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GE Energy

Gas Engines

Waukesha gas engines

Glossary of Terms

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Waukeshagasengines
Waukesha,Wisconsin53188
PrintedinU.S.A.
Copyright6/2012
Allrightsreserved.
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contains chemicals known to the state of related accessories contain chemicals
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FORM63791
06/2012
TRAINING MATERIALS DISCLAIMER:
These training materials are intended to be used only as a training aid to support courses offered by the Waukesha
Product Training Center. The material contained herein pertains only to the general operation and servicing of
Waukesha products. The information is not complete nor is it specific enough to solely rely upon to properly
operate or service products manufactured by Waukesha. Please consult the operators manual for your specific
product to find complete information on operation and safety precautions prior to operating your engine.
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manual.

FORM 6379-1
6/2012
ThisPageIntentionallyLeftBlank

FORM63791
06/2012
Contents

CHAPTER1 GENERALWAUKESHA
GASENGINETERMS
Section1.00 GENERALWAUKESHA
GASENGINEGLOSSARY

CHAPTER2 PRODUCTDESIGNATION

CHAPTER3 TYPESOFNATURALGAS
Section3.00 TYPESOFNATURALGAS

APPENDIX

FORM63791
i 06/2012
Contents

ThisPageIntentionallyLeftBlank

FORM63791
ii 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINETERMS
SECTION1.00
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY

Form1087:WaukeshaProductLiteratureOrderForm AdvancedPowerGeneration(APG):TheAPG*1000,
APG2000andAPG3000Enginatorsareincludedinthis
215A:AlistingfoundonWEDLINKoftechnicalmanuals
modelseriesfromWaukesha.
forcurrentproduction.
*TrademarkofGeneralElectricCompany
215B:AlistingfoundonWEDLINKoftechnicalmanuals
AirCleanerElement(main):Adry,papertypefilter
fornoncurrentproduction.
usedtoridtheincomingambientairofdirtanddebris
AbrasiveWear:Wearthatoccurswhenhardparticles priortotheairenteringtheintakesystem
aresuspendedinafluidorprojectionsfromonesurface
AirFuelRatio(A/F):Atermusedtoexpressa
rollorslideunderpressureagainstanothersurface,
proportion(ineitherweightormass)betweenthe
therebycuttingtheothersurface.Forexample,whendirt
amountofairversustheamountoffuelfoundinan
embedsitselfintotheoverlayofabearing,thiswouldbe
enginescombustionchamber.Ifanair/fuelratiois16:1,
consideredabrasivewearbecausethedirtcutsinto,or
thenthereare16partsofairtoevery1partoffuel.
embedsitselfintothebearing.
Althoughvaluesvarybyengineandfuelcomposition,
ActiveCylinderManagement(ACM):Atidleandlow typicalvaluesfor900Btu/ft3LHVprocessednaturalgas
loadconditions,the12Vand18V220GLenginesneed areshowninthechartbelow:
powerfromonlyafewoftheircylinderstomaintainaset
speed.Throughtheuseofactivecylindermanagement,
mainchamberinjectionsaredeactivatedonapreset
numberofcylinderstoreduceoverallenginemisfire.
AdjustingValve(BreatherSystem):Abutterflyvalve
thatislocatedinthecrankcasebreathersystemof
currentnaturallyaspirated,andpreviousGSIengines.
Thepurposeofthisvalveistoallowadjustmentofthe
breathersystemflowrate,whichisneededinorderto
properlysetthecrankcasepressure.

RichBurn
BestPowerSetting 15.50:1AFR 0.96
CatalystSetting(Typical) 15.95:1AFR 0.99
StoichiometricSetting 16.09:1AFR 1.00
BestEconomy 17.00:1AFR 1.06
LeanBurn
275GL+(11.6%O2) 34.00:1AFR 2.12
VHP*(9.8%O2) 28.00:1AFR 1.74
VGF*(7.8%O2) 24.50:1AFR 1.52

*TrademarkofGeneralElectricCompany

FORM63791
1.001 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
AirRestrictionIndicator:Asmalltattletaledevicethat AutomaticSynchronizer:Amagnetictypecontrol
sensestheamountofnegativepressurecreatedbythe relaythatwillautomaticallyclosethegeneratorswitch/
engineonthedownstreamsideoftheaircleaner circuitbreakerwhentheconditionsforparallelingare
elements.Anairrestrictionindicatorspurposeisto satisfied.
monitorthesenseofrestrictioncreatedbyanengines
AutomaticTransferSwitch:Adoublethrow,
aircleaner(s)duringoperation.Asanenginesairfilter(s)
electricallyoperatedswitchthatwill,onagivensignal,
becomecontaminatedwithdebris,theamountof
openonesetofcontactsandthrowovertothesecond
restriction(resistancetoairflow)increases.The
setofcontacts.Asnormallyusedinhospitals,television
increaseinairfilterrestrictioncausesanincreasein
andradiostationsandotherapplicationsinwhich
negativepressureonthedownstreamsideoftheair
automaticemergencypowerisused,theswitch
filter.Theintentionoftheairrestrictionindicatoristo
automaticallytransfersaloadfromanormalsourceof
displayaredbandwhentherestrictionbecomestoo
electricalpowertoanemergencysourceonfailureofthe
great.
normal.Theloadisautomaticallyreturnedtothenormal
Alarm(ALM):Awarningfaultcondition. sourcewhenthatsourceisrestoredtoproperoperating
condition.Relaysfordelayedoperation,enginestarting,
AlternateDynamics:Settingusedatlowloadsand
manualresetandsimilarfeaturesareavailable.The
speeds,whichreducesthethrottlegainstoprovide
switchiselectricallyoperatedandmechanicallyheld
betterspeedstability.
andhasapositiveinterlocktopreventthetwosetsof
Aluminum:Alight,silverywhitemetallicelementthatis contactsbeingengagedatthesametime.
ductile,malleable,easilyworkedandresistanceto
AuxiliaryWaterCoolingCircuit:Acoolingcircuit
corrosion.Itisextensivelyusedwherelightnessis
designedtocoolorcontrolitemsthatarenotcooledby
advantageoustoacomponentsdesign.Enginesmay
thejacketwatercoolingsystem(cylinderliners,cylinder
usealuminumintheconstructionoftheirpistons,
heads,exhaustmanifolds).Normally,GSIandGL
bearings,intercooler,etc.
enginesutilizetheauxiliarywatercoolingcircuitto
Ampere(amp):Thebasicunitofmeasureofelectrical controlanenginesintakeairtemperaturebycontrolling
current.Itistherateofflowofcurrent.Aunitof theintercoolersinletwatertemperature,andalsocool
electromotiveforce,onevoltactingagainstthe thelubeoil(oilcooler)andwastegates.Naturally
resistanceofoneohm. aspiratedenginesusetheauxiliarycoolingcircuittocool
theengineslubeoilviatheoilcooler.
AnalogSignals:Avoltageorcurrentsignalproportional
toaphysicalquantity. AvoidedCosts:Thedecrementalcostfortheelectric
utilitytogenerateorpurchaseelectricitythatisavoided
API:ApplicationProgrammingInterface.Asource
throughthepurchaseofpowerfromacogeneration
codebasedspecificationintendedtobeusedasan
facility.
interfacebysoftwarecomponentstocommunicatewith
eachother. BackupPower:Electricenergyavailablefromortoan
electricutilityduringanunscheduledoutagetoreplace
ApplicationNote:InformationfromtheApplication
energyordinarilygeneratedbythefacilityortheutility.
Engineeringdepartmentregardingspecialguidelinesfor
Frequentlyreferredtoasstandbypower.
theapplicationorinstallationofaspecificenginemodel
orenginesystem. BalanceLine:(1)Referringtofuelsystems,atubethat
isacommunicationlinebetweenthefuelregulatorand
ASTM:AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials.An
thecarburetorsairinlet.Thistubeallowscarburetorinlet
internationalstandardsorganizationthatdevelopsand
airpressuretopressurizeordepressurizetheregulator.
publishesvoluntaryconsensustechnicalstandardsfor
Theregulatorusestheairpressure,fromthe
awiderangeofmaterials,products,systemsand
carburetorsairinlet,asanaidinmaintainingthe
services.
regulatorsgasoverair(G/A)pressuretothecarburetor.
ATDC:AnabbreviationforAfterTopDeadCenter (2)Referringtocoolingsystems,asmall(3/41in.)
referringtothepositionofthepistoninthecylinder pipethatisconnectedfromthewaterpumpinlettothe
relativetotheflywheelorcrankshaft.Inreferenceto expansiontank.Thebalancelinespurposeistoensure
ignitiontiming,ATDCreferstothecrankshaftdegrees thatthewaterpumpsseeapositivecoolantpressureat
aftertopdeadcenteratwhichtheignitiontimingisset. theirinletports.Boththejacketandauxiliarywater
pumpsrequireabalanceline.Thebalancelineisalso
AutoCal:Automaticcalibrationofthedetonation
calledastaticline.
thresholdbytheDSMTerminalProgram.
Barring:SeeRollingtheEngineOveronpage1.00
19.

FORM63791
1.002 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
BaseLine(LubeOilAnalysis):Thisreferstoalubeoil Blowby:Combustiongassesthatmovepastthepiston
reportthatisgeneratedbysamplingfresh(unused)oil rings/linersintothecrankcase.Blowbycreatesa
directlyfromthedrumpriortofillingtheenginewiththe positivecrankcasepressurethatisnegatedbyan
oil.Thislubeoilanalysisreportwillprovideinformation enginescrankcasebreathersystem.Thecrankcase
onwhatelementsarecontainedinthenewoil.The breathersystemisnormallyadjustedsothereisaslight
importanceintakingthissampleistocreateabaseline negativepressureinthecrankcase.
ofdatathatwillallowacomparisonbetweennewoil
BMEP:SeeBrakeMeanEffectivePressureonpage
(baseline)andthatofusedoilsamplesfromtheengine.
1.003.
BaseloadOperation:Baseloadoperationisamethod
BoostPressure:Pressureofincomingairintothrottle.
offixingtheloadonageneratorwhileitisconnectedto
aninfiniteutilitygridorparalleledwithothergenerators BoraxBuffer:Acoolingsysteminhibitortoprotect
onanisolatedbus.InBaseloadoperation,theunitwill ferrousmetals.However,ithasbeenshowntocause
runatthekWloaddeterminedbytheBaseloadSetpoint. corrosiononaluminum.
BecauseBaseloadoperationisonlykWdependent
Boron:Achemicalelementthathasaveryhighmelting
(frequencyisignored),certainconditionsmustbe
pointandisnonmetallic.Boronistypicallyfoundinthe
adheredtowhenoperatinginthismodeonanisolated
inhibitorpackagesthatareplacedintocoolingsystems
bus:
tocorrectpH.Ifboron(and/orsodium)isfoundonalube
Atleastoneswingunitmustbeoperatingin oilreport,itusuallyindicatesthatcoolanthasleakedinto
Isochronous(Ioadshare)modetoestablishbus thelubricatingsystem.
frequencyandabsorbchangesinbusload.
BottomingCycle:Acogenerationfacilityinwhichthe
Thetotalbusloadmustalwaysbegreaterthanthe energyinputtothesystemisfirstappliedtoanother
combinedoutputofallgeneratorsoperatingin thermalenergyprocess,andtherejectheatemerging
Baseloadmode.Otherwise,theunitswillreverse fromtheprocessisthenusedforpowerproduction.
powertheswingunitandpossiblycausean
overfrequencyconditionwhiletryingtopickupload BrakeMeanEffectivePressure(BMEP):The
thatdoesnotexist. average(mean)cylinderpressure,which,ifimposedon
thepistonsuniformlyfromthetoptothebottomofeach
BaudRate:Thebaudrateisthenumberofsignaling powerstroke,wouldproducethemeasured(brake)
elementsthatoccureachsecond.Thebaudindicates poweroutput.NotethatBMEPistheoreticalandnotthe
thenumberofbpsthataretransmitted. actualcylinderpressure.BMEPisausefulcomparator
BDC:AnabbreviationforBottomDeadCenter,referring ofengineperformance,aneffectiveyardstickfor
tothepositionofthepistonatthebottomofitstravelin comparingtheperformanceofoneenginetoanother.
thecylinder.
BestEconomy:Theairfuelratioofstoichiometric(rich
burn)engines,whichwillgivethelowestfuel
consumptionwhilemaintainingnormalenginestability,
loadresponseandcontinuouspowercapability.Thisair
fuelratioisleanofstoichiometry.For900BtuLHV
processednaturalgas,typicalvalueswillbebetween
17.0:1and18.0:1A/F(1.061.12). BritishThermalUnit(Btu):Theamountofheatenergy
BestPower:Theairfuelratioofrichburnengineswhich thatmustbeaddedtoonepound(avoirdupois)ofpure
willgivethehighestmaximumpowerlevelatwideopen watertoraiseitstemperaturefrom58.559.5F(14.7
throttle.Thisairfuelratioisrichofstoichiometry.For900 15.3C)underoneatmospheric(101.325kPa)
BtuLHVprocessednaturalgas,atypicalvaluewillbe pressure.
15.50:1A/F(A0.96). BTDC:AnabbreviationforBeforeTopDeadCenter
BlockRateSchedules:Utilityrateschedulesthat referringtothepositionofthepistoninthecylinder
chargedifferentratesforcertainincrementsofenergy relativetotheflywheelorcrankshaft.Inreferenceto
consumed.Forexample:3centsforthefirst1000kWh, ignitiontiming,BTDCreferstothecrankshaftdegrees
4centsforthenext1000kWh,5centsforthenext1000 BeforeTopDeadCenteratwhichtheignitiontimingis
kWhandsoon. set.

