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# Chapter 2

## Density: Fluid Properties

For a homogenous material, density is the same throughout and is defined as:
Mass M
Density ( )

Volume V
The dimensions of Density are :

## The Units of density are:

Nonhomogeneous
The effect of temperature on the density of liquids and gases: fluid??

Incompressible
The effect of pressure on the density of a liquid and gases:
fluid??
Specific Weight () : =.g,

liquid gas
Specific Gravity (S) : S liquid S gas
( water ) 4o C ( air ) 4o C

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Ideal Gas Law:

pv RT

p RT

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Compressibility of Fluids: Can we compress liquids?!

Bulk Modulus: A property of fluids that characterize how easily the volume of a specific mass
of the fluid (and thus the density) can be changed when there is a change in the pressure.

The dimension of the Bulk Modulus is the same as the dimension of Pressure.

Examples: for water En = 2.2 GN/m2. for Ideal Gas En = P. (using ideal gas law and for an
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Vapor Pressure: Why dont we like cavitation?
What is the cause of damage of pumps blades?

Vapor Pressure (Saturation Pressure): The pressure exerted by the fluids vapor in phase
equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. ( the pressure at which the fluid starts to
evaporate at a specific temperature).
Cavitation: the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles in a flowing liquid as the
bubbles are transported from low pressure region to high pressure region.
Cavitation is to be avoided because it can cause structural damage of the piping system,
valves and pumps.

Saturation
Pv Psat Pressure??

Saturation
Temperature??

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Viscosity:
Viscosity is a property that measure the resistance to flow.
(Dimensions and units?)

## Why do we use lubrication?

Why is it more difficult to move our hand in oil than water?

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Viscosity:

## Shearing stress: in solids is proportional to shear strain but in liquids is proportional

to the time rate of strain.

t

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For the common linear fluids

F F
V
A
u
h
Shearing stress
y Dimensions and Units?

du du

dy dy Absolute viscosity, or
Rate of shearing strain, or dynamic viscosity, or
velocity gradient viscosity

Kinematic viscosity = n ( L2 / T )

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Effect of temperature on viscosity

The effect of temperature on viscosity (see figure below) can be closely approximated
using two empirical formulas:

## For gases the Sutherland equation:

3/ 2
T To S
o
To T S

S = Sutherlands constant

## For Liquids the Andrade's equation:

C eb / T

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Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids:
Fluids for which the shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of strain are
called Newtonian. All other fluids are called non-newtonian fluids.

Toothpaste,
Mayonnaise

Latex paint

Most common fluids

Quick sand

dV
dy
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Viscosity Measurement in the Lab
The velocity of an object moving through a real fluid is inversely proportional to the viscosity
of the fluid.

FD FB FD 6 V r
4
FB f g r3
3
4
Free- W s g r 3
L 3
falling
ball
V W

## L Equilibrium requires that, W FB FD 0

V
t

r g s f
2 2

9V
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Problems involving viscosity

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Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

## Surface tension is a property that develops on the

interfaces of immiscible liquids when they come in
contact with each other or with solid.
Surface tension ( = Force / distance. (units?))
The cohesive forces between molecules down into a
liquid are shared with all neighboring atoms.
The molecules on the surface have no neighboring
atoms above them, and exhibit strong attractive forces
upon their nearest neighbors on the surface.
The enhancement of the intermolecular attractive
forces at the surface is called surface tension

## Adhesive forces: the intermolecular attractive forces between unlike molecules

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Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

Contact angle: the angle formed between two immiscible fluids when they come in contact
with a solid surface.

## Why bubbles and rain drops are spherical?

What makes water rise in a capillary tube?

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Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

## In nature: Size of rain droplets is limited by surface

tension capability to hole the droplet weight

## Application: Breathable cloth.

Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

## Total force = 4prs

Capillary action in a
small tube

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Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)
Chapter 2 (Problems)

Viscosity
P1:

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P2:
Surface tension

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Viscosity P3:

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