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Gabe Borges (ITP 1/30)

Ikhernofert Stele-

Osiris, Isis, Horus-


City Dionysia-





Theatre of Epidaurus-




-Time of Rebirth

Theatre emerges from ritual. Death and rebirth in spring.

Egyptian Coronation Drama

Passion of Obydos

-Disassembled body, about 26 pieces.

-Papyrus, written around 3300 B.C. Performed around same time.

Gastner notes if we look at coronation Drama, it may be the starting
point. Pharaoh would perform Horus. Horus ascension of Lower Egypt.
Effigy of Horus. Occurred at coronation of Horus. When Nile would be
open. Is it theatrical or is it conceived of actual enactment of these
events. Mass is more of an enactment.

-Not done before a public audience. Was very private. Ends in

battle with Horus and Set. Shift from winter to spring. Set represents
winter. Horus would always win.

-Annual Rebirth of Osiris. He is perpetually assembled, cosmic

calendar. Performance of ritual ensures proper balance and ensures
transformation of the world form winter to spring. Stone inscription

-Ikhernofert was a priest. Five day festival. He oversaw the

festivities and played the role of Horus. Enemies of Osiris are defeated.
Opener of way. 2nd day, procession of Osiris. Osiris brought to tomb.
Transported with boat. 3rd day, hes mourned. 4th day, funeral rites are
performed. 5th day, Osiris is reborn. Thousands of people participate
that ensuyre rebirth of th god.

Passsion of Osiris

-Horus, son, comes out of death. Assembled.

-Osiris, God of Nile, Death, Rebirth, agriculture. Consequent

pharaohs were servants of gods. Incarnations of Horus. In life, pharaoh
is Horus embodiment. Sacrifices, November 13th.

Ritual and Greek Theatre

Origins of Greek Tragedy

-5th Century B.C. Location and configuration led insight into
rituals and political roles of the theatre of Dionysus. Serve to forge
communities. Performances harmonize social order with divine order.
Without a doubt connected to ritual. Impulse to imitation can assure its
happening. By enacting it you can make it happen.

-Theatron, place of seeing. Archaic man is connected to the world

through myths. History in modern era. Distances us from our bailit to
change world. Connected to city dionysia, is a festival. Fertility festival
in March in honor of god Dionysus.

-Dionysus, god of the vine. God of ecstacy, rebelry, cutting back

the vine. In various stories, torn into pieces and always resurrected.
Someone who inspires men to terrible events. Tragic, death and
resurrection. Sacrificing your best to ensure best of community. King
must die.

- Ritual killing of kings. Theatre makes secrets public. Well being

of city ensured. Celebration through death and resurrection. To ensure
food supply, supplement spoken language. Inherent act to play.
Outdoor theatre. Serve as civic lessons and how it will persist. Circular
dances with hymn, Dramb. Choral leader, refrain. Aristotle speculates
that it comes our of Ditthramb. Threshing floors, ox would trod and oul
stone that would crush weeds. Circular space.No evidence that there
was a circular orchestra. Dancing and ox would happen at the same
time, apparently. Tragedy, goat songs. Goat as prize, sacrifice?
Orchestra means dancing space. Thespus is said to have add prologue
and lines performed by the performers. Dyrrhamb happened first and
then those lines were added. Invented idea of actor. Athens is a
merchant city. Castles, cults, food stalls, everything happening at the
Agorah. Temporary skene, wooden structure. Thymele, altar, comes
from Polix. Permanent altar. Most of the plays include an altar. Mechane
is a crane that was behind skene to lift actors into the air. Fly to the top
of the skene. Paradoi(s), where actors come out. Choral characters are
near parados. Performance of plays is connected to worship. Spread to
Athens, 6th century B.c. Dionysus is son of Zeus. DYyrhtramb, songs to
make the god jump. Four festivals to Dionysus. . Attic theater, is
theater performed in Ancient Athens. Attica, larger area that includes
Athens. City Dionysia, new plays staged in spring. Five days long. 3
days devoted to plays. 3 tragedies, 2 satyr. Other two drrryhrmab days.
Playwrights would be selected one month after the festival.

-Aeschylus- playwrights acted in their own plays.

-Tribes sat together. When democrazt ws created in 508 there
was concer people would have more loyalty for family and clan.
Organized people according to tribes. New structures of bonding. Each
tribe would compete in Dyrryramb competition. Seating took place
accordijg tp tribe. Plays were performed once. No commercial pressure.
Doing it as civic duty and honor. Huge procession, reenactment of
Donysus coming to city. Theater starts off as festival. Incorporates city
as a whole. Archon is in charge of organizing the play and choosing
chorus. Argos gets prestige for doing this. Front rows were thrones
rserved for high rsnking officials. Democratic process consistent iwht
democracy of Athens. Chorus members were amateurs. 490 B.C. 468
B.C. 3 actors an a chorus. Actors go into skene and chang masks.
Physical changes in characters. New mask, bloodt representation.

-Acoustics at theatre sucked. Space is very long. Very open

space. Highyl theatrical. Deveoping out of aong and dance. Chorus
dances in unison. Chorus rarely speak individually. Strophe, means
dance. Dancing in a certain direction. Happens in moments of debate.
Even idead are associated with the body. Physically. The dance
changes to manifest that change. Bodily choices are crucial.

-Deus Ex Machina God from a crane.

-Chorus speaks first. Brings audience up to the presen.t All

performed by men Echlayma- revealed in big moments. Heinous
terrible events revealed dark past. Happens physically. Skene opens.

-Vetruvious 1st century B.C. Polix, 2nd Century, A.D. Dont know
what specifically hes writing about. Poix mentions a raised stage,
Scholars are ocnfidnet there was not a raised stage. Hellenistic period
has raised stage. Polix says thunder, pebbles. Masks were made to
look like the people represented and sometimes more ridiculous.
Echyama, secret trnasactions. Dont know if it ws rolled out or turned
out. Periactoid, three sided prisms. Painting on them, can turne them to
suggest change of location. Long shot of city. General prospect the
other one. Thymel, altar near the audience. CAthornos, a soft shoe.
Giant high heel are Hellenistic. Soft soled, leather shoes.

-Theatre of Epidaurus I Hellenistic. Circvular orchrsta. Stone

seating. Skene is present and is large and rises up. Acoustics are
tremendous ecause of archticture. Elevted stage.

-Olivier Theatre at National Theater modeled after heater of


Production Context
Production Style