FORM63791
1.003 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
Bus:Acollectionofwiresthroughwhichdatais Capacity:Theloadforwhichageneratingunit,
transmittedfromonepartofacomputerizedsystemto generatingstationorotherelectricalapparatusisrated.
another.Abusisacommonpathway,orchannel, Thiscapacityisapplicableonlyunderconditions
betweenmultipledevices.Anelectricalconductorthat specifiedfortherating.
servesasacommonconnectionfortwoormore
CapacityCredits:Thevalueincorporatedintothe
electricalcircuits.
utilitysrateforpurchasingenergy,baseduponthe
Bypass:Thebypassdirectsairfromtheoutletofthe savingsduetothereductionorpostponementofnew
turbochargercompressortotheinletoftheturbocharger generationcapacityresultingfromthepurchaseof
turbine.Whenatlikelysurgeconditions(lowspeedor powerfromcogenerators.
partialload),openingthebypasswillincreasetheflow
CapacityFactor:Theratiooftheactualannualplant
throughthecompressor,whichhelpsmovethe
electricityoutputtotheratedplantoutput.
compressorawayfromthesurgelineandtowardthe
peakefficiencyisland. CarbonMonoxide(CO):Carbonmonoxideisformed
byincompletecombustionofthefuel.Complete
CAC:Chargeaircooler.
combustionofamethanemoleculeisrepresentedbythe
Calibration:TheESMisdesignedtoworkwithvarious formulabelow:
Waukeshafamiliesandconfigurations,andeachECU
isfactorycalibratedtoworkwithaspecificenginemodel. CH4+202=CO2+2H2O
TheECUcontainsthousandsofcalibrations,suchas
Incompletecombustionofamethanemoleculewill
thoseindicatingthenumberofcylinders,timing,sensor
produceCOinsteadofCO2(carbondioxide).Incomplete
defaultvalues,high/lowlimitationsandnecessaryfilters.
combustionoccurswhenthereisinsufficientoxygen
Camshafts(Cam)BaseCircle:Theportionofthecam nearthehydrocarbon(fuel)moleculeforcomplete
thatdoesnotcontainthelobe.Thisisthecamshafts combustionorwhencombustionisquenchedneara
smallestdiameter,andalsotheareaofthecamwhere coldsurfaceinthecombustionchamber.
thelifterorfollowerrideswhenthevalveisclosed.
Carburetor:Adevicegaseousenginesuse,which
Camshafts(Cam)Lobe:Theeggshapedportionof controlsthemixingofairandfuel,inaspecificratio,to
thecam.Thisistheareaofthecamthatraisesthelifter, anengineinordertoachievepropercombustion.The
openingthevalve. carburetorvariestheamountoffuelflowintothe
CAN:Aserialbusnetworkofmicrocontrollersthat carburetor,basedonhowmuchairflowsthroughthe
connectsdevices,sensorsandactuatorsinasystemfor carburetorsventuri.
realtimecontrolapplicationsliketheESM.Since Catalysts:Acatalystisasubstancethatpromotesa
messagesinaCANaresentthroughthenetworkwith chemicalreactionwithoutbeingchemicallychanged
uniqueidentifiers(noaddressingschemeisused),it itself.Thecatalystmaterialisusedtoreduceemissions
allowsforuninterruptedtransmissionifonesignalerror fromanenginebyconvertingthepollutantsinto
isdetected. harmless,naturallyoccurringcompoundsthrougha
CanadianStandardsAssociation(CSA):A catalyticconverter.
regulatoryagencytograntproductsafetyapprovalwith CatalystSetting:Theairfuelratioofrichburnengines
certainCanadiansafetystandards.CSAiswidely whichwillgivethebestperformancewithemissions
recognizedasastandard.Ignitionsystemsandvarious reductions.Thisairfuelratioisslightlyrichof
electricalcomponentsaregivendifferentlevelsofCSA stoichiometry.For900BtuLHVprocessednaturalgas
approvaloncetheyhavepassedCSAtestingand atypicalvalueswillbebetween15.9516.05:1A/F(
inspection. 0.9910.998).
CANBUS(ControllerAreaNetwork):Abusstandard Cavitation:Cavitationisaphysicalphenomenonthat
designedtoallowmicrocontrollersanddevicesto erodesmaterialfromwaterandoilpumps,cylinder
communicatewitheachotherwithinasystemwithouta liners,crankshaftbearingsandsoon.Thephenomenon
hostcomputer. ofcavitationbeginswhenthelocalpressureinaliquidis
Capability:Themaximumloadthatageneratingunit, reducedwithoutachangeintemperature.Ifalow
generatingstationorotherelectricalapparatuscancarry enoughpressure(condition)isreachedtheliquidwill
underspecifiedconditionsforagivenperiodoftime, vaporize,forminggasfilled(vapor)bubbleswithinthe
withoutexceedingapprovedlimitsoftemperatureand lowpressureareaoftheliquid.Oncethelowpressure
stress. areacollapses,thebubblesimplode.Theimplosionof
thesevaporbubblescanresultinaliquiderosionof
componentsinthevicinity.

FORM63791
1.004 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
CB:Circuitbreaker. CombustionStabilityLimit:Asengineloadisreduced
fromamanufacturersratedload,combustionpressure
CBCS:CircuitBreakerControlSwitch.
withintheenginediminishes.Belowsomepoweroutput,
CCCT:CurrentCompensationCurrentTransformer. combustionisnolongerstable,andexhaustoxygenis
notagoodindicatorofAFR.
CCW:Counterclockwise.
Commissioning:Theprocessofassuringthatall
CDROM:ACDformatusedtoholdtext,graphicsand
systemsandcomponentsareinstalled,tested,operated
audio.ItislikeanaudioCDbutusesadifferentformat
andmaintainedaccordingtotheoperational
forrecordingdata.TheESMESPsoftware(includingE
requirementsoftheownerorfinalclient.
Help)isavailableinCDROMformat.
CompressionRatio:Aproportionbetweenthe
CentralCooling:Sameascentralheatingexceptthat
cylindersvolumewhenthepistonisatBottomDead
cooling(heatremoval)issuppliedinsteadofheating;
CentercomparedtothevolumeatTopDeadCenter.For
usuallyachilledwaterdistributionsystemandreturn
example,ifacylinderhas50cubicincheswhenthe
systemforairconditioning.
pistonisatBDCandhas5cubicincheswhenthepiston
CentralHeating:Supplyofthermalenergyfroma isatTDC,thenitscompressionratioistentoone(10:1).
centralplanttomultiplepointsofenduse,usuallyby
ConceptualDesign:Thespecificationofthemajor
steamorhotwater,forspaceand/orservicewater
componentsofasystemandtheiroperating
heating.Centralheatingmaybelargescaleasinplants
characteristics,layout,spaceneedsandoperatingand
servingcentralbusinessdistricts,universitycampuses,
maintenancerequirements.
medicalcentersandmilitaryinstallationsorincentral
buildingsystemsservingmultiplezones;alsodistrict CoolantAnalysis:Amethodofinspectingthechemical
heating. propertiesofacoolingsystem.Acoolantsampleis
extractedfromthecoolingsystemandsenttoacoolant
CHP:SeeCombinedHeatandPoweronpage1.00
analysislaboratoryforevaluation.Thepurposefora
5:Atypeofcogenerationsystem.
coolantanalysisistoallowtheenduserstoreviewthe
CircuitBreaker:Aspecialswitchusedtoprotect resultsandprovidethemwiththeoptiontoreinhibitor
electricalcircuits.Itisgenerallydesignedtoopenor upgradethequalityofthecoolingsystembyadding
breakthecircuitwhensomeabnormalcondition,such specificinhibitorsonsite.
asanoverload,occurs.Thecircuitbreakerusuallyhas
Cooperative:Agroupofpersonswhohaveorganized
ahigherinitialcostthanafusedknifeswitchbuthasthe
ajointventureforthepurposeofsupplyingelectric
advantagesofopeningthecircuitfasterandcanbereset
energytoaspecifiedarea(CooperativelyOwned
easierafterthecauseoftheoverloadhasbeenremoved.
ElectricUtility).Suchventuresaregenerallyexempt
Circuitbreakersarenecessarytoprotectanengine
fromFederalincometaxlaws.Mostcooperativeshave
drivengenerator.Acircuitbreakerratingof125%
beenfinancedbytheRuralElectrification
generatorratingisusuallyused;however,enginepower
Administration.
usuallylimitsgeneratorloadtolessthan125%.
Copper:Ametallicelementthatismalleableandductile
ClosedLoopControl:Closedloopcontrolisamethod
andisaverygoodconductorofelectricityandheat.
ofcontrollingaprocess.Acontrollermanipulatesthe
Copper,insideofanengine,isusuallyfoundinbearings,
inputstoasystemaccordingtosomepreprogrammed
bushingsorguides.Ahighcopperindicationfromalube
processtoobtainthedesiredeffectontheoutputofthe
oilanalysismightindicateabearingproblem.
system.
Coproduction:Theconversionofenergyfromafuel
CoefficientofPerformance(COP):Theratioofthe
(possiblyincludingsolidorotherwastes)intoshaft
rateofheatremovaltotherateofenergyinputin
power(whichmaybeusedtogenerateelectricity)anda
consistentunits.
secondoradditionalusefulform.Theprocessmayentail
Cogeneration:Thesequentialproductionofelectrical aseriestoppingandbottomingarrangementfor
ormechanicalenergyandusefulthermalenergyfroma conversiontoshaftpowerandeitherprocessorspace
singleenergystream. heating.Cogenerationisaformofcoproduction;
however,theconceptalsoincludesasingleheat
CombinedHeatandPower(CHP):Atypeof
producerservingseveraldifferentmechanicaland/or
cogenerationsystem.
thermalrequirementsinparallel.

FORM63791
1.005 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
CrankcasePressure:Theamountofpressurefoundin DegreeDay:Aunitmeasuringtheextenttowhichthe
thecrankcaseduringengineoperation.Itisnormally outdoormean(averageofmaximumandminimum)daily
recommendedthatduringnormalengineoperationthe drybulbtemperaturefallsbelow(inthecaseofheating)
crankcasepressurebeadjustedtoaslightlynegative orrisesabove(inthecaseofcooling)anassumedbase.
value(0to1in.or0to25.4mmWaterColumn). Thebaseisnormallytakenat65F(18C)forboth
heatingandcoolingunlessotherwisedesignated.One
Crossshaft:Ashaftthatlinksthetwothrottleplatesof
degreedayiscountedforeachdegreeofdeficiency
aveetypeenginetogether.Thisshafthelpstoensure
below(forheating)orabove(forcooling)theassumed
boththrottleplatesaresynchronized,whichhelps
base,foreachcalendardayonwhichsuchdeficiencyor
balanceintakemanifoldpressures.
excessoccurs.
CurrentProduct:SeePowerRatingsChart.
DeionizedWater:Waterthatiscompletelymineral
CT:SeeCurrentTransformeronpage1.006. free.Thiswateriscorrosiveandmustbetreatedwith
inhibitorspriortousingitinanengine.
CurrentTransformer(CT):AdevicethatmeasuresAC
currentandprovidesasteppeddownsignalin DelayTime:ThisistheamountoftimetheAFMmodule
proportiontoit. waitsbeforesearchingforstoichiometrywhenoperating
inthebestpower/economycontrolmode.Theunitof
CustomEngineControl(CEC)IgnitionModule:
measureforthedisplayeddelaytimeisminutes.
WaukeshasCECIgnitionModuleprovidesvery
Acceptablevaluesrangefrom0.125minutes(PC
accurateandreliableignitiontimingforWaukesha
programmable).
engines.MostCECignitionsystemsconsistofapickup,
timingdiscandmodule.Theignitionmodulefunctions DeltaT(T):Thedifferenceintemperaturemeasured
byusingaHalleffectpickuptoreadmagneticreference acrossacomponent.
marksonatimingdiscattachedtoeitherthegovernor
DeltaConnection:Thedeltaconnectionissonamed
driveorthecamshaftgear.Themicrocircuitbased,
becauseitresemblestheGreekletter.Tomakeadelta
electronicignitionmoduleinterpretsthesensors
connection,thefinishendofthefirstwindingis
impulsestoelectronicallysettheoptimumignition
connectedtothestartofthesecondwinding,thefinish
timing.Theelectronicignitionmodulethendirectsa
ofthesecondwindingisconnectedtothestartofthe
preciselytimedvoltagetotheappropriatecoil.
thirdwindingandthefinishofthethirdwindingis
CW:Clockwise. connectedtothestartofthefirstwinding.
DataSet:Thisisthegroupofsitespecificdatapoints Demand:Therateatwhichelectricenergyisdelivered
thatarecreatedandstoredwithintheAFMcontrolas atagiveninstantoraveragedoveranydesignated
partofthesetupprocess.(PCprogrammable) periodoftime(usuallyonehourorless).
DBConnector:Afamilyofplugsandsocketswidely AnnualDemand:Thegreatestofalldemandsthat
usedincommunicationsandcomputerdevices.DB occurredduringaprescribeddemandintervalina
connectorscomein9,15,25,37and50pinsizes.The calendaryear.
DBconnectordefinesthephysicalstructureofthe BillingDemand:Thedemanduponwhichbillingtoa
connector,notthepurposeofeachline. customerisbased,asspecifiedinaratescheduleor
DeadBand:Thisistheoxygensensortarget(setpoint) acontract.Itmaybebasedonthecontractyear,a
toleranceorcontrolwindowwithinwhichthestepper contractminimumorapreviousmaximumand,
positionremainsconstant.Thisparameterisonlyused therefore,doesnotnecessarilyequalthedemand
oncatalystapplicationsoftheAFMsystem.(PC actuallymeasuredduringthebillingperiod.
programmable) CoincidentDemand:Thesumoftwoormore
demandsthatoccurinthesamedemandinterval.
DefaultTiming:Thedefaulttimingistheretarded
ignitiontimingimposedbytheDSMsystemwhenitisnot InstantaneousPeakDemand:Themaximum
protectingagainstdetonation.TheDSMsystem demandattheinstantofgreatestload.
activatesdefaulttimingforacylinderwhenthecylinders DemandCharge:Thespecifiedchargeforelectrical
sensorisdisabled,whenthesensorfails,andduring capacityonthebasisofthebillingdemand.
enginewarmupdelay.(PCprogrammable)
DesignVoltage:Thenominalvoltageforwhichalineor
apieceofequipmentisdesigned.Thisisareference
levelofvoltageforidentificationandnotnecessarilythe
preciselevelatwhichitoperates.

FORM63791
1.006 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
DesiredStepperPosition:AtermusedwiththeAFM Droop:Whenagovernoroperatesindroopmode,it
system.Inmostcasesthiscurveofplottedstepper meansthatthegovernorwillallowtheenginetoslow
positionswillmatchthenaturalairfuelratiotrackingof downslightlyunderload.Droopisusedtosimulatethe
theengine. situationwithmechanicalgovernorsinwhichtheengine
willrunataslightlyhigherrpmthanthesetpointwhenno
Detonation(AutoIgnition):Anabnormalcondition,
loadisplacedontheengine.
insideacombustionchamber,resultingintheauto
ignitionoftheunburnedportionofafuel/airmixture. DRYBASIS:Asystemforreportingengineexhaust
Detonationoffueloccursbecausethefuelspressure/ emissionvaluesbasedontheremovalofallwatervapor
temperaturestabilitylimitshavebeenexceeded. presentintheexhaust.Thisisdoneeitherwithsuitable
Normally,thecombustionprocessstartswhenthespark instrumentationormathematically.
plugignitesthefuel/airmixture.Controlledcombustion
ECM:ElectronicControlModule.
occurswhentheflamefrontmovessmoothlyacrossthe
combustionchamberuntilallthefuel/airmixtureis ECP:EnginatorControlPanel.
burned.Combustioninvolvingdetonation,alsostarts
ECU:TheECUisthecentralmodule,orhub,ofthe
whenthesparkplugignitesthefuel/airmixture.The
ESM.TheentireESMinterfaceswiththeECU.AllESM
flamefrontinitiatedbythesparkplugwillbegintoburn,
components,thePCwithESPsoftwareandcustomer
increasingthepressureandtemperatureinthecylinder.
supplieddataacquisitiondevicesconnecttotheECU.
Ifthepressure/temperatureexceedstheunburnedfuels
limits,thefuelwilldetonate,resultinginuncontrolled Efficiency:Inputtimesefficiencyequalsoutput,or
burning(multipleflamefronts)oftheremainingfuel/air efficiencyequalsoutputdividedbytheoutputplus
mixture.Thisuncontrolledburningresultsinextremely losses.Efficienciesofgeneratorsarecommonlygiven
highcylindertemperatures/pressuresthatcancause at4/4,3/4and1/2load.Unlessotherwisestated,the
severeenginedamage. efficiencyofthegeneratorisalwaysbasedontheWA
andpowerfactoratwhichitisrated.
DetonationLevel:Voltagethatadetonationsignal
mustexceedbeforetheengineisconsideredtobein EHelp:EHelpisthenameoftheelectronichelpfile
detonationandindividualcylindertimingisretarded. includedwiththeESPsoftware.EHelpprovidesfault
codetroubleshootinginformation.
DetonationSensingModule(DSM):Oneof
WaukeshasfourCustomEngineControl(CEC) EmissionsRegulations:Regulationsgoverningthe
modulesdesignedtosensedetonationoccurringon quantityofpollutantsthatagasenginecandischarge
Waukeshasgaseousfueled,industrialengines.If varybetweendifferentregionsduetotheairqualityin
detonationisoccurring,theDSMwillretardtheignition theseregions.Regionswithpoorairqualityhavemuch
timinguntil(1)thedetonationstops,or(2)the tighterrestrictionsonexhaustemissionsthanareas
shutdownlightonthemodulelightsup.Inthelatter wheretheairqualityisgood.Forthisreason,thelocal
case,theDSMsoutputcanbeusedtoshuttheengine airqualityboardmustbecontactedtodetermineifa
offoractivateotherwarningdevices. projectiswithincompliancewhenenginesare
consideredfornewprojectsorrepowers.
DifferentialPressure(P):Thedifferenceinpressure
betweentwopoints.InthecaseofTCMII,itisthestatic Electrolyte(Battery):Adilutesulfuricacidsolution.A
pressuredropacrossthemainthrottlevalveand batterywithafullychargedspecificgravityof1.265
carburetor.AlsoreferredtoasdeltaPorthrottle correctedto80F(26.7C)containsanelectrolytewith
reserve. approximately36%sulfuricacidbyweight,or25%by
volume.Theremainderoftheelectrolyteiswater.Pure
Discrete:Digital,asindigitalinputordigitaloutput.
(concentrated)sulfuricacidhasaspecificgravityof
DigitalSignals:Signalsrepresentingdatainbinary 1.835.
formthatacomputercanunderstand.Thesignalis0or
Element:Anyofmorethan100substancesthatnever
1(offoron).
havebeenseparatedintosimplersubstances(elements
DISPSEL(DisplaySelect)Key:Akeyonthefront arelistedinaPeriodicTable).
keypadoftheAFMthatwhenpushed,causestheliquid
EndofSampleWindow:Thisisapredeterminedangle
crystaldisplaytoscrollthroughitsmessages.
aftertopdeadcenter(ATDC)incrankshaftdegreesat
Distributor:Thesupportnetworktoprovideengines, whichthewindowisclosed.Thewindowisusedsothat
partsandservicetoGEgasenginesandcustomers. detonationislookedforduringthecombustionevent
(PCprogrammable).

