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PSYCHE + LOGOS (mind) (study) “study of the mind” Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes.
Most psychologists see the roles of both nature and nurture in the lives of human beings. Nature Human beings have an inborn store of knowledge and understanding of reality Descartes: nativist view (some ideas are innate) Nurture Knowledge is acquired through experiences and interactions with the world John Locke: tabula rasa (at birth, the human mind is a blank slate)
Psychology uses scientific methods and reasoning Behavior: Observable actions or responses in both human and animals Mental Processes: Wide range of complex mental processes: thinking, imagining, studying and dreaming
Schools of Psychology Psychology Alphabet A : Affect : emotions, mood B : Behavior : actions C : Cognition : mental activities What do Psychologists do? Don’t read minds Don’t estimate one’s character at a glance Are not authorities on spiritualism, mental telepathy and fortune-telling Psychologists are responsible for nonmedical aspects of diagnosis and therapy Works closely with a psychiatrist Psychologist Has a PhD, specialized in a clinical sub area, has spent an additional year in supervised therapy setting to gain experience in diagnosing and treating a wide range of abnormal behaviors. Does not assess physical or neurological causes of mental problems or prescribe drugs Psychiatrist A medical doctor (MD), spent several years in clinical training which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors and treating these behaviors, often with prescription drugs STRUCTURALISM: Elements of the Mind Study of the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions that make up our conscious mental experiences Wilhelm Wundt: Father of Psychology Psychology as an academic discipline 1st psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig, 1879 Wundt relied on introspection (observing and recording the nature of one’s own perceptions, thoughts and feelings). He analyzed sensations, which they thought was the key to analyzing the structure of the mind. His studies were criticized because it was based on the participants’ self-report and not on objective measurements. When introspection proved to be insufficient, Wundt supplemented his studies with experiments. FUNCTIONALISM: Functions of the Mind Study of function rather than the structures of consciousness William James: Father of Modern Psychology Wrote the first textbook in 1890: Principles of Psychology More interested in goals, purposes and functions James viewed mental activities as having developed through ages of evolution because of their adaptive functions such as helping humans survive. GESTALT: Sensation vs Perception Emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts and studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences Max Wertheimer Wertheimer, together with Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka, studied the phi phenomenon (apparent motion) or the perception of movement by briefly flashing one light and then, a short time later, a second light. Gestalt psychologists argued that this perception results from a whole pattern or a Gestalt.
4 Goals of Psychology DESCRIBE the different ways that organisms behave EXPLAIN the causes of behavior PREDICT how organisms will behave in certain situations CONTROL an organism’s behavior
History The study of Psychology can be traced from Greece about 2500 years ago when philosophers posed fundamental questions about mental life. PHIL + SOPHIA (love) + (wisdom) “lovers of wisdom”
Behaviorism: Observable behaviors Emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors John B. Watson “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select- doctor, lawyer, artist…” Rejected introspection Watson stated that Psychology should be considered as an objective, experimental science, whose goal should be the analysis of observable behavior and the prediction and control of those behaviors.
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (SPA) believed that the mind and soul are essentially the same Hippocrates: Father of Medicine Deeply interested in physiology (study of the functions of the living organism & its parts) He made important observations about the brain controls various organs of the body, setting the stage for what became the biological perspective in Psychology.
Modern Approaches Each approach has a different focus or perspective and may use a different research method or technique. By using one or more approaches, psychologists can learn about the case from different viewpoints. 6 commonly used approaches
study of personality development, personality change, assessment and abnormal behaviors apply psychological principles to the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral problems many of the same functions as a clinical psychologists but often deal with less serious problems evaluate learning and emotional problems of children specializes in learning and teaching
Counseling Ψ Biological *psychobiologists How our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, cognitive techniques and other traits and abilities. How we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe and feel. Studies other aspects of human behavior: social interactions, development of stereotypes and forming attitudes. How organisms learn new behavior or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environment reward or punish these behaviors. Based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems; also stresses out unconscious fears, desires and motivations on thoughts and behaviors. According to Freud, the first five years have a significant effect on personality development. Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for achieving personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth and enormous potential for selffulfilment Emphasizes the positive side of human nature: freedom, potential and creativity Studies the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning
Cognitive *cognitive psychologists
Other branches: Child Ψ, Adolescent Ψ, Senescent Ψ, Consumer Ψ, Abnormal Ψ, Forensic Ψ, Sport Ψ etc
Asking many individuals to answer a fixed set of questions about particular subjects may contain errors or be biased because people may not remember accurately or answer truthfully obtains much information from a large number of people
In-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors or problems of a single individual the detailed information may not apply to other clients the detailed information allows greater understanding of a client
Correlational Method e.g. Correlation between extraversion and academic performance of college students
Fields of Psychology Biological Ψ relationship between biological processes and behavior use experimental methods to study how people react, perceive, learn and remember examines moral, social, emotional and cognitive development throughout a person’s lifetime focuses on improving worker efficiency and satisfaction study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, group behaviors and aggression
Association or relationship between the occurrences of two or more events Correlation coefficient: number that indicates the strength of a relationship between two or more events: the closer the number is to -1.00 or +1.00, the greater the strength of the relationship +1.0 0 perfect positive corr coeff positive corr coeff zero correlation negative corr coeff perfect negative corr coeff
+/- indicates the direction of the relationship ( + if A then B or if A then B, - if A then B or if A then B) The obtained value indicates the strength of association. The nearer the value is to ±1.0, the stronger the relationship between the two factors.
Industrial/Organization (I/O) Social Ψ
does not establish causal relationships between factors the strength and direction of the association between factors are known
Obtaining information through the senses Overt: the person is aware that he is being observed Covert: without the awareness and agreement of the person being observed
Experimental Method e.g. The effect of Imagery Training Program IV on the Test Anxiety levels DV of First year students of CTHM Evaluating the effectiveness of a social skills training IV on children with external behavioral problems DV
Method for identifying cause-andeffect relationships by following a set of rules and guidelines that minimized the possibility of error, bias and chance occurrences
Independent Variable: variable manipulated, independent of what the participant does Dependent Variable: variable being measured, depends on the IV information obtained in laboratory settings may not apply to other situations greatest potential for identifying cause-and-effect relationships with less error and bias
Plotnik, R. (2005). Introduction to Psychology. (7th ed.). Ca: Wadsworth Publishing Company Smith, E., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Fredrickson, B. & Loftus, G. (2003). Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology. Singapore: Thomson Learning. Teh, L. & Macapagal, E. (Eds.) (2007). General Psychology. Quezon City: The Ateneo De Manila University Press
Scientific Method: 1. Ask: begin with one or more specific questions that are changed into specific hypotheses. Hypothesis is an educated guess about some phenomenon and is stated in precise, concrete language to rule out any confusion or error in the meaning of its terms Identify: identify the independent and dependent variables Choose: choose the participants or subjects Assign: assign the participants into their corresponding groups (experimental group: receives the treatment. control group: same procedures but does not receive the treatment) Manipulate: administer the treatment to the experimental group Measure: know how the IV affected the DV Analyze: use statistical procedures to determine whether the observed differences in the DV are significant
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Data gathering techniques Interview Obtaining information by asking questions, ranging from open-ended to highly structured, about a subject’s behaviors and attitudes, usually in a one-on-one situation Obtaining information by asking subjects to read a list of written questions and check off specific answers Obtaining information by administering psychological test that has shown to reliably measure thought patterns, personality traits, emotions or behaviors Involves examining or manipulating some behavioral, genetic or physiological factor that closely approximates some human problem, disease or condition
Standardized test administration
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