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For a homogenous material, density is the same throughout and is defined as:

Mass M

Density ( )

Volume V

The dimensions of Density are :

Nonhomogeneous

The effect of temperature on the density of liquids and gases: fluid??

Incompressible

The effect of pressure on the density of a liquid and gases:

fluid??

Specific Weight () : =.g,

liquid gas

Specific Gravity (S) : S liquid S gas

( water ) 4o C ( air ) 4o C

1

Ideal Gas Law:

pv RT

p RT

2

Compressibility of Fluids: Can we compress liquids?!

Bulk Modulus: A property of fluids that characterize how easily the volume of a specific mass

of the fluid (and thus the density) can be changed when there is a change in the pressure.

The dimension of the Bulk Modulus is the same as the dimension of Pressure.

Examples: for water En = 2.2 GN/m2. for Ideal Gas En = P. (using ideal gas law and for an

isothermal process). 14

Vapor Pressure: Why dont we like cavitation?

What is the cause of damage of pumps blades?

Vapor Pressure (Saturation Pressure): The pressure exerted by the fluids vapor in phase

equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. ( the pressure at which the fluid starts to

evaporate at a specific temperature).

Cavitation: the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles in a flowing liquid as the

bubbles are transported from low pressure region to high pressure region.

Cavitation is to be avoided because it can cause structural damage of the piping system,

valves and pumps.

Saturation

Pv Psat Pressure??

Saturation

Temperature??

13

Viscosity:

Viscosity is a property that measure the resistance to flow.

(Dimensions and units?)

Why is it more difficult to move our hand in oil than water?

5

Viscosity:

to the time rate of strain.

t

6

For the common linear fluids

F F

V

A

u

h

Shearing stress

y Dimensions and Units?

du du

dy dy Absolute viscosity, or

Rate of shearing strain, or dynamic viscosity, or

velocity gradient viscosity

Kinematic viscosity = n ( L2 / T )

7

Effect of temperature on viscosity

The effect of temperature on viscosity (see figure below) can be closely approximated

using two empirical formulas:

3/ 2

T To S

o

To T S

S = Sutherlands constant

C eb / T

8

Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids:

Fluids for which the shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of strain are

called Newtonian. All other fluids are called non-newtonian fluids.

Toothpaste,

Mayonnaise

Latex paint

Most common fluids

Quick sand

dV

dy

9

Viscosity Measurement in the Lab

The velocity of an object moving through a real fluid is inversely proportional to the viscosity

of the fluid.

FD FB FD 6 V r

4

FB f g r3

3

4

Free- W s g r 3

L 3

falling

ball

V W

V

t

r g s f

2 2

9V

10

Problems involving viscosity

11

Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

interfaces of immiscible liquids when they come in

contact with each other or with solid.

Surface tension ( = Force / distance. (units?))

The cohesive forces between molecules down into a

liquid are shared with all neighboring atoms.

The molecules on the surface have no neighboring

atoms above them, and exhibit strong attractive forces

upon their nearest neighbors on the surface.

The enhancement of the intermolecular attractive

forces at the surface is called surface tension

12

Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

Contact angle: the angle formed between two immiscible fluids when they come in contact

with a solid surface.

What makes water rise in a capillary tube?

11b

Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

tension capability to hole the droplet weight

Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

Capillary action in a

small tube

12

Surface tension (or interfacial Tension)

Chapter 2 (Problems)

Viscosity

P1:

17

P2:

Surface tension

18

Viscosity P3:

19

20

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