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UPS Topologies

Justin Jurek
Piller USA, Inc.


Bruce Renfrew
Pro Power

March 27th 2014


Static and Rotary Definitions

UPS Technology Configurations
Evolution of the Static UPS
Evolution of the Rotary UPS
Comparison of UPS Topologies
Design Considerations
The Green World we live in!
Topics of Debate:
Battery or Flywheel?
Total Cost of Ownership?
Rotary or Static Application?
Medium Voltage and 400V Application?
Static and Rotary UPS Definition?

Rotary UPS (RUPS): During all modes of operation, the load is fed directly from a synchronous generator
or motor generator. During a power failure or an interruption of the mains supply, the generator is fed by
an emergency power source (batteries, fuel cells or flywheel systems).

Diesel Rotary UPS (DRUPS): Diesel engine mechanically or electrically coupled to motor generator or

Static UPS: During all modes of UPS operation, the load is fed directly from an inverter. During a power
failure or interruption of the mains supply, the inverter is fed by an emergency power source (battery, fuel
cells or flywheel system).

The distinction between UPS technologies does not lie in the use of batteries or flywheels as a
short-term emergency power source. It is instead based on the method through which the output
power is derived. For clarity a Static UPS that applies flywheel energy storage is not classified a
Rotary UPS.

A rotating machine feeding the load ROTARY

A static inverter feeding the load STATIC

Battery an energy store

Flywheels an energy store

UPS Technology Configurations

Parallel Online Series Online

~ ~~
~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~
Static ~ --
- Store
Energy ~ ~
Store -

Piller Series
~ ~
- Piller
Energy Energy UBR
Store ~~ RUPS RUPS Store Series

Static UPS Power Train

UPS: Constant Voltage Constant Frequency (CVCF): Double Conversion Power Train

Input Output

Converter/ Inverter
Rectifier DC Waveform

AC Waveform (Deconstruct AC) AC Waveform

(Reconstruct AC)

On Line UPS (Double Conversion) Off Line UPS

AC Input DC AC Input DC

AC Output AC Output
Critical Critical
Load Load

One uses double conversion power circuit continuously, the other only during AC input power quality problem conditions
Guaranteed Conditioned Power to Critical Load at all times
Higher Reliability
Static UPS: Double Conversion


Or Flywheel

Static UPS: High Efficiency Double Conversion and/or Eco Mode Functionality
Power Semiconductor Consideration: The rise of the IGBT!

Converter Section Evolution

6 Pulse SCR 12 Pulse SCR

I THD: Typically 33% @ 100% Load

(Without Optional Filter)
Large Optional Filter Required I THD: Typically 12% @ 100% Load
Low Power Factor (without Optional Filter)
Higher Input KVA Requirement Optional Filter Required.
Low Power Factor
Higher Input KVA Requirement

Natural Commutation Off
Power Semiconductor Consideration: The rise of the IGBT!

Converter Section Evolution

6 Diode Bridge and
IGBT Chopper Full IGBT

I THD: <3% @ 100% Load

I THD: Typically 6% @ 100% Load No Optional Filter Required
Input Filter included Unity Power Factor
High Power Factor Active Front End control
Lower Input KVA Requirement Lower Input KVA Requirement
Power Semiconductor Consideration: The rise of the IGBT!

Converter Section Evolution

Rectification v Front End Response Cause and Effect:

Typical 12 Pulse SCR Input I Waveform IGBT Input I Waveform

Full Load without filter, 11.9% THD Full Load without filter, 2.6% THD

Basic consideration points of Input Harmonic Filter Elements:
Reduces overall system efficiency Additional footprint
Tuned to specific harmonic and load level
Power Semiconductor Consideration: The rise of the IGBT!

Inverter Section Evolution

Commutated Thyristor (SCR) IGBT

DC Link

- SCR easy to turn on

- No Natural Commutation Off
- Forced off via snubber circuits

Inverter Characteristics:

- IGBT easy to turn on and off

Inverter PWM IGBT Switching Synthesis


Needs Quick control response (on/off)

High Performance and Reliability
Compact High Power Bridge capabilities -E

Satisfy Evolution of Digital Control Technology

Reliability - Number of Components
(Static UPS)

Artificial sine-wave generated by power

electronics, thyristors, rectifiers or IGBTs
Static UPS
(Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors). These
IGBTs are used to achieve high power
output..side effect is increased switching
and conduction losses
Uses DSP in control device to sample
waveform and PWM to create an average
of pulses that when passed through a filter
recreates the artificial sinewave on output
Large number of smoothing Power
Capacitors are used with 5-8 year
replacement costs
Redundant electric fans are required for
cooling with 3-5 year replacement