FORM63791
1.007 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
EnergizedSystems:Asystemunderload(supplying ErrorOutTerminal:AlabeledterminalinsidetheAFM
energytoload)orcarryingratedvoltageandfrequency, modulethatisasinkingcircuitusedtoprovidea
butnotsupplyingload. connectiontogroundtobeusedasatriggertodrive
remotedevicessuchasalarms,lightsandrelays.When
EnergyCharge:Thatportionofthebilledchargefor
theAFMsystemisoperatingcorrectlythecircuit
electricservicebasedupontheelectricenergy(kilowatt
providesaconnectiontoground.AnyAFMsystemfault
hours)supplied,ascontrastedwiththedemandcharge.
willdisconnectthecircuit.Alsoseethedefinitionfor
EngCalc:Thisapplicationprovidessitespecificengine SinkingCircuitonpage1.0020.
dataincludingavailablepower,fuelconsumption,heat
ESD:EmergencyShutdown(fault).
rejection,emissionsandgeneralmodelspecific
informationfortheVGF,VHP,275GLandAPGseries ESM:TheEngineSystemManagerisasystem
engines.Theuserisabletoentersiteconditionsandfuel designedtooptimizeengineperformanceandmaximize
compositiontodeterminethemaximumengineratingfor uptime.TheESMintegratessparktimecontrol,speed
thosesiteconditions.Theprogramcanthenallowthe governing,knockdetection,startstopcontrol,airfuel
usertosavefilesonaprojectbasisand/orprintoutasa control,diagnostictools,faultloggingandengine
consolidateddatasheet. safeties.
EngineProtectionDevices:Asystemofcomponents ESMTrainingTool:Asoftwareprogram,separatefrom
designedtoprotectanenginefromoperatingunder ESP,thatisloadedonaPCduringESPinstallationand
potentiallyharmfulconditions.Engineprotection isfortraininguseonly.AnECUcannotbeprogrammed
devicesusuallyincludeshutdownsforhighjacketwater, usingtheTrainingToolbutallowstheusertoopenESP
auxiliarywater,intakemanifoldandlubeoiltemperature, withoutanECUconnected.
andalsolowlubeoilpressure.Anengineprotection
ESP:ESPistheserviceprogram(software)thatisthe
deviceusuallyconsistsofasensorandeitheran
primarymeansofobtaininginformationonESMstatus.
electricaloramechanicalmeansofshuttingdownthe
ESPprovidesagraphical(visual)interfaceandisthe
engineusuallybyshuttingoffthefuelandignitiontothe
meansbywhichtheinformationthattheECUlogscan
engine.
beread.ESPcomesinstalledontheECP,orESPcan
EngineSupportRequirements:Servicepartsand beinstalledonaPCwithMicrosoftWindowsXP
toolstobestockedforcommissionandserviceof operatingsystem.APCusedtoruntheESPsoftware
enginesinterritory. connectstotheECUviaanRS232serialcable.
EPIC:Thisisnotanacronym,butasystemthatcontains EStop:EmergencyStopButton.
abillofmaterial(BOM)informationaboutaspecific
Ethernet:Ethernetisafamilyofframebasedcomputer
engine.
networkingtechnologiesforlocalareanetworks(LANs).
EPROM:ElectronicProgrammableReadOnlyMemory.
Excitation:Thepowerrequiredtoenergizethe
ThisisthesameasROM(permanentmemory)when
magneticfieldofgeneratorsinanelectricgenerating
speakingaboutprogramming.ThetermEPROMisused
station.
todescribeanelectricalchipthatresidesintheAFM
module.ThecontentsofROMmemoryarenotlostwhen Exciter:SynchronousACgeneratorsrequireDCfield
powerisremoved. excitationcurrent.Mostsuchgeneratorstodayare
furnishedwithexcitersthatareACgeneratorshaving
ErrorOut:AtermusedinconnectionwiththeCECAFM
rectifiedoutput.
system.TheErrorOutterminalisasinkingcircuitwitha
maximumcurrentratingof1ampandamaximum ExhaustBackPressure:Theamountofpressure
voltageratingof50VDC(noACvoltagesareallowed). foundwithintheexhaustsystempiping.Sinceexhaust
TheErrorOutterminalcanbeusedasatriggertodrive tubing,mufflersand/orcatalyticconverterscanall
relays,alarmsandlights.WhentheAFMsystemis restricttheexhaustflow,ahighbackpressurecould
operatingcorrectlyitisaCLOSEDdeviceconnected developintheexhaustsystem.Theexhaustback
internallytoground.AnysystemfaultwillOPENthe pressureisusuallymeasuredjustdownstreamofthe
alarmcircuitincludinglossofpoweranddiagnostic exhaustoutlet.
warnings.TheErrorOutterminalwillbeOPENwhenever
theyellowalarmLEDonthefrontoftheAFMmoduleis
on.

FORM63791
1.008 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
ExhaustEmissions:Thebyproductsofengine Filter:Thefilterisolatestheknockfrequencyfrom
combustion,resultingfromtheenginescombustion backgroundenginenoiseandotherfrequencies.
(burning)ofanair/fuelmixture.Becauseofthevarietyof
FiringVoltage:Thefiringvoltageisthevoltagerequired
fuelsthatareutilizedingaseousengines,theexhaust
toelectricallybridgethegaponanenginessparkplugs.
emissionsmaycontainmanydifferentcomponents.
Thisvoltagewillvarydependingonsparkplugtypeand
Exhaustemissioncomponentsthataretypically
condition,andenginetypeandload.
measuredincludeOxygen(O2),CarbonDioxide(CO2),
CarbonMonoxide(CO),Hydrocarbons(HCMethane Formaldehyde:Ahazardousairpollutantwiththe
andNonMethane)andNitrousOxides(NOx). chemicalformulaHCHO.
ExhaustVenturi:Atubelikecomponentthatislocated FoulingDeposits:Softgelorslimedepositsfoundin
intheexhaustelbowofpreviousGSIandGLcrankcase thecoolingsystemresultingfromsuspendedimpurities
breathersystems.Theexhaustventuriisplacedinthe orimproperwatertreatment.Foulingdepositsusually
exhaustoutletparalleltotheexhauststream.Byplacing collectinlowflowareas(lowersleevebore,radiators,
thisventuriortubeintotheexhaustflow,alowpressure etc.).Foulingdepositsdevelopfromgrowthofbacteria
areaiscreatedatthedownstreamoutletofthetube suspendedinuntreatedfillwater.
therebycausinganegativepressuretodevelopinthe FreewheelingDiode:Afreewheelingdiodeisadded
tube.Anengineequippedwithanexhaustventuriuses acrossthecoilsofarelayorsolenoidtosuppressthe
thenegativepressurecreatedbytheexhaustventurito highinducedvoltagesthatmayoccurwhenequipment
drawvaporsoutofthecrankcase. isturnedoff.
ExpansionTank:Acoolantstoragetankplacedintothe FunctionKeys:Asetofkeysonacomputerkeyboard
highestpointinthecoolingsystemtoallowventlinesto thatarenumberedF1F12thatperformspecial
bleedanyairfromthesystemandprovideapositive functions,dependingontheapplicationprograminuse.
headpressuretothewaterpumpsviathebalancelines
attachedtothewaterpumpinletports. G/A:SeeGas/Aironpage1.0010.
F1+StartFunction:Aseriesoftwokeystrokes(F1 Gain:Gainisatermthatimpliesanincreasein
andSTRT)tocausetheAFMssteppertotraveltothe something.IntheAFMsystemgainisamultiplier.It
StartPosition.Whenthesekeysareconsecutively influenceshowlargeachangeismadetothestepper
pressed,theleftbankstepperfirsttravelstothehome positionwhentheoxygensensorsignalisnotwithinthe
position(step1),thentotheprogrammedstartposition. specifiedtoleranceofthesensortarget(setpoint).A
Onveebankengines,therightstepperwilltakethe largergainwillresultinalargerchange(PC
sameaction,butfortherightbankstartpositionsetting. programmable).
Fault:AfaultisanyconditiondetectedbytheESMthat GasAdmissionValve:Avalveusedtoallowand
isoutofrange,unusualoroutsidenormaloperating controlgasentryintotheprechamberareaoncertain
conditions.Includedarethefollowing: GL,leanburnengines.
SH:AnSHfaultindicatesthevalueofthesensoris GasChromatograph:Aninstrumentusedtoanalyzea
higherthanitsnormaloperatingrange. gassample.Atypicalchromatographiscomposedofa
SL:AnSLfaultindicatesthevalueofthesensoris columnfilledwithapackingmaterialthatacarriergas
lowerthanitsnormaloperatingrange. suchasheliumorairflowsthrough.Asampleofthegas
tobeanalyzedisinjectedintothecarriergasandpasses
ShortorOpenCircuit:Ashortoropencircuitindicates throughthecolumnwhereeachcomponentofthegas
sensorvalueisoutsidevalidoperatingrangeandis isretardedatanindividualrate.Eachcomponent,
mostlikelyduetoadamagedsensororwiring. therefore,willexitthecolumnatacharacteristictime.
FaultLog:TheECUrecordsfaultsintothefaultlogas Suitabledetectorsinthecarriergasstreamsenseeach
theyoccur.ThefaultlogisviewedusingtheESMSystem componentofthetestgasasitexitsthecolumn.The
ESPsoftwareandHMI. compositionofthetestgasisdeterminedfromastrip
Feeder:Anelectriclineforsupplyingelectricenergy chartrecordofthedetectorsoutput.Thetimeofeach
withinanelectricserviceareaorsubarea. peakischaracteristicofaspecificgasandthepeaks
heightandareaareproportionaltotheamountofthat
FeedforwardControl:Feedforwardcontrol,also gasinthesample.
referredtoasloadcomingcontrol,isagoverningfeature
thatallowstheenginetoacceptlargerloadadditions
thanwouldnormallybepossible.
FillWater(RawWater):Thewaterusedwhenblending
coolant.

FORM63791
1.009 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
Gas/Air(GasOverAir):Adifferentialpressure HeatExchanger(HE):Adeviceusedtoremoveheat
measurementthatthefuelregulatormaintains.Gas/Air fromeitheraliquidorgas.Inacoolingsystem,aheat
istypicallymeasuredininches(mm)ofH2O.Technically, exchangerisusedtoremoveheatfromthecoolant.The
gasoverairisgasminusair,thecarburetorsgas/fuel heatfromthecoolantisremovedbyaheatexchanger
inletpressureminusthecarburetorsairinletpressure. (similartoaradiator)wheninternallyacoolerwateris
Formostnondrawthrucarburetionengines,fuelwill passednexttopassages(ortubes)containingthe
naturallyflowintotheairatthecarburetorsincethefuel heatedcoolant.
isunderahigher(over)pressurethantheair. HeatRate:Ameasureofgeneratingstationthermal
GL:Gas,Leancombustion(leanburn) efficiency,generallyexpressedinBTU(pernetkilowatt
hour).
Glycol:Acolorless,thicksweetliquid,ethyleneglycol
(C2H4(OH)2)usedinantifreeze.Thepurposeofethylene HeaterPowerControl(HPC):Acontrolboxwhichis
glycolistodecreasethefreezingpointofenginewater partoftheCECairfuelmodulesystemforlean
(coolant)andalsoincreasetheboilingpoint,thereby combustion(GL)enginesonly.Itcontrolspowersentto
allowinganenginescoolingsystemfurtherprotection theauxiliaryandoxygensensorheaters.
againstcoolantsystemfreezingand/orboiling. HeatingValue:Theenergycontentinafuelwhichis
GMT:GreenwichMeanTime availableasusefulheat.
HighHeatValue(HHV):Thetotalenergycontentof
Grease(LithiumComplex):Thetypeofgrease
afuelavailablebycompletecombustionandall
currentlyrecommendedforalljacketwaterpumps,
productsofcombustionat60F(16C).Allwater
idlersandgovernorlinkage.
formedbycombustionisinaliquidstate.
Grease(Polyurea):Thetypeofgreasetobeusedon LowHeatValue(LHV):Theenergycontentofafuel
auxiliarywaterpumpsbuiltafter1993. availablefromcompletecombustionwithallproducts
Grid:Thesystemofinterconnectedtransmissionlines, at60F(16C)andwaterinavaporstate.Equalsto
substationsandgeneratingplantsofoneormore theHighHeatValuelessthelatentheatof
utilities. vaporization.
GridInterconnection:Theintertiaofacogeneration HeatingValue:Theamountofenergycontainedina
planttoanelectricutilityssystemtoallowelectricityflow volumeofgas.SeeHighHeatValueonpage1.0010
ineitherdirection. andLowHeatValueonpage1.0010.Expressedin
variousunitsbuttypicallyBTU/standardcubicfoot(BTU/
GRU:GasRegulatingUnitmainfuelgasregulator. FT3)inEnglishunitsandMJ/m3(MegaJoules/normal
GUI:Aninterfacethatisconsidereduserfriendly cubicmeter)inmetricunits.
becausepictures(oricons)accompanythewordsonthe TheEnglishsystemstandardcubicfootiscommonlyat
screen.Theuseoficons,pulldownmenusandthe 60Fand30in.Hgapressure.Themetricsystemnormal
mousemakesoftwarewithaGUIeasiertoworkwithand cubicmeteriscommonlyatacombustiontemperature
learn. of25Candseparatemeteringconditionsof0Cand
HardDrive:Theprimarycomputerstoragemedium 101.325kPapressure.ThisisexpressedasMJ/m3[25,
normallyinternallysealedinsideaPC.Typically, V(0;101.325)].
softwareprogramsandfilesareinstalledonaPCshard
High(Higher)HeatingValue(HHV):Thetotalenergy
driveforstorage.Alsoreferredtoastheharddisk.
releasedfromastandardvolumeusuallyonecubicfoot
Harmonics:Waveformswhosefrequenciesare ofafuelgaswhentheproductsofcombustionare
multiplesofthefundamental(60Hz)wave.The cooledtothesamepressureandtemperatureasthe
combinationofharmoniesandfundamentalwaves originalairandfuelmixture.Thisincludestheheatof
causesanonsinusoidal,periodicwave.Harmonicsin vaporizationofthewaterformedduringcombustion
powersystemsaretheresultofnonlineareffects. sincethecoolingcausesthewatervaportobecome
Typically,harmonicsareassociatedwithrectifiersand liquid.
inverters,arcfurnaces,arcweldersandtransformer
HighSignal:AdigitalsignalsenttotheECUthatis
magnetizingcurrent.Therearebothvoltageandcurrent
between8.6and36volts.
harmonics.
HMI:HumanMachineInterface
HeatBalance:Energyflowinapowergenerating
system. HomePosition:Homepositioniswherethesteppernut
isinthefullyretractedposition.

