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# Al Musanna College of Technology

Engineering Department

## Mechanical Engineering Section

Laboratory Report
Code: ACT/M&I/MIME4222/Semester II 2016-17
Revision : First issue Version : 01
Students Name :
Seat number : Section :

## I. Course Description ENGINEERING DESIGN II

II. Course Code: MIME 4222
III. Exercise No:
IV. Duration: 1 Hr
V. Title: Fluid Analysis
VI. Objectives:

Flow simulations are widely used in engineering applications ranging from flow around
airplane wings and hydraulic turbines to flow in blood vessels and other circulatory
systems (see Figure 10.1). We may gain a better understanding of the motion of fluid
around objects as well as the fluid behavior in complex circulatory systems by
conducting fluid analysis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation
complements experimental testing, helps reduce cost and turnaround time for design
fluids is required. In this chapter, we will discuss fluid analysis using ANSYS
Workbench.
VII. Problem Description
The aerodynamic performance of vehicles can be improved by utilizing computational
fluid dynamics simulation. In this case study, we conduct fluid analysis of the air flow
passing through a truck. Assume air at room temperature of 25C for the flow field
with an air velocity of 40 km/h blowing from left to right. Use nonslip boundary
conditions along the walls of the truck and the ground surface. Find the airflow pattern
as well as the pressure and velocity distributions of the flow field around the truck.
Flow field: incompressible air at 250 C
Boundary conditions: Air is blowing from left to right at a velocity of 40 km/h. Nonslip
boundaries along the walls of the truck and ground surface.
VIII. Procedure