Motor Generator

Motor Generator

Motorwinding Generatorwinding


Hybrid machine developed

by PILLER Rotating

Unique and highly reliable system including motor and generator

Motor Generator

Motor winding Generator winding

System fan Exciter winding

Thrust bearing Damper cage

Brushless excitation

Motor and generator windings

in a common stator

Common rotor
with damper winding
Generator Voltage
Vertical arrangement
for low bearing load

Pony motor

Unloaded guiding bearing

Reliability - Number of Components
(Rotary UPS)

Rotary UPS Natural sine-wave generated by

modern, robust electrical machines in
combination with reliable redundant
No requirement for paralleled
power electronics
No smoothing power capacitors are
required - anywhere
No power filters required
System is naturally cooled by
integral fan on M/G set
Up to 2700KW is produced with a
single output stage

Comparison of UPS Topologies

Static UPS systems Rotary UPS systems

Artificial sine-wave generated by power Natural sine-wave generated by modern,

electronics: Thyristors or IGBTs (Isolated robust electrical machines combined with
Gate Bipolar Transistors), combined with external batteries or large capacity
external batteries or small capacity flywheels.
Unit size up to 3000 kVA
Unit size up to 750KVA typical
1100 kVA UPS made up of 225KVA modules
Leading Power Factor Vector Diagrams
In terms of the full load kVA rating of the UPS

Leading Power Factor Lagging Power Factor

Capacitive Loads Inductive Loads
90 Static UPS
p.f. 1.0 p.f. 0.8 Supplying a full rated load with
p.f. 0.8
p.f. 0.7
reactive current is variable
Real P 50 through regulation
(KW) of the field current .

20 Benefit vs.
Static UPS
10 In terms of full load kVA
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100%

Q Reactive (kVAr)

Only UNIBLOCK delivers full active power

from power factor 0.8 lagging 0.8 leading
Reactive Power Support

Iinverter Iload Iload

Ifilter C load load


Static UPS Rotary UPS

IGBT inverter output filter is required The generator needs no waveform
to change the PWM to a sinusoidal filtering.
waveform. The generator reactive current is
Capacitor supplies reactive power to variable through regulation of the
a load with a lagging power factor. field current (by increasing or
Loads with leading Pf put a higher decreasing excitation)This regulates
load on the inverter than rated. the voltage seen by the load.
This means the generator can supply
or absorb reactive power to/from the
load without exceeding rated
Short Circuit Capability and Handling Inrush

14-times high short circuit

current for a quick switch-off
of defective loads during all
operation modes, mains,
battery and Diesel.

14-times rated Current ensures

that faulty load is


3-times rated current due to

? inverter current control
transfers UPS to bypass if

Ishort circuit from the mains

Design Considerations
System Integration and Compatibility

Converter Section Evolution

Complex Consideration points of Input Harmonic Filter Elements:
6 Pulse SCR
Any UPS Module with an input Harmonic
Filter needs:

12 Pulse SCR

6 Diode Bridge and

IGBT Chopper
Sizing Requirement due to input harmonic content and
KVA requirement
Leading Power factor
Design Considerations
System Integration and Compatibility

Any UPS Module or System with an input filter circuit must take into consideration Leading
Power factor specific to Generator Compatibility Issues:

Leading Power Factor

load dependent
UPS Walk in and light load conditions
Resolution Methods:
SMS: Single Module System
Walk In
Removal of filter capacitive element below 30% Function
MMS: Multi Module System
load level
Design input filter to be within Generator
Reactive Capability Curve
Start Sequence Coordination (MMS)
Addition of Shunt Reactor to offset leading
power factor

Typical Generator Reactive Capability Curve

Design Considerations
UPS Capacities and Reliability

Parallel Static UPS System

System Bypass


System RUPS up to 3000KVA Modules

Input Tie & Output
UPS 2 Control Parallel to achieve huge capacities
Cabinet Similar to generator systems

Various MTBF figures available on
Single Module UPS
Bypass Availability Figures?
UPS Modules Paralleled for Redundancy or Capacity
Static UPS inherently has more
Typically System tie & control cabinet components
Individual Bypass parallel systems available Parallel of any UPS Systems above 4
for 3MVA UPS: 4 x 750KVA UPS Modules starts to decline system reliability
The Green World We Live In!