FORM63791
1.0010 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
HotShort:Aconditionthatiscausedbyanexcessive IMAP:IntakeManifoldAbsolutePressure(IMAP)isthe
heatbuildupatsomeareaofabearing.Whenabearing pressureoftheairdownstreamfromthethrottleandis
isheatedabovethemeltingpointoflead(620F[327C]) usedtogaugetheloadontheengine.
ortin(449F[232C])andissubjectedtocrankshaft
IMAT:IntakeManifoldTemperatureSensor
frictionalheating,thebearingliningbecomesbrittle.
Undertheseconditions,itispossibleforportionsofthe IMP:IntakeManifoldPressure:IMPisusedtodesignate
bearingtosloughoff(HotShort).Excessiveheatcanbe thevalueofpressurewithintheintakemanifold,
causedbyinsufficientoilflow,aroughshaftorbearing regardlessofwhetheritispositiveornegative(vacuum).
misalignment.
InductionGenerator:AnonsynchronousACgenerator
HT:HighTemperaturecircuit(coolingsystem) similarinconstructionwithanACmotor,andwhichis
drivenabovesynchronousspeedbyexternalsourcesof
Hydrocarbons(HC):Naturalgasisafuelmadeupof
mechanicalpower.
severalhydrocarbongasesincludingCH4(methane),
C2H6(ethane),C3H8(propane),C4H10(butane)andother Inhibitors(CoolingSystem):Chemicaltreatment
heaviercompounds.Asmallfractionofthese substancesaddedtothecoolantthathelpstop
hydrocarbonswillpassthroughthecombustion corrosion,foulingandscalefromoccurringinsideofthe
chamberwithoutreacting.Therefore,these coolingsystem.Corrosioninhibitorscreateaprotective
hydrocarbonswillretaintheirformintheexhaust(i.e., oxidelayeroverthemetalsurfaceswithinthecooling
somemethane,ethane,propane,etc.willbefoundinthe system.Thisoxidelaypreventsthemetalsurfaces
exhaust).Thesehydrocarbonemissionsarecommonly withinthecoolingsystemfromcorroding.
brokendownintotwocategoriesandsometimesathird. Intercooler:Adeviceusedtoremoveheatfromintake
Thesecategoriesare: airthathasbeencompressedandheatedbya
1. THC(TotalHydrocarbons)orTOC(TotalOrganic turbocharger(s).Anintercooler(similartoaradiator)will
Compounds) flowcoolwater(80130F[2754C])throughaset
ofinternaltubesandfins.Thecompressedandheated
2. NMHC(NonMethaneHydrocarbons)orVOC
air,fromthecompressorsideoftheturbocharger(s),is
(VolatileOrganicCompounds)orROG(Reactive
directedandpassedoverthecoolingtubesandfins,
OrganicGases)
therebyremovingheatfromtheair.
3. NMHCNEHC(NonMethane,NonEthane
Hydrocarbons) InterfaceProgram:Thepersonalcomputerprogram
thatisusedtocreatedatasetsandcommunicatewith
Hydrometer(Battery):Adeviceusedtoextract theDSMsystem.
electrolytefromwetcellbatteriestomeasurethe
electrolytesspecificgravity.Theelectrolytesspecific InternalRateofReturn:Discountrateatwhichthe
gravitywillgiveagoodindicationofthechargestateof presentvalueofaninvestmentisequaltothe
thebattery. investment.

I/O:Incomputing,input/output,orI/O,referstothe InterruptiblePower:Electricenergysuppliedbyan
communicationbetweenaninformationprocessing electricutilitysubjecttointerruptionbytheelectricutility
system(suchasacomputer),andtheoutsideworld, underspecifiedconditions.
anotherinformationprocessingsystem.Inputsarethe Inverter:Anelectromechanicalorelectronicdevicefor
signalsordatareceivedbythesystem,andoutputsare convertingdirectcurrentintoalternatingcurrent.
thesignalsordatasentfromit.
IPMD:TheIgnitionPowerMachinewithDiagnostics
Icon:AsmallpictureonaPCscreenthatrepresentsfiles (IPMD)isahighenergy,capacitordischarge,solid
andprograms.Filesandprogramsopenwhentheuser stateignitionmodule.TheECUdirectstheIPMDwhen
doubleclickstheicon. tofireeachsparkplug.
ICU:InjectorControlUnit Iron:Asilvergraymetallicelementthatisheavy,
IgnitionTiming:Onsparkignitedengines,ignition malleable,ductileandrusts(oxidizes)easilyincontact
timingrepresentsthetime,incrankshaftdegrees,when withwaterormoisture.Ironisusedinmanycomponents
thesparkplugisfired.Ignitiontimingisusuallymeasured insideofanengine.Componentssuchascylinderliners,
indegreesBeforeTopDeadCenter(BTDC)orAfterTop crankcase,cylinderheads,exhaustmanifolds,etc.are
DeadCenter(ATDC).Themeasurementisinrelationto allmadeofiron.Inalubeoilanalysis,typicallythe
thenumberofcrankshaftdegreesbeforeorafterthe cylinderlinersarethelargestcontributorstotheironto
pistonhasreachedtopdeadcenter. thelubeoil.
IStore:Anelectronicorderentryprocessusedby
distributorstoorderparts.

FORM63791
1.0011 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
ISO:InternationalOrganizationforStandardization Lambda:Ameasureofair/fuelmixturestrength,i.e.,
richnessorleannessofengineoperation.Itisusually
Isochronous(Ioadsharing)Operation:Isochronous
usedtodescribeleanoperation.Morespecifically,itis
(Ioadsharing)operationresultsinallunitssharingthe
theamountofairprovidedtoacombustionprocessto
plantloadproportionallywhilemaintainingrated
thestoichiometric(chemicallycorrect)amountofair.It
frequency.Whenparallelingmultipleunits,atleastone
isequivalenttotheactualair/fuelratio,A/F,dividedby
mustberunninginIsochronousmodeinorderto
thestoichiometricair/fuelratio,A/Fs:
maintainsystemfrequencyandabsorbplantload
changes.Forthesamereason,thismodemustbe
selectedwheninsingleunitoperation.
JBox:SeeJunctionBoxonpage1.0012.
JacketWaterCoolingCircuit:Acoolingcircuit
designedtocoolitemssuchasenginecylinderliners, LAN:Alocalareanetwork(LAN)isacomputernetwork
cylinderheadsandexhaustmanifolds.Thejacketwater coveringasmallphysicalarea,likeahome,officeor
coolingcircuitisofferedinthreedifferentconfigurations: smallgroupofbuildings,suchasaschool,oranairport.
thestandard,hotwater,andebullient.Thestandard ThedefiningcharacteristicsofLANs,incontrasttowide
configurationhastypicaljacketwatertemperature areanetworks(WANs),includetheirusuallyhigherdata
rangingbetween170190F(7788C).Thehot transferrates,smallergeographicrangeandlackofa
waterconfigurationhastypicaljacketwater needforleasedtelecommunicationlines.
temperaturesbetween220235F(104113C).The
typicalebullientsystemtemperatureis250F(121C). Ethernetoverunshieldedtwistedpaircabling,andWiFi
Theebullientsystemisusedtosupplysteamforexternal arethetwomostcommontechnologiescurrently.
use. LCD:LiquidCrystalDisplay.Alphanumericaldisplay
JunctionBox(Jbox):Anelectricalconnectionbox visiblefromthefrontoftheAFMmodule,thatinformsthe
usedtoterminatewiringforeasyaccessand systemoperatorofcurrentAFMsystemstatus.
troubleshooting. Lead:Abrightbluishwhite(readilytarnishestoadull
Kilowatt(kW):Aunitofpowermeasurement.1kW= gray),soft,verydense,malleableandductilemetallic
1000Watts. element.Leadisoftenfoundintheoverlaymaterialof
trimetalbearings.Ahighleadindicationfromalubeoil
KilowattHour:Thebasicunitofelectricenergy,equal analysisusuallyindicatesabearingproblem.
toonekilowattofpowersuppliedtoortakenfroman
electriccircuitsteadilyforonehour(kWh). Lean:Aconditionofanenginesairfuelratiowheremore
airthannecessarytoachievecompletecombustionis
KitUpgrade:Agroupofcomponentsthatcanbeused supplied.Lambda()isgreaterthan1.0.AlsoseeAir
toenhanceproductperformance FuelRatioonpage1.001.
Knock:Knockistheautoignitionoftheunconsumed LeanBurn:Atermreferringtothecombustion
endgasafterthesparkplughasfiredduringanengines associatedwithleanburn(GL)enginesinwhichan
combustioncycle.Whenthishappens,thepressurein excessamountofairissuppliedtothecombustion
thechamberwillspike,causingthestructureofthe chamber.AlsoseeAirFuelRatioonpage1.001.
enginetoresonate,andanaudiblepingorknockis
heard. LeanLimit:Themostretractedstepperposition(or
lowestgasoverair)thatisprogrammedfornormal
KnockFrequency:Theuniquevibrationorfrequency engineoperation.Amoreretractedstepperposition
thatanengineexhibitswhileindetonation. wouldallowlessfueltopasstotheengine.Theleanlimit
KnockSensor:Convertsenginevibrationtoan isusedtopreventunderfuelingoftheengine.Stepper
electricalsignaltobeusedbytheECUtoisolatethe motoroperationisonlypermittedbetweentherichand
knockfrequency. leanlimits(PCprogrammable).

KnockThreshold:Theknockthresholdisaself LeanTurbulence(LT):LeanTurbulencereferstothe
calibratinglimittodetermineifacylinderisdetonating. leancombustioncharacteristicsoftheSeriesFour*LT
Onceacylinderexceedstheknockthreshold,theESM engines.Theseenginesdonothavethedual
retardsignitiontimingforthecylinderinknock. combustionchambersfoundintheVHPGLengines.
*TrademarkofGeneralElectricCompany
kV:Anabbreviationforkilovolts.Akilovoltisequalto
1000volts. LED:ALightEmitingDiode(LED)isasemiconductor
thatemitslight.LEDsareusedaspower,alarmand
kW:Kilowatt shutdownindicatorslocatedonthefrontoftheECU.

FORM63791
1.0012 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
LHV:SeeLowHeatValue(LHV)onpage1.0010. LubeOilPump:Ageartypeenginedrivenpump,
usuallymountedonthefrontorbackofanengine,that
LoadComing:SeeFeedforwardControlonpage1.00
suppliestheenginewithacontinuousflowof
9.
pressurizedoil.
LoadControl:TheESMloadcontrolmodeisused
MagneticPickup:Atwowireelectricaldevicethat
whenanengineissynchronizedtoagridand/orother
producesavoltageandcurrentflowassteelteethor
units.Inthiscase,thegridcontrolsspeed.
holesmovebythefaceofthepickup.
LoadCurve:Acurveonachartshowingpower
MagneticPlugs:Metalpipeplugs,containinga
(kilowatts)supplied,plottedagainsttimeofoccurrence
protrudingmagnet,thatareplacedinvariouspassages
andillustratingthevaryingmagnitudeoftheloadduring
inthelubeoilsystem.Theseplugsareusedtocapture
theperiodcovered.
anymetallicdebrisorparticlesthatpassbythem.During
LoadFactor:Theratiooftheaverageloadsuppliedor oilchanges,theseplugsshouldberemovedand
requiredduringadesignatedperiod(usuallyamonthor cleanedofanydebris.
ayear)tothepeakormaximumloadoccurringinthat
MagnetizingCurrent:Transformers,motorsandother
sameperiod.
electromagneticdevicescontainingironinthemagnetic
LoadFollowing:Operationofequipmenttomatch circuitmustbemagnetizedinordertooperate.Itis
productiontodemand. customarytospeakofthelagginginductivecurrentasa
magnetizingcurrent.
LoadInertia:Programmingtheloadinertiaorrotating
massmomentofinertiaofthedrivenequipmentsetsthe Magneto:Aselfpowered,lowtensionignitionsystem.
governorgaincorrectly,aidingrapidsetupoftheengine. Themagnetopossesaninternaleight(8)ortwelve(12)
Ifthisfieldisprogrammedcorrectly,thereshouldbeno polepermanentmagnetalternatorthatsuppliesthe
needtoprogramanyofthegainadjustmentfields.The powersupplyforthemagneto.Magnetosare
rotatingmassmomentofinertiamustbeknownforeach mechanicallydrivenandusuallyutilizeadriveassembly
pieceofdrivenequipmentandthenaddedtogether. toturnthemagnetoatanrpmwhichvaries
proportionatelytotheenginespeed.
LogFileProcessor:Aprocessingprogramthatis
loadedwiththeinstallationofESPtoconvertbinarylog MaintenanceCosts:Thecostofservicingandrepairof
filessavedbytheECU(extension.AClog)intoeither equipment,includingpartsandlabor.
a.TSVfileoratextfile(.TXT).
Map:Atableofvalueswhicharereferredtowhen
LowBTUFuel:Fuelhavinglessthan700BTU/ft3 determiningasetting.InthecaseoftheAFMmodule,a
(26.08J/cm3),suchaslandfillgas mapofintakemanifoldpressureversusoxygensensor
outputisusedincatalystandleanburncontrolmodes.
Low(Lower)HeatValue(LHV):Theenergyreleased
Theintakemanifoldpressurepointsare
fromonestandardcubicfootoffuelgaswhenthe
preprogrammedbasedonenginemodelselected.The
productsofcombustionarecooledtothesamepressure
AFMUserInterfacePrograminterpolatesbetweeneach
andtemperatureastheoriginalairandfuelmixture.This
setpointfordeterminingintermediatecontrolvalues.
doesnotincludetheheatofvaporizationofanywater
formedduringcombustionsincethewatervaporis MCS:LoadingModeControlSwitch
assumedtoremaingaseous.NormallygiveninBTU/
Mercaptobenzothiazole:MBTisacoolingsystem
ft3(J/cm3).SeeLowHeatValue(LHV)onpage1.00
inhibitorthatprotectscopperandbrass.
10
Micron:Aunitofmeasureequaling1/1000ofa
Sincewatervapordoesnotcondenseinanengineunder
millimeter(0.000040ofaninch).Thistermisoftenused
normalcircumstances,anenginecanonlyutilizethelow
todescribeandratefiltersaccordingtotheparticlesize.
heatvalueofafuelforproducingpower.Itisanaccepted
industrystandard,therefore,tousethelowheatvaluein MillerCycle:AvariantofthestandardOttoCycle
allcalculationsregardingengineperformanceandfuel (standardfourstrokeengine)wheretheeffective
consumption. distancethepistontravelstocompresstheair/fuel
chargeonaturbochargedengineisdecreasedbyeither
LowHeatValue:SeeHeatingValueonpage1.0010.
closingtheintakevalveearly(beforebottomdead
LowSignal:AdigitalsignalsenttotheECUthatisless center)orclosingitlate(afterbottomdeadcenter).The
than3.3volts. advantagesareincreasedefficiencyandlower
emissions.
LT:Lowtemperaturecircuit(coolingsystem)

