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# Running Head: GENDER AND ER VISITSG 1

## Correlation Between Gender and ER Visits

Eduardo Santoyo

COH 602

National University

January 6, 2016
GENDER AND ER VISITS 2

## Correlation Between Gender and Visits to Emergency Room

The question being addressed in this analysis, Is there a relationship between gender and

number of visits to the Emergency Room? To assess this relationship properly, one would need

to look at other possible variables that would have an effect on the correlation between the

primary variables. One must look at how all of these variables and how they would lead to

conclude whether a correlation presents itself, and if so, is there statistically significant evidence

to prove these correlations exist? One of the other factors that were taken into consideration was

## the age of the cohort in 1971.

This project used the data set, COH602, which is a subset of the variables from the Kaiser

Permanente Study of the Oldest Old Survey in the SAS Web Editor program.

First, a PROC CONTENTS was conducted with the SAS Web Editor to determine what

variables would be available for this project to analyze. Here are some of the variables that were

available to analyze.

COHORT Cohort

RACE SUM*race

SEX SUM*sex

## NHOME Lives in nursing home

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The 2011-2012 Data Dictionary (Regents of University of California, 2013) provides the

## Cohort 1 ages at 1971 ranged from 65 to 95 years

Cohort 2 ages at 1980 ranged from 65 to 94 years
Cohort meant the group of population that was measured together and followed for

## designated period of time

Race was coded as 1=Black, 2 =White, 3 = Asian, 4 = Hispanic, 5 = Other, and

6 = Unspecified
Sex was gender which was coded as 0 = Female and 1 = Male
The number of visits to the ER ranged from 0 to 53 visits occurring between a designated

period of time
Living in a nursing home was coded as 0 = No and 1 = Yes.

Frequency

We first computed the frequency distributions for the following variables (AGEIN71, SEX,

and VISSUM1) using a PROC FREQ procedure in SAS. The SEX variable was divided into

either Female (0) or Male (1). The AGEIN71 variable had a range of values that started at 65

years to 95 years of age. The VISSUM1 described the number of visits to the emergency room

## that occurred, which ranged from 0 to 53 visits within a period of time.

Table 1
Sample Demographics
(N = 6000)

Age
AGEIN Cumulative Cumulative
71 Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

## 68 126 4.38 510 17.73

GENDER AND ER VISITS 4

VisitstoER

## VISSU Frequency Percent Cumulative Cumulative

GENDER AND ER VISITS 5

M1 Frequency Percent

## 28 4 0.07 5574 99.79

GENDER AND ER VISITS 6

## 53 1 0.02 5586 100.00

Gender
Cumulative Cumulative
SEX Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

## 1 2984 49.82 5990 100.00

Statistics

For this inferential data analysis, I have chosen to run a PROC CORR DATA procedure

to see if there is a correlation between the three variables (age of the cohort in 1971, visits to the

ER, and sex). According to Sullivan (2012), in correlation analysis, we quantify the association

between two continuous variables. The strength of the correlation coefficient is an indicator of

the strength of association between the variables. For this analysis, we conducted procedures

between: age of gender vs. number of ER visits, age vs. gender, and age vs. number of ER visits.

We wanted to see if there was any statically significant correlation between two of the variables.

Table 2
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Correlations

## 2 Variables: AGEIN71 SEX

Simple Statistics

## Variabl Std Minim

e N Mean Dev Sum um Maximum

## AGEIN 28 75.734 6.020 2178 65.000 95.00000

71 77 79 27 89 00

90 6 04

## Pearson Correlation Coefficients

Prob > |r| under H0: Rho=0
Number of Observations

AGEIN71 SEX

0.3336
2877 2877

0.3336
2877 5990

## 2 Variables: AGEIN71 VISSUM1

Simple Statistics

## Variabl Std Minim

e N Mean Dev Sum um Maximum

## AGEIN 28 75.734 6.020 2178 65.000 95.00000

71 77 79 27 89 00

M1 86 9 16 8

## Pearson Correlation Coefficients

Prob > |r| under H0: Rho=0
Number of Observations

AGEIN71 VISSUM1

## AGEIN71 1.00000 0.05873

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0.0027
2877 2601

0.0027
2601 5586

## 2 Variables: VISSUM1 SEX

Simple Statistics

## Variabl Std Su Minimu

e N Mean Dev m m Maximum

M1 86 99 16 48

90 16 04 4

## Pearson Correlation Coefficients

Prob > |r| under H0: Rho=0
Number of Observations

VISSUM1 SEX

0.0962
5586 5586

## SEX 0.02226 1.00000

0.0962
5586 5990

Discussion

With the descriptive statistics shown in Table 1, we can see that a majority of the cohort

in 1971 were 75 years old with a frequency of 270, or 9.38%. For the number of visits to the

emergency room, the largest number were those who had no visits to the emergency room with a

frequency of 1502, or 26.9%. Looking at the sample population and gender was divided; we

have females with a frequency of 3006, or 50.18%, and males with a frequency of 2784, or

49.82%. Observing the division of gender, it is closely divided up equally in our sample
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population.

In working with correlations between variables, it must range between -1 and +1 and

quantifies the direction and strength of the linear association between the two variables

(Sullivan, 2012). A value such as 0.9 suggests a strong, positive correlation and a value of -0.2

would lead us to believe there is a weak, negative correlation. When a correlation is presented

as being closer to zero, it suggests that there is no linear association between two continuous

variables. The results show that there is no linear association between the two variables of age of

cohort in 1971 and visits to the emergency room. The value of 0.058 helps to support this

analysis. There is no linear association between the variables of sex and visits to the emergency

room with a value of 0.022. There was also no correlated association between age of the cohort

in 1971 and sex. This correlation had a value of 0.018. With all three correlational relationships

being so close to zero, there seemed to be no strong linear correlation. So we can conclude that

there is no statistically significant correlation between gender and the number of visits to the

emergency room.

SAS Code

The following the code used in SAS to provide the results for the project analysis:

PROC CONTENTS DATA=mydata.old;
RUN;
PROC FREQ DATA=mydata.old;
TABLE agein71;
TABLE VISSUM1;
TABLE SEX;
RUN;
PROC FREQ DATA=mydata.old;
TABLES SEX*vissum1;
RUN;
PROC CORR DATA=mydata.old;
VAR agein71 SEX;
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RUN;
PROC CORR DATA=mydata.old;
VAR agein71 vissum1;
RUN;
PROC CORR DATA=mydata.old;
VAR vissum1 SEX;
RUN;

References

Regents of University of California. (2013) California Health Interview Survey Data Dictionary.