True On-Line UPS emerged as preferred choice

Highest reliability and quality of continuous conditioned power for Mission Critical Application
Trade off with associated lower system efficiencies
Series Rotary and Double Conversion Static UPS

Reduction of Energy Consumption

Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE)
Cost Of Ownership
LEED Certification

Modern IT Equipment makes power availability key versus tight power quality
The UPS solution?

High Efficiency Parallel Online RUPS/DRUPS


High Efficiency Double Conversion Static UPS with Offline/Interactive functionality?

Parallel Online RUPS

Piller UBT: High Efficiency Parallel Online Configuration

Parallel Online DRUPS

Piller UBTD: High Efficiency Parallel Online

Piller UBT: High Efficiency Parallel
UPS Efficiency Curves

UPS Efficiency Chart UPS Efficiency Chart

98.0 98.0

96.0 96.0

94.0 94.0

92.0 92.0

90.0 90.0

88.0 88.0

86.0 86.0

84.0 84.0
20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Load Percent Load

Various Static UPS: Piller UBT[D]+ RUPS/DRUPS:

225KVA through 750KVA 3000KVA

Technology satisfying the Green Demand.

UPS Can be Efficient and Reliable
Topics of Debate?

Flywheel or Battery?

16.5 or 21MJ/MWs Energy store.

Can be paralleled for the larger RUPS systems. Approx 300KWs Energy store per flywheel.
Bi-directional power flow Stabilisation action. Multiple in parallel for larger UPS Modules.
Very Fast re-charge Very Fast re-charge
Very small footprint high power density. Very small footprint.
Bridging time vs. load
Bridging time in s

80 Versus Minutes
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
UPS-load in kVA
Flywheel or Battery?

Debate Team A:
Green initiative eliminates lead acid
Improved reliability
Floor space / footprint
Structural / floor loading
Reduced maintenance / budget
Longer Life cycle (20 Years)
Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Debate Team B:
Are seconds long enough to start diesel engine?
Prefer 15 Minutes v 15 Seconds: Regular v Light Beer Debate!
Some users want batteries period: Financial Institutions.
Is the return on investment valid?
With larger capacity RUPS batteries cannot be an option (CB sizes)

Batteries are well know to be the Achilles heel of UPS

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

Cost now versus Long Term Cost?

Installation and Initial Costs:

Traditionally RUPS typically higher although DRUPS, Enclosures and battery-less installations
challenging this.
Preventative Maintenance Costs:
RUPS can demand higher preventative maintenance costs with set windows for bearing replacement
(10 Years Piller). However system parts offer 20 year life cycle with proper PM. This can be offset with
larger RUPS Capacities requiring less machines.
Replacement Parts: 16

Static UPS by nature of power
electronics need fan and capacitor
replacement with lower overall life
expectancy. 8

Air Conditioning: 4

Static UPS with batteries cooling 2

needs. 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Years
ROTARY UPS or Static UPS Application?

Large percentage of UPS Market naturally fits Static UPS Application with smaller sizes.

RUPS become more competitive at larger KVA (>750KVA)

Big and Dirty loads fit rotary well however RUPS not specific to mechanical load.

UPS Multi Module Systems (Parallel) used for larger capacity systems

Reliability Static v Rotary including parallel application?

Specification details from static to static can vary (Control).

Specification details from static to rotary can vary.

Modern IT Equipment makes power availability key versus tight power quality

System Integration and Compatibility: Power Semiconductor consideration

Medium Voltage and 400V Application

High power LV redundant UPS design leads to current limitation

in the LV distribution
Installations with high power demand are often wide spread and
require power distribution over long distances
MV systems reduce cable size and losses, increasing the
efficiency of the distribution network
MV UPS integrated in an MV distribution allow a reduced
number of components
MV UPS are based on proven LV UPS functions and
400V and transformer-less PDUs
MV Application

Utility UPS Output

~ =
PB = ~ M/G D

~ =
PB = ~

Medium Voltage trending towards larger machines.
Enclosures/Containerized shipment
MV Application

Standard Diesel engine is electrically connected/coupled to the UPS system

(Piller UBT MG). Electrical connection can be at the low voltage or medium
voltage point)

Utility UPS Output

~ = D
PB = ~ M/G

Standard Genset
(Locally Sourced)
LV or MV Alternator Option for
electrical connection
Piller Product Range
Rotary UPS Systems


750 3000kVA UBTD
2000 750 - 3000 kVA

180 - 1300 kVA



Justin M. Jurek
Piller USA

Bruce Renfrew
Pro Power