FORM63791
1.0013 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
MODBUS:MODBUSisaprotocol,orasetofrules Nitration(Oil):Achemicalreactionthatoccurswhen
governingtheformatofmessagesthatareexchanged nitrogendioxide(NO2),typicallyfromcrankcaseblowby
betweencomputers,whichiswidelyusedtoestablish (containingNOx),isabsorbedbythelubricatingoil.The
communicationbetweendevices.MODBUSdefinesthe nitrogenthenbondstheoilhydrocarbonchainstogether,
messagestructurethattheESMandcustomer creatingsubstantiallylongerchains.Thesenewly
controllerswillrecognizeanduse,regardlessofthetype formedchains(nitrationcompounds),formedbythe
ofnetworksoverwhichtheycommunicate.Theprotocol nitrogendioxide,increasetheviscositymakingtheoil
describestheprocessacontrollerusestorequest muchthicker.Oncenitrationdevelops,itcancontinueat
accesstoanotherdevice,howitwillrespondtorequests anexponentialrate,whichcanruinlubricatingoilquickly.
fromtheotherdevices,andhowerrorswillbedetected Nitrationcompoundscandepositvarnishandlacquer
andreported.MODBUSestablishesacommonformat depositsonhotmetalsurfaces.Nitrationcanbecaused
forthelayoutandcontentofmessages. byhighcrankcasepressures,overextensionofanoils
Modem:ModulatorDemodulator.Adevicethat serviceandlowlubeoiloperatingtemperatureswhilein
convertsdatafromdigitalcomputersignalstoanalog thepresenceofNOx.Nitrationisakeycomponentto
signalsthatcanbesentoveratelephoneline.Thisis observeonthelubeoilanalysisreport.
calledmodulation.Theanalogsignalsarethen Nitrite:Acoolingsysteminhibitor(NO2)thatcertain
convertedbackintodigitaldatabythereceivingmodem. manufacturersusetoprotectironandsteelfrom
Thisiscalleddemodulation. cavitationerosion.Between8002500PPMis
Molybdate:Acoolingsysteminhibitorthatprotects recommendedbyWaukesha.Thedownsideisthat
metalsurfacesfromcorrosionbyformingaresistant nitritescandegradeglycolandcorrodesolder.Nitrites
metaloxidefilm.Molybdatehasalsobeenshownto oxidizetobecomenitrates(NO3),acontaminant.
degradeglycol.
NitrogenOxides(NOx):Oxidesofnitrogenconsistof
MostAdvancedTiming:Themaximumadvanced NO(nitricoxide)moleculesandNO2(nitrogendioxide)
timingatwhichtheDSMsystemwillallowtheengineto moleculesareformedwhenN2(nitrogen)andO2
operate(nameplatetiming).(PCprogrammable) (oxygen)reactwitheachother.Thisreactionrequiresa
MostRetardedTiming:Theminimumtimingatwhich highcombustiontemperatureandthepresenceof
theDSMsystemwillallowacylindertoretardinorderto nitrogenandoxygeninthecombustionchamberafter
controldetonation(PCprogrammable) thefuelhasburned.NO2harmshumansandanimalsby
reducingbreathingcapacityandlimitingthebloods
MotorInrushCurrent:Thecurrentrequiredtostartan abilitytocarryO2.Itisalsoharmfultovegetation.Inthe
electricmotoratrest.Thiscurrentisequaltothecurrent
loweratmosphereNO2andNO,whenexposedto
thatwouldbedrawnbythemotoriftherotorwerenot
allowedtoturn. sunlight,actasprecursorsintheformationofO3(ozone).
Ozoneintheloweratmospheredamagesplantsand
MPD:MetallicParticleDetector syntheticsandcausescoughing,chokingand
Nameplate:Theenginenameplateprovidesthe headachesinhumans.Photochemicalsmogcontains
followinginformation:modelnumber,serialnumber, NO2,whichisyellowishbrowncolor,andozone.
dateinspected,specialapplicationapprovalnumber
Node:Amodulethatcancommunicatedataoverthe
(powerapproval),valveclearance,compressionratio,
networktoothermodules.AmodulecontainsaNeuron
firingorder,governedspeed,elevationlimitatwhichan
Chip.CertaindevicesarenodessuchasGenset
enginederatetakesplace,andprimaryandsecondary
CommunicationModules(GCMs)andControl
fuelratingswhichshowthefuel,minimumWKIvalue,
CommunicationModules(CCMs).Otherdevicesarenot
ignitiontiming,ratedoutputinhorsepowerandkilowatts,
nodes,astheycannotcommunicatewithotherdevices,
andoverloadratinginhorsepowerandkilowatts.This
butonlyreceivemessages.AnexampleistheNetwork
nameplateisusuallylocatedonthelowerleftsideofthe
AnnunciatorModule(NAM).
crankcase,adjacenttothefrontoftheengine.
NonMethaneHydrocarbons(NMHC):Nonmethane
Network:Asystemoftransmissionordistributionlines
hydrocarbonsaretheportionoftheTHC(total
socrossconnectedandoperatedastopermitmultiple
hydrocarbons)whichdoesincludemethane.For
powersupplytoanyprincipalpointonit.
exampleanexhaustgasmaycontain:

FORM63791
1.0014 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
OffsetSteps:Thistermisusedwhenreferringto
Waukeshasairfuelratiocontroller(AFM).Itisthe
numberofstepsthesteppermotorwillmoveawayfrom
stoichiometry,eitherrichorlean,whentheAFMisbeing
operatedintheBestPower/EconomyControlmode.If
theOffsetStepsvalueispositive,theairfuelratiowillbe
adjustedrichofstoichiometry.IftheOffsetStepsvalue
ThenonmethaneportionoftheTHCis: isnegative,theairfuelratiowillbeadjustedleanof
stoichiometry(PCprogrammable).

OilCoolerandThermostatAssembly:Asetof
componentsthatcontrolsengineoiltemperaturetoa
specifiedsettingusually,between180200F(82
Nonmethanehydrocarbonsaresingledoutfrom 93C).Theoilcooler(heatexchanger)possesstwofluid
methanebecauseitcanreactwithNOxinthelower filledpassages.Onepassageflowshotoilinneedof
atmosphere,actingastheprecursortheformationof coolingwhiletheothercirculatescoolingwaterthat
photochemicalsmog.Methanewillnotreadilyreactthe removesheatfromthehotoil.Thethermostatthen
loweratmosphereinthesmogreactions.Ethaneisalso blendshotoilwithcooledoilfromtheoilcoolertogeta
disregardedinsomecontrolledareasbecauseithasa specifiedoiltemperature.Theoilcoolershouldbe
muchlowerreactivitythanheavierhydrocarbons.In drainedduringoilchanges.
theseareastheregulationsarebasedonnonmethane, OilFilter:Themainoilfilterremovesdirtorunwanted
nonethanehydrocarbons. elementsfromtheengineoil.Thefilterassembly
NONSELECTIVECATALYTICREDUCTION consistsofatwochamberedcanistercontainingseveral
(NSCR):Acatalyticprocessallowingthesimultaneous filteringelements.Oilentersintoonechamber,the
reductionofNOxandoxidationofCOandunburned unfilteredoilsectionoftheoilfilter,andpassesthrough
hydrocarbons.Apreciousmetalcatalystisrequiredfor asetoffilteringelementsintothesecondchamberwhich
thisprocess.TheAFRmustbeheldwithinaverynarrow holdsthecleanfilteredoil.Theoilfilterhasareliefvalve
bandnearstoichiometrytopermitallthereactionsto thatopensifthefilteringelementsbecomeplugged,
occuratahighefficiency.Alsoknownasathreeway whichinturnwillallowunfilteredoiltoentertheengine.
catalyst. Thisreliefvalveshouldbecheckedperiodicallyto
ensureitisfunctioningproperly.
NOx:SeeNitrogenOxidesonpage1.0014.Oxidesof
nitrogen.Nitrogen(NO)+Nitrogendioxide(NO2)=NOx OilPressureControlValve:Thisvalveisusedto
adjustmainengineoilpressureandisusuallylocated
NPSH:NetPositiveSuctionHead.Referstothe neartheoilcoolerorthermostat.Theoilpressureis
pressurefoundatacoolantpumpsinletport. adjustedandmeasuredwhentheoilisatnormal
operatingtemperature.
NVRAM:ThisisatypeofRAMmemorythatretainsits
contentswhenpoweristurnedoff.Whennewvaluesare OilRestrictionIndicator:Thisindicator(ifequipped),
savedinESP,theyarepermanentlysavedtoNVRAM willbelocatedontopoftheoilstrainer.Itmeasuresthe
withintheECU.WhenvaluesaresavedtoNVRAM,the pressuredropbetweentheoilcomingintothestrainer
informationisnotlostwhenpowertotheECUis versestheoilleavingthestrainer,therebymeasuringthe
removed.TheusercansaveunlimitedtimestoECU strainersrestriction.Ifthestrainergetscloggedwith
NVRAM(permanentmemory). debris,theindicatormayreadyellow(warning)orred
(danger)meaningthattheunstrainedoilisbypassingthe
OC:OilCooler
strainer.Ifayelloworredindicationisvisible,the
Octane(number):Theoctanenumberofafuelisa operatorshouldshuttheenginedown,andcleanand
measureofifitsabilitytoresistdetonation(knock).Itmay inspecttheoilstrainertofindthesourceofthedebris.
bemeasuredorcalculated.Forgasmixturesitisusually
calculatedfromacomponentanalysis.Onthemotor
methodscaleusedbyWaukesha,theoctanenumber
rangesfrom120formethane(best)to0fornormal
heptane(worst).
OEM:OriginalEquipmentManufacturer.
OffPeak:Timeperiodswhenpowerdemandarebelow
average.Forelectricutilities,generallynightsand
weekends;forgasutilities,summermonths.

FORM63791
1.0015 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
OilSeparator:Afilterthatisutilizedinanengines Panel:ESPdisplaysenginestatusandinformationon
crankcasebreathersystemusedtoseparate severalpanels:Engine,StartStop,Governor,Ignition,
contaminants(oilanddebris)fromthedischarged AFRSetup,StatusandAdvanced.Thesepanelsdisplay
crankcasevapors.Theoilseparatorisacanister systemandcomponentstatus,currentpressureand
shapedcontainerwithalowerinletpipeandanupper temperaturereadings,alarms,ignitionstatus,governor
dischargepipe.Insideofthecanistertherearetwo status,airfuelcontrolstatusandprogrammable
filtrationelements.Thelowerelement,asteelmesh,is adjustments.
acoarsescreenthroughwhichvaporsmustpasswhen
PARTSPERMILLION(ppmvorppmw):Aratio
theyenter(bottom)thecanister.Theupperfilter,a
cellularfoampad,isafinerfilterthatremovestheoilfrom calculatedonthebasisofthewholebeingdividedinto
thecrankcasevapors. onemillionequalparts.Theratiomaybecalculatedon
avolume(ppmv)orweight(ppmw)basis.Forexample,if
OilStrainer:Thelastfiltrationdevicethatoilpasses 1ft3ofcarbondioxideismixedwith99ft3ofnitrogen,
throughbeforeenteringtheenginesmainoilgallery. thereis10,000ppmvofcarbondioxideinthemixture.
Thestrainerisanaluminumcanisterthatcontainsa
Notethat10,000ppmequals1%.
strainingelement(usuallystainlesssteel)thatstops
particlesordebrislargerthan75micronsfromentering PaybackPeriod:Thetimerequiredtocompletely
theenginesoilsystem.Apaperelementisusedinside recovertheoriginalcapitalinvestment.
oftheoilstrainerduringenginecommissioningorafter
PC:PersonalComputer.ReferstotheIBMcompatible
overhaultocatchanydebristhatmayhaveenteredthe
personalcomputerusedtoruntheESPsoftware
oilsystemduringtheconstructionorconnectionofthe
connectstotheECUviaanRS232serialcable.
oilsystempiping.Theoilstraineristobecleanedduring
everyoilchange. PCode:PCodeisafaultdisplayedontheHMIthatwas
generatedbythefuelcontrolsystem.PCodefaultsmay
O&M:OperationandMaintenance(manual).
havearelatedESMfaultorESMshutdownassociated
OMRO:Operation,Maintenance,RepairandOverhaul withit.
(manual).
PDB:PowerDistributionBox
Oscilloscope:Adeviceforviewingandmeasuringthe
PE:ProtectiveEarthGround
characteristics(waveforms,values,etc.)ofelectrical
voltage. Phase:Theprogressofacycleinrelationtosome
standardpointofreferenceexpressedinangular
Oxidation(Oil):Itisgenerallyrecognizedasachemical
measure,360,representingafullperiodorcycle.
reactionoccurringbyfreeradicalchainreaction.
Unstableoilmolecules(reactionchaininitiators)react Phosphates:Phosphate(PO4)isaninhibitorcommonly
withoxygentoformperoxyradicals,whichinturnattack usedinautomotiveantifreezeformulationstoprotect
unoxidizedoiltoformnewunstableoilmoleculesand ironandestablishpH.Itwillnotdeplete,butmaydrop
hydroperoxides.Thehydroperoxidesareunstableand outifoverconcentrated.
divide,formingnewinitiatorstoexpandthereaction.As
aresultofoxidation,theoilviscosityandconcentration PID:Proportional,Integral,Differential:Gainvaluesfor
oforganicacidsintheoilbothincrease,andvarnishand controlsystems
lacquerdepositsformonhotmetalsurfacesexposedto Pin/SocketConnector(Magneto&CECIgnition
theoil.Oxidationcanoccurinlubeoils,especiallyinhigh Module):Anelectricalsocketattachedtotheprimary
temperaturesituationsorwithanoverextensionofan wiringharnessthatfastenstheharnesstoeithera
oilsservicelife.Ifoxidationbegins,itmayexpandatan magnetoorignitionmodule.Theplugfunctionsbyusing
exponentialrate,whichwillruinthelubricatingoilvery apinandsocketcombinationtoconnecttheproper
quickly.Oxidationisakeycomponenttoobserveonthe internalmagneto/ignitionmodulecircuitstothe
lubeoilanalysisreport. appropriatecoils.
Oxygen(O2):Agaseouselement,number8onthe PLC:AProgrammableLogicController(PLC)isa
atomicchart,whichiscolorless,odorlessandessential microprocessorusedinprocesscontrolapplications.
toalllife.Theearthsatmosphereiscomposedof PLCmicroprocessorsaredesignedforhighspeed,real
approximately20.9%O2regardlessofelevation. timeandruggedindustrialenvironments.
Oxygenisoneofthefouressentialingredients(oxygen, PollutantPerEnergyUnitConsumed:Thismethod
fuel,compression,ignition)aninternalcombustion ofregulatingpollutionisbasedontheamountoffuel
enginerequirestomakepowerfromcombustion. consumed.Acommonunitforthisisgrams/gigajouleof
P&ID:ProcessandInstrumentationDiagram. fuel.

