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Board Foot Computation

Board Foot- is the unit of measure used in computing volume of lumber. One Board Foot
simply means one square foot by one inch thick or equivalent to 144 cu. inches.
The formula being used in computing board foot is:
txwx
L Board Foot =
12 Where t =thickness in inches
w = width in inches
L = Length in feet
Example:
Compute the board foot of the following lumber: 5 pcs- 2"x6"xl4'
5x2x6x
l4 Bd. ft. =
12 = 70
The above formula could not be used in finding the board foot of logs.
Instead, the following formula is applied:
(D-4)2 x L
16 Bd. ft. =
Where D = smaller diameter of the logs in inches
L =Length of log in feet
4 and 16 = are slab deduction allowance which are constant in the formula
Example:
Find the net board feet of a log with the smaller diameter of 24 inches and 18 feet long.
Solution: 2 (20)2
(24-4) x
x 18 = 450 Bd. Ft.
18
16 CONCRETE
16
Concrete is an artificial stone made out from the mixture of cement, sand, gravel and
water; this is known as plain concrete. Concrete in which reinforcement is embedded in
such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces is called
Reinforced Concrete.
PORTLAND CEMENT
The type of cement that is widely used in various small and large construction including
roads and highways.
ADMIXTURE
A material other than water; aggregates or Portland cement that is used as an ingredient
in concrete added to the batch immediately before or during mixing.
CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS/CHB
The most widely used masonry material for all types of construction such as walls,
partitions, dividers, fences etc.
CONCRETE PROPORTION (VOLUME METHOD)
Class Mixture Cement in Bag Sand Gravel
40 kg. 50 kg. cu. m. cu. m.

AA 1:1:3 12.0 9.5 .50 1.0


A 1:2:4 9.0 7.0 .50 1.0
B 1:2:5 7.5 6.0 .50 1.0
C 1: 3 : 6 6.0 5.0 .50 1.0
Example:
A proposed concrete pavement has a general dimension of 10 cm. thick, 3.00
meters wide and 5.00 meters long. Determine the quantity of cement in bags, sand and
gravel in cubic meters required using class "C" mixture.
SOLUTION -1 (Using 40 kg. Cement)
1. Determine the volume of the proposed concrete pavement.
Volume = Thickness x Width x Length
V = .10 x 3.00 x 5.00
V = 1.5 cubic meters
2. Refer to the Table. Using 40 kg. Cement class C mixture; multiply the
volume by the
Corresponding values:
Cement: 1.5 x 6.0 =9.0 bags
Sand: 1.5 x .50 = .75 cu. m.
Gravel: 1.5 x 1.0 =1.50 cu. m.
3. Take note that the computation is for a 40 kg. cement. Suppose there is
no 40 kilograms
Cement and what is available are 50 kilograms per bag. How many bags will
shall be ordered?
SOLUTION - 2 (Using a 50 kg. Cement)
1. Knowing the volume to be 1.5 cubic meters, refer again to the table. Under
50 kg. cement, using class "C" mixture; multiply the volume by the
corresponding values.
Cement: 1.5 x 5.0 = 7.5 bags
Sand: 1.5 x .50 =.75 cu. m.
Gravel: 1.5 x 1.0 =1.5 cu. m.

ESTIMATING CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCK


Estimating Concrete Hollow Block for masonry work could be done in either of the
following methods:
By Fundamental methods
By the Area methods
Example:
A concrete hollow block wall has a general dimension of 3.00 meters high by 4.00 meters
long. Determine the number of CHB required to construct the wall.
SOLUTION -1 (By Fundamental Method)
1. Divide the height of the fence by the height of one block.
3.00 = 15 layers
.20
2. Divide the length of the fence by the length of one block
4.00 = 10 pieces
.40
3. Multiply the result of step 1 by step 2
15 x 10 = 150 pieces
SOLUTION - 2 (By the Area Method)
One square meter area requires 12.5 pieces concrete hollow blocks. Therefore, by
multiplying the entire area of the wall by 12.5, we find the total number of CHB required.
Thus,
1. Area of the fence; 3.00 x 4.00 m = 12 sq. m.
2. Multiply: 12.00 sq. m. x 12.5 = 150 pieces.
Basic wood joints
In carpentry, joinery is an art of making wood joints.

Butt Joint
This is the simplest but also the weakest wood joint.

Dowel Joint
Are wood or plastic pins placed in matching holes where the two pieces of a joint join.

Rabbet Joint
Is a slot cut at the end or edge of one piece into which the end or edge of a second piece
fits.
Dado Joint
Is a groove cut across the grain of the wood. This type of joint is most appropriate on
making book shelves.
Lap Joint
All lap joints have one thing in common, namely an equal amount of wood is cut from
the two parts to be joined.
Miter Joint
Is an angle joint that hides the end grain of both pieces. The ends of each piece are
usually cut at 45 degrees to form a right angle.
Mortise and Tenon Joint
Are very strong joints found in fine furniture. A mortise is a rectangular hole cut in
wood. A tenon is a projecting piece of wood shaped to fit the mortise.
Finger/Box Joint
A finger joint, also known as a comb or box joint, is a woodworking joint
made by cutting a set of complementary rectangular cuts in two pieces of
wood, which are then glued.