## Step 1: Start an ANSYS Workbench Project

Launch ANSYS Workbench and save the blank project as CFD_Truck.wbpj.
Step 2: Create a Fluid Flow (CFX) Analysis System
Drag the Fluid Flow (CFX) icon from the Analysis Systems Toolbox window and drop
itinside the highlighted green rectangle in the Project Schematic window.
Step 3: Launch the Design Modeler Program
Double-click the Geometry cell to launch Design Modeler, and select Meter in the
Units pop-up window.
Step 4: Create a Truck Model
Create a SketchClick on Sketching. Select Draw and draw a 2D profile.
Create an Extruded BodySwitch to the Modeling tab and click on Extrude. In the
Details of Extrude1, use Sketch1 as the Base Object and change the Direction to Both-
Symmetric. Set the extrusion depth to 0.8 m in the field of FD1, Depth, and click
Generate to create a solid body.
Create Sketch of Two WheelsClick on the New Plane button to create a new
plane (Plane4) on the front face of the truck. Then click on the New Sketch button to
create a new sketch (Sketch2) on the plane .
Create Two Solid WheelsSwitch to the Modeling tab and click on Extrude. In the
Details of Extrude2, use Sketch2 as the Base Object and change the Direction to Both-
Symmetric. Set FD1, Depth to 0.1 m. Click Generate to create two wheels.
Create the Other Two WheelsRepeat the previous two steps to create two wheels
on the other side of the truck model.
Step 5: Create a Box Enclosure
Select Enclosure from the drop-down menu of Tools to create a box enclosure. In the
Details of Enclosure1, enter the cushion dimensions, and click Generate.
In the Tree Outline, right click on the first Solid body, and select Suppress Body. The
first solid body represents the truck. When suppressed, the truck body will not be
meshed later on.
From the Tree Outline click on the second Solid body, this represents the enclosing
fluid domain. Ensure that Fluid is selected for the Fluid/Solid field in the Details of
Body.
Step 6: Generate Mesh
Double-click on the Mesh cell to launch the Meshing program.
Click on Mesh in the Outline. In the Details of Mesh, set the Relevance Centre to
Medium under Sizing, and the Element Mid side Nodes to Dropped. This helps reduce
the total number of nodes to an acceptable level not exceeding the requested
resources of educational licenses. Click on Update to generate the mesh.
The following figure shows the generated mesh for the fluid domain.
Step 7: Set Up Flow Domain
Double-click on the Setup cell to launch the Fluid Flow (CFX)CFX-Pre program.
Double-click on Analysis Type in the Outline tree.
In the Details of Analysis Type in Flow Analysis 1, set the Analysis Type to Steady
State. Click Ok to exit the menu. Next, double-click on Default Domain in the Outline
tree. In the Details of Default Domain in Flow Analysis 1, set the Domain Type to Fluid
Domain, Material to Air at 25C, and Reference Pressure to 1[atm]. Click Ok to exit the
Step 8: Set Up Boundary Conditions
Add InletRight-click on Default Domain in the Outline. Select Insert and then
Boundary. Change the Name to Inlet in the pop-up menu . Click Ok. In the Details of
Inlet in Default Domain in Flow Analysis 1, select the face highlighted below for the
Location of the inlet under the tab of Basic Settings. Click on the Boundary Details tab,
and set the Normal Speed to 40 [Km Hr ^ 1]. Click OK.
Add OutletRight-click on Default Domain in the Outline. Select Insert and then
Boundary. In the pop-up menu , set the Name to Outlet. Click Ok.In the Details of
Outlet in Default Domain in Flow Analysis 1, select the face highlighted for the
Location of the outlet under the tab of Basic Settings.
Click on the Boundary Details tab, and set the Relative Pressure to 0 [Pa]. Click
Ok.Add WallRight-click on Default Domain in the Outline. Select Insert and then
Boundary. In the pop-up menu , set the Name to Wall. Click Ok. In the Details of Wall
in Default Domain in Flow Analysis 1, click on the button to the right of the Location
field under the tab of Basic Settings.
In the pop-up menu of Selection Dialog, select multiple faces (all surfaces of the truck
and the ground surface) with Shift-Click. Click Ok to accept the selection. Switch to the
tab of Boundary Details, select No Slip Wall as the Option for Mass and Momentum,
and Smooth Wall for Wall Roughness. Click Ok to exit the menu.
Add OpeningRight-click on Default Domain in the Outline. Select Insert and then
Boundary. In the pop-up menu , set the Name to Opening. Click Ok. In the Details of
Opening in Default Domain in Flow Analysis 1, click on the button to the right of the
Location field under the tab of Basic Settings.
In the pop-up menu of Selection Dialog, select the three side faces with Ctrl-Click.
Click Ok to accept the selection. Switch to the tab of Boundary Details, set the
Relative Pressure to 0 [Pa]. Click Ok to exit. After completion, the finished domain
boundaries should look like the following.
Exit CFX-Pre.
Step 9: Start a Solution
Double-click on the Solution cell to obtain a solution of the fluid flow problem. In the
pop-up menu of Define Run, click the Start Run button to launch the CFX-Solver. When
a menu pops up to indicate that the Solver Run has finished normally, click Ok. Then
exit the CFX-Solver Manager program.
Step 10: Retrieve Results
Double-click on the Results cell to visualize the results.
Plot Velocity VectorRight-click User Locations and Plots in the Outline, and select
Insert and then Vector. Accept the default name Vector 1 in the pop-up menu. In the
Details of Vector 1, select All Domains for Domains, Default Domain for Locations and
Velocity for Variable, and click Apply. Check Default Legend View 1 in the Outline to
display the legend.
Plot Wall Pressure ContourRight-click User Locations and Plots in the Outline,
and
select Insert and then Contour. Accept the default name Contour 1 in the pop-up
menu. In the Details of Contour 1, select All Domains for Domains, Wall for Locations
and Pressure for Variable, and click Apply. Check Default Legend View 1 and Contour1
in the Outline to view the pressure distribution on the wall.
Plot StreamlineRight-click User Locations and Plots in the Outline, and select
Insert
and then Streamline. Accept the default name Streamline 1 in the pop-up menu. In
the Details of Streamline 1, select 3D Streamline for Definition, All Domains for
Domains, Inlet for Start From, and Velocity for Variable, and click Apply. Check Default
Legend View 1, Streamline 1, and Wireframe in the Outline to view streamlines.
Modelling tips: Follow the steps below to visualize flow results on a section plane.
First, right-click User Locations and Plots in the Outline, then select Insert and
Location and then Plane in the context menu. Accept the default name Plane 1 in the
pop-up menu. In the Details of Plane 1, select All Domains for Domains, XY Plane for
Method, and 0.0 [m] for Z, and click Apply. Check Plane 1 and Wireframe in the
Outline to view the created section plane. To generate a contour plot on the plane,
right-click User Locations and Plots, and select Insert and then Contour. Accept the
default name Contour 2 in the pop-up menu. In the Details of Contour 2, select All
Domains for Domains, Plane 1 for Locations and Velocity for Variable, and click Apply.
Check Default Legend View 1, Contour2, and Wireframe in the Outline to retrieve the
velocity distribution on the section plane. To generate a streamline plot on the plane,
right-click User Locations and Plots, and select Insert and then streamline. Accept the
default name Streamline 2 in the pop-up menu. In the Details of Streamline 2, select
All Domains for Domains, Plane 1 for Start From, Rectangular Grid for Sampling, 0.03
for Spacing, and click Apply. Check Default Legend View 1, Streamline2, and Wire
frame in the Outline to view the streamlines on the section plane.
IX. Result / Conclusion
In this experiment, we briefly discussed the governing equations in fluid dynamics,
main variables of concern, boundary conditions, and procedures in conducting CFD
modelling and analysis. A case study using ANSYS Workbench is demonstrated using a
truck model.