FORM63791
1.0016 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
PollutantPerEnergyUnitGenerated:Someregions Power:Thetimerateofgenerating,transferringorusing
limitpollutionfromasourcebasedontheamountof electricenergy,usuallyexpressedinkilowatts.
usefulenergyitisproducing.Fornaturalgasenginesthe ApparentPower:Aquantityofpowerproportionalto
usefulenergyishorsepowerhoursofmechanical themathematicalproductofthevoltsandamperesof
energy.Therefore,theenginesareregulatedingrams/ acircuit.Thisproductisgenerallydesignatedin
BHPHR.Unitsaresetforthepollutantsthatarecausing kilovoltamperes(kVa),andiscomprisedofbothreal
theairqualitydeterioration. andreactivepower.
PollutantPerPeriod:Onasitethatwillusegas PrimePower:Theratingatwhichageneratormaybe
engines,therecanbealimitonhowmuchpollutantcan operatedcontinuouslyasasolesourceofpower,with
bedischargedforagivenperiod.Forexample,ina intermittentoverloadsuptothestandbyrating.
PreventionofSignificantDeterioration(PSD)area,the
ReactivePower:Theportionofapparentpowerthat
FederalCleanAirActdefinescertainmajoremitting
doesnotdowork.Itiscommerciallymeasuredin
facilitiesashavingthepotentialtoemit250tons/yearor
kilovars.
moreofanyairpollutants.
RealPower:Theenergyorworkproducingpartof
Theamountofhorsepowerthatcanbeinstalledatasite apparentpower.Itistherateofsupplyofenergy,
withoutexceedingthe250ton/yearlevelcanbe measuredcommerciallyinkilowatts.
determinedfromtheengineexhaustemission,NOx,CO
andNMHC.ForaGSIenginetheCOemitsthehighest PowerConditioner:Adevicewhichremoves
value.Therefore,tocalculatetheavailablehorsepower undesirabletransientsanddistortionfromapower
onsite,thefollowingcalculationwoulduse3grams/ source.
BHPHR.Iftheengineoperatesfor8,000hours/year,the PowerFactor:Powerfactoristheratioofrealpower
permissiblepowercanbecalculatedbythefollowing. (kW)measuredinkilowattstoapparentpower
measured(kVa)inkilovoltamperesforanygivenload
andtime.Generally,itisexpressedasadecimal.
PowerPool:Twoormoreinterconnectedelectric
systemsplannedandoperatedtosupplypowerinthe
mostreliableandeconomicalmannerfortheircombined
loadrequirementsandmaintenanceprogram.
PowerRatingChart:Listingofproductsavailablefrom
PollutantPerUnitVolumeOfExhaust:Thismethod
GEGasEngineswithinformationonHpandkWratings.
ofregulatingexhaustemissionsgivesalimitforthe
amountofpollutantinagivenvolumeofexhaust PPM:Partspermillionisameasureofconcentration
produced.ThecommonunitisPPMV(PartsPerMillion (1000PPM=0.1%).
basedonVolume).Thislimitiscommonlybasedona
Precleaner:Afoamrubberpadusedforcoarsefiltration
standardizedexhaustoxygencontentof15%O2.
ofaircomingintotheintakesystem.Thepurposeofthe
Potassium(K):A(+)chargedionusedincooling aircleanersprecleaneristotraplargerairborne
systemtreatmenttoformtheinhibitorsaltpotassium particlesfromenteringthemainfilterelement.The
phosphate(K(+)PO4().Thepotassiumdoesnotbyitself precleanerwillextendthelifeofthestandardmainair
protectmetal,butisnecessarytogivetheinhibitorthe filterbyallowingthestandardairfiltertoonlyfilterair
properchargeandformitintoasalt.Potassiumis containingsmallerorfinerairbornedebrisfromthe
typicallynotshownonananalysisreportbecauseitdoes intakeair.
notpreventanything.Itwouldbeshownonatotalsolids Preignition:Aconditionresultingintheunburnedfuel/
(TDS)report,however,becauseitisrecognizedasa airmixture,insideofthecombustionchamber,being
solid. ignitedpriortothetimedspark.Preignitionusually
PotentialTransformer(PT):Adevicethatmeasures resultsfromalocalizedhotspotinsideofthecombustion
ACvoltageandprovidesasteppeddownsignalin chamber(burnedvalve,carbonbuildup,loosespark
proportiontoit,alsocalledaVTorVoltageTransformer. plug,etc.).Preignitionmaycausemultipleflamefronts
insideofthecombustionchamber,creatingveryhigh
Potentiometer(pot):Anadjustableresistorusedto cylindertemperatures/pressuresthatcancausesevere
adjustcurrentorvoltage. enginedamage.

FORM63791
1.0017 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
PrelubePump:Anelectricorairactuatedpumpused RAM:RandomAccessMemory(RAM)isatemporary
toprimethelubeoilsystembeforestartingtheengine. systemmemoryusedtoevaluatetestdatasetsbefore
Theprelubepumpdeliverspressurizedoil(lessthan5 storedinROM.Thisallowstheusertoevaluatechanges
psi[34kPa]withcoldoil)throughoutthelubeoilsystem. madetotheECUbeforesavingthevaluestotheECUs
Theprelubepumppressuremustnotexceed5psi(34 permanentmemory,NVRAM.ThecontentsofRAMwill
kPa). belostifECUlosespower,butareunaffectedifthePC
losespowerorisdisconnectedfromtheECU.
PressureRelief:Aspringloadedvalveattachedto
certaincrankcasedoorsdesignedtoprotecta RateSchedule:Pricelistshowinghowtheutilitywillbill
crankcaseintheeventofacrankcaseexplosion. aclassofcustomers.
PrimaryDistributionFeeder:Anelectricline Rectifier:Ifonlyalternatingcurrentisavailable,itmay
supplyingpowertoadistributioncircuit,usually beconvertedintodirectcurrentbyusingdeviceswhich
consideredtobethatportionoftheprimaryconductors offerahighresistancetotheflowofcurrentinone
betweenthesubstationorpointofsupplyandthecenter directionandalowresistancetotheflowintheopposite
ofdistribution. direction.Thesedevicesarecalledrectifiers.Acommon
rectifieristhediode.
PrimeMover:Theengine,turbine,waterwheelor
similarmachinewhichdrivesanelectricgenerator. Regulator:Adevicewhichdeliversfueltothecarburetor
ataslightlyhigherpressurethanthepressureoftheair
Programming:Thistermisgenerallyusedin
enteringthecarburetorsairhorn.Thedifferencein
connectionwiththeCECmodules,todescribeusinga
pressurebetweenthefuelandairpressureiscalledgas
computertocreateandstoreoperatingdatatoeach
overair(G/A)pressure.Theregulatorsjobisto
module.
maintainthedifference(ordifferential)infueloverair
Propane,HD5:Afuelgasmadeofcarbon(C3),and pressureregardlessoftheenginesspeedandload
hydrogen(H8)with97.1octanerating.Oftenusedasa (airflow).
backupfuel. RegulatorValve:Aonewayvalvethatisusedtoallow
psi:Anacronymforpoundspersquareinchusedin ambientairintothecrankcasebreathersystem.The
measuringpressure. functionoftheregulatorvalveistoaidinregulatingthe
crankcasepressure.Thecrankcaseregulatorvalvehas
psia:Anacronymforpoundspersquareinchabsolute. aninternalvalveplatewhichonlyallowsairintothe
Gaugepressureplussitebarometerequalspsia. breathersystem,whenasufficientnegativepressureis
PT:PotentialTransformer placedontheregulatorhousing.Byallowingregulated
ambientairintothebreathersystem,thecrankcase
PulseWidthModulation(PWM):Atechnique pressurecanbeproperlycontrolled.
employedtoregulateflow.Pulsewidthmodulationofa
signalorpowersourceinvolvesthemodulationofits RemoteStart:TheRemoteStartterminaloftheCEC
dutycycle,toeitherconveyinformationovera AFMpermitsmovementofthesteppermotorstothe
communicationschannelorcontroltheamountofpower startpositionfromexternal,customersuppliedlogic.To
senttoaload.Forexample,intheAFMsystem,itisused usethisfeature,groundthisterminalfor3seconds,then
toregulatethevoltagetotheleanburnauxiliary ungroundit.Thepreprogrammedstartpositionwillthen
heater(s). besoughtbythesteppermotors.Allow3minutesfor
steppermotorrepositioning.
PublicUtilityRegulatoryPoliciesAct(PURPA):An
actpassedin1978toreducedependenceonforeignoil, Retard(IgnitionTiming):Ignitiontiming(spark)set
topromotealternativeenergysourcesandenergy afterapistonreachestopdeadcenter(TDC)onits
efficiency,andtodiversifytheelectricpowerindustry. compressionstroke.Also,whentimingistobe
retarded,itmeansthatthetimingissetinamannerthat
QualifiedFacility:Acogenerationfacilitywhichhas willtriggerthesparklateronthecompressionstroke.For
beengrantedaqualifiedstatusbytheFederalEnergy example,ifanenginesignitiontimingissetto24BTDC,
RegulatoryCommission(FERC).Toobtainthe thentoretardthetimingtheignitionwouldbesetto16
qualifiedstatusafacilitymustmeettheownership BTDC.
requirement(i.e.,lessthan50%electricutility
ownership)andoperatingefficiencystandardsas
outlinedinthePublicUtilityRegulatoryPoliciesAct
(PURPA).
R&O:RepairandOverhaul(manual).

FORM63791
1.0018 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
RICENESHAP:ReciprocatingInternalCombusion RTD:ResistanceTemperatureDetector
EnginesNationalEmissionsStandardsforHazardous
RTF:RichTextFormat
AirPollutants.Theruleisintendedtoreduceemissions
oftoxicairpollutantssuchasformaldehyde, RTV:RoomTemperatureVulcanizinggasket
acetaldehyde,acrolein,methanolandotherairtoxics compounds
fromseveralcategoriesofpreviouslyunregulated
S/N:SerialNumber
stationaryengines.
SAA:SeeSpecialApplicationApprovalonpage1.00
Rich:Aconditionofanenginesairfuelratiowhereless
20.
airthannecessarytoachievecompletecombustionis
supplied.Lambda()islessthan1.0.AlsoseeAirFuel SampleWindow:Apredeterminedstartandendtime
Ratioonpage1.001.Forexample,anAFRof13to1 inwhicheachcylinderwillbelookedatforknock.The
wouldbearichAFRforaVHP*GorGSIengine.Also, windowisusedsothatknockislookedforonlyduring
anAFRof26to1wouldbearichAFRforaVHPGL thecombustionevent.
engine.
SaturatedGas:Ahydrocarbonmixturesaturatedwith
*TrademarkofGeneralElectricCompany watervapor;i.e.,100%relativehumidity.Bothhighand
lowheatingvaluesmaybegivenonasaturatedor
RichBurn:Thistermreferstothecombustion
unsaturatedbasis.WaukeshafollowsDEMA
associatedwithnonleanburn(GL),orstoichiometric
recommendedpracticeandusesthesaturatedlowheat
(G,GSI)engines.Suchenginesalloftencalledrichburn
valueofafuelgasforallperformanceandfuel
engines.AlsoseeAirFuelRatioonpage1.001.
consumptioncalculations.
RichLimit:Thehighestormostextendedstepper
Toconvertfromanunsaturatedtoasaturatedheating
position(highestgasoverair)thatisprogrammedfor
valuemultiplyby0.9826:
normalengineoperation.Amoreextendedstepper
positionwouldallowmorefueltoentertheengine.The Saturatedheatingvalue=0.9826xunsaturatedheating
richlimitisusedtopreventoverfuelingoftheengine.
value.
Steppermotoroperationisonlypermittedbetweenthe
richandleanlimits(PCprogrammable). SC:AnSCindicatesthatthevalueofthesensoris
outsidethevalidoperatingrangeandismostlikelydue
RollingtheEngineOver:Rotating(orbarring)the toadamagedsensororwiring.
enginecrankshaftovermechanicallyinordertosetan
enginesmovingcomponentsintoacertainpositionfor SCADA:SupervisoryControlandDataAcquisition:
specificadjustmentsorinstallations. Generallyreferstoanindustrialcontrolsystem:a
computersystemmonitoringandcontrollingaprocess.
ROM:ReadOnlyMemory.ROMiscomputermemoryin AlsoseeMODBUS.
whichcompleteddatasetsarepermanentlystoredon
anelectronicchip(EPROMchip).WhentheAFM Scale:Aharddeposit,foundonhotsurfacesincooling
moduleconfiguresdatasetstoROM,thedataset systems,thatisformedinaliquidwhenthemineral
informationisnotlostwhenpowertotheAFMmoduleis contentexceedsitssolubilitylevel.Scaleincooling
removed.TheAFMmoduleallowsalimitednumberof systemsismainlyformedbycalcium,magnesium,iron
savestoROM(5savestoROMarepossible)before andsilicacompoundsinthefillwater.
coreEPROMchipreplacementisrequired. SearchDelay:Thisistheamountoftime,inminutes,
RS232:OneofasetofstandardsfromtheElectronics thattheAFMmodulewaitsbetweensearchesfor
IndustriesAssociationforhardwaredevicesandtheir stoichiometrywhenprogrammedintheBestPower/
interfaces.RS232isawellknownstandardfor EconomyControlmode(PCprogrammable).
transmittingserialdatabetweencomputersand SecondaryDistributionSystem:Alowvoltage,
peripheraldevices(modem,mouse,etc.).Inthecaseof alternatingcurrentsystemwhichconnectsthe
theESM,anRS232cabletransmitsdatafromtheECU secondariesofdistributiontransformerstothe
tothePCandviceversa. customersservices.
RS485:OneofasetofstandardsfromtheElectronics SelectiveEnergySystem:Thenamepreviouslyused
IndustriesAssociationforhardwaredevicesandtheir todescribeaformofcogenerationinwhichpartof,but
interfaces.RS485isusedformultipoint notall,thesiteselectricalneedsweremetwithonsite
communicationslinesandisaspecializedinterface.The generationwithadditionalelectricitypurchasedfroma
typicaluseforRS485isasinglePCconnectedto utilityasneeded.
severaladdressabledevicesthatsharethesamecable.
RSC:RemoteStartContact

