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# DKT224 Data Communications & Network sem2 08/09

Tutorial #2

## NOTE : all questions are from your text book.

Chapter 4
1 (11) What are the differences between parallel and serial transmission?

## In parallel transmission we send data several bits at a time.

In serial transmission we send data one bit at a time.

2 (12) List three differences techniques in serial transmission and explain the
differences.

## Three differences techniques in serial transmission are synchronous,

asynchronous, and isochronous. In both synchronous and asynchronous
transmissions, a bit stream is divided into independent frames. In synchronous
transmission, the bytes inside each frame are synchronized; in asynchronous
transmission, the bytes inside each frame are also independent. In isochronous
transmission, there is no independency at all. All bits in the whole stream must
be synchronized.

3 (27) What is the Nyquist sampling rate for each of the following signals?

## a. A low-pass signal with bandwidth of 200 KHz?

Fs = 2 x Fm = 2 x 200 = 400 K samples/sec.
OR
In a low-pass signal, the minimum frequency 0. Therefore, we have
fmax = 0 + 200 = 200 KHz. fs = 2 200,000 = 400,000 samples/s

## b. A band-pass signal with bandwidth of 200 KHz if the lowest frequency is

100 KHz?
fmax = 100 + 200 = 300 KHz. fs = 2 300,000 = 600,000 samples /s

4 (29) What is the maximum data rate of a channel with a bandwidth of 200 KHz if
we use four levels of digital signaling?

## Nmax = 2 B nb = 2 200 KHz log2 4 = 800 kbps

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DKT224 Data Communications & Network sem2 08/09

5 (32) we want to transmit 1000 characters with each character encoded as 8 bits.

## a. Find the number of transmitted bits for synchronous transmission.

b. Find the number of transmitted bits for Asynchronous transmission.
c. Find the redundancy in each case.

## a. For synchronous transmission, we have 1000 8 = 8000 bits.

b. For asynchronous transmission, we have 1000 10 = 10000 bits. Note that we
assume only one stop bit and one start bit. Some systems send more start bits.
c. For case a, the redundancy is 0%. For case b, we send 2000 extra for 8000
required bits. The redundancy is 25%.

Chapter 6

## 6 (1) Describe the goals of multiplexing.

1. Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission
of multiple signals across a single data link.
In multiplexing, the word link refers to the physical path. The word channel
refers to the portion of a link that carries a transmission between a given pair of
lines. One link can have many (n) channels.
The goals of multiplexing is to maximize the efficiency of their infrastructure,

## 7 (2) List and describe the three main muxtiplexing technique .

We discussed frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), wave-division
multiplexing (WDM), and time-division multiplexing (TDM).
FDM and WDM are used to combine analog signals; the bandwidth is
shared.TDM is used to combine digital signals; the time is shared.

## 8 (9) Distinguish between synchronous and statistical TDM.

In synchronous TDM, each input has a reserved slot in the output frame. This can
be inefficient if some input lines have no data to send. In statistical TDM, slots are
dynamically allocated to improve bandwidth efficiency. Only when an input line
has a slots worth of data to send is it given a slot in the output frame.

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DKT224 Data Communications & Network sem2 08/09

9 (16) We need to use synchronous TDM and combine 20 digital sources, each of
100Kbps.Each output slot carries 1 bit from each digital source, but one extra
bit is added to each frame for synchronization. Answer the following questions.

## a. What is the size of an output frame in bits?

b. What is the output frame rate?
c. What is the duration of an output frame?
d. What is the output data rate?
e. What is the efficiency of the system?

a. Each output frame carries 1 bit from each source plus one extra bit for
synchronization. Frame size = 20 1 + 1 = 21 bits.
b. Each frame carries 1 bit from each source. Frame rate = 100,000 frames/s.
c. Frame duration = 1 /(frame rate) = 1 /100,000 = 10 s.
d. Data rate = (100,000 frames/s) (21 bits/frame) = 2.1 Mbps
e. In each frame 20 bits out of 21 are useful. Efficiency = 20/21= 95%

10 (19) Ten sources, six with a bit rate of 200 kbps and four with a bit rate of 400
kbps are to be combined using multilevel TDM with no synchronizing bits.

## a. What is the size of a frame in bits?

b. What is the frame rate?
c. What is the duration of a frame?
d. What is the data rate?

19. We combine six 200-kbps sources into three 400-kbps. Now we have seven 400-
kbps channel.
a. Each output frame carries 1 bit from each of the seven 400-kbps line. Frame
size = 7 1 = 7 bits.
b. Each frame carries 1 bit from each 400-kbps source. Frame rate = 400,000
frames/s.
c. Frame duration = 1 /(frame rate) = 1 /400,000 = 2.5 s.
d. Output data rate = (400,000 frames/s) (7 bits/frame) = 2.8 Mbps. We can also
calculate the output data rate as the sum of input data rate because there is no
synchronizing bits. Output data rate = 6 200 + 4 400 = 2.8 Mbps.

11 (21) Two channels, one with a bit rate of 190 kbps and another with a bit rate of
180 kbps, are to be multiplexed using pulse stuffing TDM with no
synchronization bits. Answer the following questions:

## a. What is the size of a frame in bits?

b. What is the frame rate?
c. What is the duration of a frame?
d. What is the data rate?

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DKT224 Data Communications & Network sem2 08/09

We need to add extra bits to the second source to make both rates = 190 kbps. Now
we have two sources, each of 190 Kbps.

a. The frame carries 1 bit from each source. Frame size = 1 + 1 = 2 bits.
b. Each frame carries 1 bit from each 190-kbps source. Frame rate = 190,000
frames/s.
c. Frame duration = 1 /(frame rate) = 1 /190,000 = 5.3 s.
d. Output data rate = (190,000 frames/s) (2 bits/frame) = 380 kbps. Here the
output bit rate is greater than the sum of the input rates (370 kbps) because of
extra bits added to the second source.

Chapter 7

## The two major categories are guided and unguided media.

Guided media have physical boundaries, while unguided media are unbounded.

waves?

## Omnidirectional waves are propagated in all directions; unidirectional waves are

propagated in one direction.

GROUP QUESTIONS
NO
1 1 , 11
2 2, 12
3 3, 13
4 4
5 5
6 6 14
7 7
8 8
9 9
10 10

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