)

One square meter area requires 12.5 pieces concrete hollow blocks. Therefore, by

multiplying the entire area of the wall by 12.5, we find the total number of CHB required.

Thus,

1. Area of the fence; 3.00 x 4.00 m = 12 sq. m.

2. Multiply: 12.00 sq. m. x 12.5 = 150 pieces.

Basic wood joints

In carpentry, joinery is an art of making wood joints.

Butt Joint

This is the simplest but also the weakest wood joint.

Dowel Joint

Are wood or plastic pins placed in matching holes where the two pieces of a joint join.

Rabbet Joint

Is a slot cut at the end or edge of one piece into which the end or edge of a second piece

fits.

Dado Joint

Is a groove cut across the grain of the wood. This type of joint is most appropriate on

making book shelves.

Lap Joint

All lap joints have one thing in common, namely an equal amount of wood is cut from

the two parts to be joined.

Miter Joint

Is an angle joint that hides the end grain of both pieces. The ends of each piece are

usually cut at 45 degrees to form a right angle.

Mortise and Tenon Joint

Are very strong joints found in fine furniture. A mortise is a rectangular hole cut in

wood. A tenon is a projecting piece of wood shaped to fit the mortise.

Finger/Box Joint

A finger joint, also known as a comb or box joint, is a woodworking joint

made by cutting a set of complementary rectangular cuts in two pieces of

wood, which are then glued.

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