FORM63791
1.0019 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
SensorHeaterDisable:Afunctionorcapability SlaveCommunications:Acomputerorperipheral
designedwithintheAirFuelModulesystemtoturnoff devicecontrolledbyanothercomputer.Forexample,
theoxygensensorheaterpower.Thisfeaturemaybe sincetheESMhasMODBUSslavecommunications
utilizedduringtimesofshorttermmaintenance. capability,onemastercomputerorPLCcould
communicatewithmultipleESMMODBUSslavesover
SensorHeaterDutyCycle:OntheAFMsystem,an
thetwowireRS485network.
indicationofthepercentageoftimetheAFMleanburn
sensorheateristurnedon. SmallPowerProductionFacility:Asdefinedin
PURPA,afacilitythatproducesenergysolelybyusing
SensorSafe:Atermindicatingthatamaterialisnot
asaprimaryenergysource,biomass,waste,renewable
harmfultooxygensensors.CertainRTVandantiseize
resourcesoranycombinationthereof,andhasapower
compoundsmaybelabeledsensorsafe.
productioncapacitythat,togetherwithanyother
SensorVoltage:OntheAFMsystem,theoutputofthe facilitieslocatedatthesamesite(asdeterminedbythe
oxygensensor,expressedinvolts. Commission),isnotgreaterthan80megawatts.
SeriesFour:AproductupgradetotheVHPseriesof Sodium(Na):Ametallicelementthatoxidizesrapidly,
engines. whenexposedtotheairandreactsviolentlywithwater.
Sodiumistypicallyfoundintheinhibitorpackagesthat
ServiceArea:Territoryinwhichautilitysystemis
areplacedintocoolingsystems.Itisa(+)chargedion
requiredorhastherighttosupplyelectricserviceto
usedincoolingsystemtreatmenttoformtheinhibitorsalt
ultimatecustomers.
sodiumnitrite(Na(+)NO2()).Thesodiumdoesnotby
ServiceBulletin:Adocumentprovidedtothefieldto itselfprotectmetal,butisnecessarytogivetheinhibitor
notifyofproductchanges/improvements,oroperating theproperchargeandformitintoasalt.Sodiumis
conditions. typicallynotshownonananalysisreportbecauseitdoes
NOTE: forsafetyconcernsaspecialServiceBulletin notpreventanything.Itwouldbeshownonatotalsolids
notedasSafetyAlertwillbeissued. (TOS)report,however,becauseitisrecognizedasa
solid.Ifsodium(and/orboron)isfoundonalubeoil
SH:AnSHfaultindicatesthevalueofthesensoris report,itusuallyindicatesthatcoolanthasleakedinto
higherthanitsnormaloperatingrange. thelubricatingsystem.
ShutdownDelay:Amountofdelaybetweenthe SoftStop:Thisistheangle,indegrees,thattheTCM
momentwhenthecylinderreachestheMostRetarded systemwillliftthewastegateandbypassvalvesoffof
Timingduringdetonationandthetimetheshutdown thehardstoppositiontoaidinthepreventionofbinding.
warningbecomesactivewhilestillindetonation.(PC Thesoftstopanglecanbemodified.
programmable)
SparkPlug:Adevicelocatedinthecombustion
Silicon:Agray,brittle,nonmetallicelementtypically chamberusedtoignitethefuel/airmixture.Asparkplug
foundinairbornedirt.Silicon,insideanengine,canbe hastwoelectrodes(possiblymore)thatcontainanair
veryabrasiveandcancausecomponentstowearat gapbetweenthem.Attheprecisemoment,thecoil
higherratesthannormal.Highsiliconreadingsinalube sendsahighenoughvoltagetothesparkplugtobridge
oilanalysiscanindicateairfiltrationorcrankcase thegap,therebyignitingthefuel/airmixtureinthe
pressureproblems,whichneedtoberectifiedtoprevent combustioncamber.
prematurewearingofenginecomponents.
Spec.Sheets:Sometimesreferredtoascutsheets.
SinkingCircuit:Anelectronicswitchingcircuitwitha Containsenginemodeldescriptionofstandard
singleoutputterminalusedtoprovideapathtoground. equipment,fuelconsumption,heatbalance,emissions,
Thismechanismcanbeusedasatriggertodriveremote ratingsandoveralldimensions.
devicessuchasalarms,lightsandrelays.Whenthe
AFMsystemisoperatingcorrectlyitisaCLOSED SpecialApplicationApproval:Arequestforan
device.AnysystemfaultwillOPENthecircuit.Thecircuit applicationrequirementthatisoutsidethenormal
isdesignedtohandleamaximumcurrentratingof1amp operatingparametersofanengineforwhich
andamaximumvoltageratingof50VOC(noAC performancedataisneededandcannotbedetermined
voltagesareallowed). usingthelatestversionofEngCalcorTechnicalData
foundintheTechDataforWaukeshagasengines.
SL:AnSLfaultindicatesthevalueofthesensorislower
thanitsnormaloperatingrange.

FORM63791
1.0020 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
SpecificationNumber(Spec.No.):Auniquenumber Stepper:Thisspeciallydesignedelectricmotorthat
assignedtoeveryenginebuilt.Thisnumberwas residesintheactuatorproducesaprecisestepwise
combinedwiththeserialnumberinJuneof1991.The rotationofthemotorshaftinsteadofthetraditional
numberisstampedontothecurrentenginenameplate. continuousrotationofmostelectricmotors.Theterms
On6cylinderVHPengines,thenameplateislocatedon steppermotor,stepperandactuatorhavethesame
therightfrontofthecrankcase.On12and16cylinder meaning.
VHPengines,thenameplateislocatedontheleftfront
StepperGain:Steppergaininfluenceshowlargeofa
ofthecrankcase.
changeismadetotheactuatorpositionwhentheoxygen
Spectrometer:Aspectrometerisaninstrumentthat sensorsignalisnotwithinthespecifiedtoleranceofthe
determineswhichelementsarecontainedinanoil sensortarget(setpoint).Alargergainwillresultina
sample(newandused).Theoilispumpedintothe largerchange.
spectrometerwheretheoilsamplewillalteraplasma
StepperLeanLimit:Themostretractedactuator
generatedwhitelight.Thealteredlightwavecanthenbe
positionorlowestgas/airthatisprogrammedatwhich
analyzedtodeterminewhatelement(s)andquantityin
theenginecanbesafelyoperated.Amoreretracted
partspermillion(PPM)arecontainedintheoilsample.
actuatorpositionallowslessfueltopasstotheengine.
SpeedControl:TheESMspeedcontrolmodeallows Thus,theminimumfuelpositioniscalledthelean
theengineoperatortochoseasetpointspeed,andthe limit.Itisusedtopreventunderfuelingoftheengine.
governorwillcontroltheengineatthatspeed.The Actuatoroperationisonlypermittedbetweentherich
controlcanbeeitherfixedorvariable. andleanlimits.
SRN:SparkReferenceNumber:Aunitlessnumber StepperMotor:Thisspeciallydesignedelectricmotor
usedtocompareignitionenergyvaluesfromcylinderto producesaprecisestepwiserotationofthemotorshaft
cylinder. insteadofthetraditionalcontinuousrotationofmost
electricmotors.Thetermssteppermotor,stepperand
StandAlone:Apowersource/generatorthatoperates
actuatorhavethesamemeaning.
independentlyof,orisnotconnectedto,anelectric
transmissionanddistributionnetwork(grid);usedto StepperRichLimit:Themostadvancedactuator
meetaload(s)physicallyclosetothegenerator.Astand positionorhighestgas/airthatisprogrammedatwhich
alonegeneratorisonethatestablishesbus/grid theenginecanbesafelyoperated.Sinceamore
frequency. extendedactuatorpositionresultsinmorefuelbeing
deliveredtotheengine,thisisthemaximumfuel
StandbyCapacity:Thecapacitythatisdesignedtobe
positionorrichlimit.Therichlimitisprogrammablewith
usedwhenpartoralloftheprimesourceofpoweris
aPCandisusedtopreventrichmisfireanddetonation
interrupted.
intheengine.Actuatoroperationispermittedonly
StartUpReport:Startupreportsdocumentthe betweentherichandleanlimits.
engineslocation,customerandengineparameters.This
StoichiometricAFR:Thestoichiometricairfuelratiois
reportdetermineswarrantyeligibility.
thetheoreticallycorrectairfuelratioforcomplete
StandbyRate:Theutilitychargeforstandbyelectricity. combustion.Thatis,thereisjustenoughairtoburnall
ofthefuelwithnoairorfuelleftover.Thestoichiometric
StandbySystem:Astandbysystemisanindependent
airfuelratioisdeterminedbythechemicalcomposition
powersystemthatallowsoperationofafacilityinthe
ofthefuel.ThusitwilldifferforeachfuelmixtureorBTU
eventofnormalpowerfailure.
rating.
StartPosition:OntheAFMsystem,aprogrammable
Example:
stepperpositionusedtosetgas/airatavaluethatis
favorableforstarting.Requiresremoteormanual StoichiometryforpureMethane(CH4)is(17.1)parts
initiationpriortostarting(PCprogrammable). ofairforevery(1)partoffuel=>17.1:1(A1.063,ona
weight,ormass,basis).
Step:IntheAFMsystem,onestepofthesteppermotor
equals1/400of1revolutionofthesteppermotor.This StoichiometryforpurePropane(C3H8)is15.6:1(
smallchangeinpositionresultsin0.00025in.oflinear 0.97).
traveloftheadjustingnutwithinthesteppermotor.This Waukeshadefineslocalpipelinenaturalgas
increasesordecreasesthefuelregulatorspring stoichiometryas16.09:1(1.0).
pressureandcorrespondinglychangesthegasoverair
pressuretothecarburetor.

FORM63791
1.0021 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
Stroke:Four(stroke)cycleenginesrotate720,two SynchronousGenerator:Amachinethatgeneratesan
completerevolutionsofthecrankshaft,inorderto alternatingvoltagewhenitsarmatureorfieldisrotated.
completeonecycle.This720crankshaftrotationis Theoutputfrequencyisexactlyproportionaltothe
dividedintofourdistinctsectionsorstrokes.Eachstoke speedatwhichthegeneratorisdriven.
occursforadurationofpistontraveleitherfromthe
TALuft:ThemainairqualitystandardusedinEurope.
bottomtotoportoptobottom.Fourstrokeinternal
combustionengineshavefourstrokes:Intake, TargetVoltage:OntheAFMsystem,thecontrolSet
Compression,PowerandExhaust. Point(SP)fortheoxygensensorsoutput.

Occurswhenthepistonis TCA:TurbochargerControlActuator.TheTCMsystem
travelingdownwardwhilethe consistsoftwoactuators:onecontrolsthewastegate
IntakeStroke: intakevalveisopen.Thisallowsa valveandtheotherthebypassvalve.TheTCAscontrol
freshfuel/airmixturetoenterthe thebypassandwastegatevalvestoopenandcloseto
combustionchamber. thepositiondeterminedbytheTCM.

Occurswhenthepistonis TCM:TurbochargerControlModule.Aprogrammable
travelingupwardwhileallvalves controlmoduleandactuatorsusedtocontrolthe
areclosed.Duringthisstroke, pressuredifferential(deltaP)acrosstheenginesthrottle
Compression plate(s).
sincethevalvesareclosed,the
Stroke:
pistoniscompressinganewfuel/ TCMI:TurbochargerControlModuleI.Thecontrol
airmixturereceivedduringthe strategyforTCMIistomapthebypassandwastegate
intakestroke. positionsforvariousrunningconditions.Bytracking
Occurswhenthepistonis engineload,speed,ambienttemperatureandother
travelingdownwardafterthe parametricchanges,theTCMImoduleadjuststhe
cylinderscompressedfuel/air wastegateandbypassvalvepositionstooptimize
mixturehasbeenignited.During performance.
PowerStroke:
thisstrokethevalvesareclosed,
TCMII:TurbochargerControlModuleII.TheTCMII
exceptasthepistonnearsthe
strategydeterminesthewastegatepositioninaclosed
bottom,theexhaustvalvewill
loopcontrolofthrottlepressuredrop(throttlereserve)as
open.
afunctionofenginespeedandintakemanifoldabsolute
Occurswhenthepistonis pressure.TCMIIminimizesremappingofthewastegate
travelingupwardwhilethe asafunctionofchangingenvironmentaloroperating
exhaustvalveisopen.Duringthis conditions.TheTCMIIisresponsivetochangesinair/
Exhaust
stroke,thepistonistraveling fuelratio,barometricpressuretemperature,humidity,
Stroke:
upwarddisplacingtheburned altitude,airfilterrestrictionandenginemechanical
fuel/airgassesandforcingthem health.
outtheexhaustport.
TCMModule:TheTCMmodulemonitorsseveralinputs
STU:SmartTemperatureUnit tocalculatetherequiredturbinewastegateand
SupplementalThermal:Theheatrequiredwhen compressorbypassvalvepositions.TheTCMmodule
recoveredengineheatisinsufficienttomeetthermal signalstheTCAswhichdrivethevalvestothese
demands. positions.Afeedbacksensorverifiesthatthevalve
positioniscorrect.
SupplementaryFiring:Theinjectionoffuelintothe
recoveredheatstream(suchasturbineexhaust)toraise TCP/IP:InternetProtocolSuite:Thesetof
theenergycontent(heatofthestream). communicationsprotocolsusedfortheInternetand
othersimilarnetworks,namedfromtwoofthemost
SupplementaryPower:Electricenergysuppliedbyan importantprotocolsinit:theTransmissionControl
electricutilityinadditiontothatwhichthefacility Protocol(TCP)andtheInternetProtocol(IP),which
generatesitself. werethefirsttwonetworkingprotocolsdefinedinthis
Synchronization(throttleplates):Whenthethrottle standard.
plates,onaveetypeengine,arelinkedtogethersothey TDC:AnabbreviationforTopDeadCenterreferringto
arelockedinthesameangularpositionthroughoutthe thepositionofthepistonatthetopofitstravelina
movementofboththrottleplates.Forexample,whenthe cylinder.
leftthrottleisat10,therightthrottleisat10andwhen
theleftthrottleopensto40,therightthrottle,atthesame TDD:TotalDemandDistortion%
timeastheleft,willalsoopento40.

FORM63791
1.0022 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
TechData:Waukeshagasenginestechnicaldatais ThrottleValve:Theplateorbutterflythatcontrolthe
foundonWEDlinkandorganizedbyindividualengine amountofair/fuelmixturethatreachestheengine.
model.Clickingonthelink(TechnicaldataindexAll Basically,thegreaterthevolumeofairandfuel
models)willopenanindextoselectanenginemodelto delivered,themorepowertheenginewillproduce.The
viewallapplicabletechnicaldataforthespecificengine throttlevalveislinkedtoandcontrolledbytheengines
model. governor.
TemperatureCompensation:Asettingwhichadjusts TimingDiskReference:Theangularrelationship
thewastegateandbypassvalvepositionsto betweenthemagnetforthefirstcylindertofireandtop
compensateforchangesinambienttemperature.A deadcenter(TDG).Example:25BTDC
compressorinlettemperatureof25C(77F)isthe
TimingLight:Atoolusedtomeasureanengines
baselinepoint.At25C(77F)therewillbenochangein
ignitiontiming.Aninductivetypetiminglightfunctionsby
valvepositionregardlessofwhatthetemperature
clampingthepickupoverthesparkplugwireand
compensationis.Thechangeindesiredvalvepositions
pointingthelightemittingendofthetiminglightontoa
increasesastemperatureincreasesordecreasesas
timingstripusuallylocatedontheenginesflywheel.
temperaturedecreases.
Batterypoweredtypes(twoDcells)arethemost
ThermalCapacity:Themaximumamountofheatthat convenient.
asystemcanproduce.
TimingTape:Anadhesivetapeattachedtotheouter
Thermocouple:Adevice,consistingoftwodissimilar rimoftheflywheelusedtoindicateignitiontimingin
metallicconductorsincontact,thatproducesan referencetothecrankshaftsposition.Thetimingtapeis
electricalcurrentwhosemagnitudedependsonthe positionedinamannerthatlocatestheTopDeadCenter
temperatureofthejunction.Itisusedtomeasure (TDC)mark(onthetape)withtheflywheelandpointer
temperature. assembly,whenaspecificpistonisatTDC.Theflywheel
tapeismarkedindegreesofrotationbeforeandaftertop
Thermostat:Adeviceusedtomaintainaconstant
deadcenter.
coolanttemperature.Withinanenginesjacketwater
coolingsystem,thethermostat(s)directscoolant, Tin:Alustrous,silverymetallicelementwhichissoft,
heatedbytheengine,toeitheraheatexchanger(tobe malleableandductile.Enginestypicallyusetinonthe
cooled)orbacktothejacketwaterpump(tobe flashingofpistons,forbreakin,ontheflashingof
recirculated).Thejacketwaterthermostatmaintainsthe bearings,andinthebearingoverlay.Highlevelsoftin,
coolanttemperatureexitingtheenginebydivertingitto basedonatrendtypelubeoilanalysis,mayindicatethat
eithertheheatexchangerorbypasspipe(s).Withinan thebearingoverlayiswearing.
enginesauxiliarycoolingcircuit,thethermostatblends
Tolyltriazole:Tolyltriazole(TTZ)protectscopperand
waterheatedbytheintercooler,wastegates(GLand
brass.Ithasbeenshowntobemorestablethan
GSI)andtheoilcooler(allengines)withcoolwater
mercaptobenzothiazole(MBT).
comingfromtheheatexchanger.Thisthermostatblends
thehotandcoolwatertogethertomaintainaspecific Ton:12,000BTU/Hour.
intercoolerwaterinlettemperature.
ToppingCycle:Acogenerationfacilityinwhichthe
ThermostaticControlValve:Avalve(assembly) energyinputtothefacilityisfirstusedtoproduceuseful
containingoneormorethermostatsusedtocontrolfluid power,withtheheatrecoveredfrompowerproduction
temperature. thenusedforotherpurposes.
ThrottleReserve:Thestaticpressuredropacrossthe TotalDissolvedSolids(TDS):Ameasureofthe
mainthrottlevalveandcarburetor.Theupstream combinedsolidswithinaliquid(asincoolant),suchas
pressure(Boost)ishigherthanthedownstream calciumandmagnesium.Dissolvedsolidsgivewaterits
pressure(IMAP).Thisisusuallyanindicationofhow hardquality.
muchpower(reserve)theenginemayhaveleft.Throttle
TotalEnergySystems:Thenamepreviouslyusedto
reserve=BoostIMAP.Alsoreferredtoasdifferential
refertoaformofcogenerationinwhichallelectricaland
pressureorasdeltaP.
thermalenergyneedsweremetbyonsitesystems.A
ThrottleReserveMap:Thethrottlereservemap totalenergysystemwasusuallycompletelyisolated
representswhatthereservepressureshouldbe,ata fromorcompletelyservedbytheelectricalutilitysystem
givenrpmandabsoluteintakemanifoldpressure.The forbackup.Generallyauserwasnotserved
TCMIImaintainsthedesignatedpressurebyopening simultaneouslybytheelectricutilitygridandthe
andclosingthewastegatevalve. cogenerator.

FORM63791
1.0023 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
TotalHydrocarbon(THC):Totalhydrocarbon UninterruptiblePowerSupply(UPS):Asystem
emissionsincludeallofthehydrocarbongasesfoundin designedtoprovidepowerwithoutdelayortransients
theexhauststream.Methane,ethane,propaneand duringanyperiodthatthenormalpowersupplyis
butanecompilethemajorityofthelistofTHC. incapableofperformingacceptably.
Transmission:Theactorprocessoftransporting USB:Ininformationtechnology,UniversalSerialBus
electricenergyinbulkfromasourceorsourcesofsupply (USB)isaserialbusstandardtointerfacedevicestoa
tootherprincipalpartsofthesystemortootherutility hostcomputer.USBwasdesignedtoallowmany
systems. peripheralstobeconnectedusingasinglestandardized
interfacesocketandtoimprovetheplugandplay
Turbine(SteamorGas):Anenclosedrotarytypeof
capabilitiesbyallowinghotswapping,thatis,byallowing
primemoverinwhichheatenergyinsteamorgasis
devicestobeconnectedanddisconnectedwithout
convertedintomechanicalenergybytheforceofahigh
rebootingthecomputerorturningoffthedevice.Other
velocityflowofsteamorgasesdirectedagainst
convenientfeaturesincludeprovidingpowertolow
successiverowsofradialbladesfastenedtoacentral
consumptiondeviceswithouttheneedforanexternal
shaft.
powersupplyandallowingmanydevicestobeused
Turbocharger:Anairchargingdevicethatuses withoutrequiringmanufacturerspecific,individual
exhaustgasenergytocompressintakeair.A devicedriverstobeinstalled.USBisintendedtoreplace
turbochargerconsistsofacompressorwheelanda manylegacyvarietiesofserialandparallelports.USB
turbinewheelthatareinindividualhousings,butare canconnectcomputerperipheralssuchasmice,
mountedonacommonshaft.Acenterhousingcools, keyboards,PDAs,gamepadsandjoysticks,scanners,
lubricatesandsupportstheshaft.Theturbocharger digitalcameras,printers,personalmediaplayers,flash
rotateswhenexhaustgasesflowthroughonesideofthe drivesandexternalharddrives.Formanyofthose
turbocharger(turbinehousingandwheel).Sincethe devicesUSBhasbecomethestandardconnection
exhaust(turbine)wheelandintake(compressor)wheel method.
aremountedonacommonshaft,theexhaustgasesturn
UserInterfaceProgram:Thepersonalcomputer
theexhaustwheel,whichinturn,drivesthecompressor
programthatisusedtocreatedatasetsand
wheel,forcingairintotheintakemanifold.
communicatewiththeAFMsystem.
AxialShaftRunout:Axialshaftrunoutor UtilizationFactor:Theratioofthemaximumdemand
endplayonaturbochargershaftisthe ofasystem(orpartofasystem)toitsratedcapacity.
amountofclearancetheshafthasinthe
directionthatisperpendiculartorotation(shaft ValveLash:Theclearanceordistancebetweenthe
endtoendmovement).Whiletheturboisat valveandrockerarmballtappetwhenthevalvesare
rest,adialindicatorcanbeusedtomeasure closed.Hydraulicliftersusuallyhaveazero(0)orno
theamountofmovementthatcanoccurby lash.
pushingtheshaftendparalleltotheshaftthen ValveOverlap:Aconditionwhenacylindersintakeand
backintheotherdirection. exhaustvalvesarebothopenatthesametime.This
RadialShaftRunout:Radialshaftrunout conditionoccursnearTopDeadCenter(TDC)oftheend
onaturbochargershaftistheamountof oftheexhauststrokeandatthebeginningoftheintake
clearance(shaftmovement)theshaftendhas stroke.Atthistime,theexhaustrockerarmisrotatingin
inthedirectionperpendiculartotheshaft. thedirectionthatallowstheexhaustvalvetoclose,while

Whiletheturboisatrest,adialindicatorcan theintakerockerarmisrotatinginadirectionthatforces
beusedtomeasuretheamountofmovement theintakevalvetoopenduringthestandarddirectionof
thatcanoccurbypushingtheshaftend enginerotation(counterclockwiserotationfor
upwardanddownward. Waukeshaengines).
TurbochargerSurge:Turbochargersurgeisthe Venting(Bleeding):Theprocessofremovingtrapped
bangingorswishingheardoccasionallyinengine airfromasystemcontainingliquids.Coolantsystems
turbochargers.Turbochargersurgetypicallyoccursat requiretheuseofventlines,athighpointsinthesystem,
partialload,whenthevolumeofairrequiredbythe whicharepermanentlinesusedtoensurethatairdoes
engineissubstantiallylessthanwhatisrequiredbythe notcirculatethroughoutthecoolingsystem.Byplacing
turbochargertopreventflowreversal(surge).Frequent theselinesathighpointsinthecoolingsystem,anyair
changesintemperatureandpressureratiorequirements thatbecomestrapped(airwilltrytogettothehighest
canalsotriggerturbochargersurge. pointinthesystem)willberemovedfromthecoolant.
UHC:UnburnedHydrocarbons

FORM63791
1.0024 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
VenturiExtractor:Amultichamberedtubethatcreates Warranty:Warrantyisawrittenguaranteeofthe
anegativepressurewhichisusedtodrawvaporsoutof integrityofaproductandofthemakersresponsibilityfor
thecrankcasetoregulatecrankcasepressureonGSI therepairorreplacementofdefectiveparts.
andGLengines.Theventuriextractorassembly WaukeshasExpressLimitedWarranty(ELW)is
functionsbyusingasmallamountofcompressor providedinForm0764.
dischargeairfedintotheventuriextractortodevelopa
WastegateValve:Thewastegatevalveproportions
lowpressurechamberorarea.Thislowpressure
exhaustflowfromtheenginearoundtheturbocharger
chambercreatesanegativepressureinwhichthe
turbineanddirectsexcessexhaustdirectlyintothe
crankcasevaporscanbedrawnintotheventuri
exhauststack.Thewastegatevalveisusedtocontrol
extractor.
throttlereserveinclosedloopcontrol.
VoltageDip:Themomentarydropofgeneratoroutput
Water:Thetransparent,colorlessliquid,H2O,which
voltagethatoccurswheneveraloadisaddedtothe
system.Thereisamomentaryincreaseinoutputvoltage composesthreequartersoftheEarthssurface.Water
wheneveraloadisremovedfromthesystem.Thisis (deionized)istypicallyusedinanenginescooling
calledVoltageRise.VoltageRiseisseldomof system.Whenwaterisdetectedinalubeoilanalysis,
concernwithanadequatevoltageregulator. thewater,inthelubeoil,usuallycomesfromeithera
coolantleakorfromcondensationthatoccursfrom
VoltageFlicker:Termcommonlyusedtodescribea heating(running)andcooling(shuttingdown)the
significantfluctuationofvoltage. enginescrankcase.
VoltOhmmeter(VOM):Ananalog(Simpson260 Wattmeter:Electricpowerismeasuredbymeansofa
IndustryStandard)ordigitalmeterusedtomeasureAC wattmeter.Becauseelectricpowerisafunctionof
voltage,DCvoltage,amperesandohmsinelectrical currentandvoltage,awattmetermusthavetwo
circuits.AdigitalVOMmeasuresvoltagesand elements,oneforcurrentandtheotherforvoltage.The
resistancesmoreaccuratelythanananalogVOMmeter, powerindicatedbyawattmeterisaresultofthevoltage
butmayhaveproblemsdisplayingthesereadingsinhigh acrosstheload,thecurrentthroughtheloadandthe
electricalnoiseenvironmentssuchasaroundCD powerfactorontheload.Ineffect,thewattmeter
ignitionsystems.Featuresthatareanadvantageover multipliesthevoltage,currentandpowerfactorto
analogmetersarepeakhold,peakminimumand indicatethetruepower.Whenusingawattmeter,take
maximumstorage. allnecessaryprecautions.Inaddition,makesurethat
VR:VoltageRegulator neitherthecurrentnorvoltageexceedsthewattmeter
capacity.Testthecircuitwithavoltmeterandammeter
WalkAround:Avisualinspectionthatentailswalking beforeconnectingawattmeter.Thewattmeterscale
aroundtheentireengineviewingdifferentaspectsand deflectiondoesnotindicatewhetherthemeteris
componentsoftheengine. overloadedornot.Thevoltagemaybelowandthe
WAN:WideAreaNetwork(WAN)isacomputernetwork currenthighandstillindicateatruepowerwithinthe
thatcoversabroadarea(i.e.,anynetworkwhose meterscalelimit,butthecurrentelementmaybe
communicationslinkscrossmetropolitan,regionalor overloaded.
nationalboundaries).Contrastwithpersonalarea WearElements(LubeOilAnalysis):Aretheelements
networks(PANs),localareanetworks(LANs),controller thatmakeupthewearingcomponentsoftheengine.
areanetworks(CANs)ormetropolitanareanetworks Alubeoilanalysiscanidentifyelementssuchasiron
(MANs)whichareusuallylimitedtoaroom,buildingor (cylindersleeves,ringsandironpistons),lead
specificarea.Thelargestandmostwellknownexample (bearings),copper(bearingsinnerlayer),chromium
ofaWANistheInternet. (pistonringsanddieselenginesleeves),aluminum
WarmUpDelay:Amountofdelaybetweenthetimethe (pistonsandaluminumbearings),nickel(bearingsand
enginebeginsrotatingandwhentheDSMsystemtakes cylindersleevealloy)andtin(bearingsandpiston
controlofignitiontiming.Whilethisdelayisactive,the flashing),whichcanbeusedtohelptroubleshootoraid
cylindersareoperatingatthedefaulttiming.The inpreventativemaintenanceprogramsforanengine.
purposeofthisdelayistopreventmisleadingvibration Wheeling:Theuseofthetransmissionfacilitiesofone
signals,whichmayexistduringthetimetheengineis systemtotransmitpowerforanothersystem.
warmingup,frombeingincorrectlyconstruedasknock
signals.DuringtheWarmUpDelaytime,theDSM
systemisnotprotectingagainstdetonation.(PC
programmable)

FORM63791
1.0025 06/2012
GENERALWAUKESHAGASENGINEGLOSSARY
WKI*:WaukeshaKnockIndex(WKI)isananalytical
tool,developedbyWaukesha,asamethodfor
calculatingtheknockresistanceofgaseousfuels.Itisa
calculatednumericvalueusedtodeterminethe
optimumenginesettingsbasedonaspecificsitesfuel
gascomposition.
*TrademarkofGeneralElectricCompany
Workspace:ThefilecontainingESPpanelsiscalledthe
workspace.Theworkspacefileissavedtotheharddrive
uponinstallationofthesoftware.WhenESPisopened,
thecorrectworkspacefortheengineisautomatically
opened.
WyeConnection:Inawyeorstarconnectedgenerator
thethreestartendsofeachsinglephasewindingare
connectedtogethertoacommonneutralpoint,andthe
oppositeorfinishendsareconnectedtotheline
terminals.Whenbothlowvoltage,singlephaseloads
andhighervoltage,threephaseloadsareencountered,
alinetotheneutralorcommonpointwillserveasa
commonreturncircuitforallthreephases,i.e.,120/208
Volt,3phase,4wiremachine.

FORM63791
1.0026 06/2012
PRODUCTDESIGNATION
GSIenginesarerichcombustion(stoichiometric)
enginesequippedwithturbochargersthatforcehigh
velocityambientairthroughtheintercoolers,
carburetorsandintakemanifold,beforeenteringthe
combustionchamber.
GLenginesareturbocharged,intercooledandlean
burn.Theseenginesaredesignedforlowfuel
consumptionandreducedexhaustemissions.The
prechamberdesignutilizescombustionofastratified
charge.Arichfuelmixtureisprovidedtoonepartofthe
cylinder,andaleanfuelmixturetotherestofthe
cylinder,withtheburningtakingplaceinstages.To
accomplishthis,asmallauxiliarycombustionchamber,
referredtoasaprechamber,islocatedinthecylinder
head.Therichfuelmixtureissuppliedtothischamber
whiletheleanmixturefillsthemaincombustion
chamber.Whenthesparkplugignitestheprechamber
fuel,aflametorchprojectsfromorificesinthe
prechambertoignitetheleanmixtureinthemain
chamber.Theconsistentignitionoftherichmixturein
theprechamberensurescompletecombustionwithin
themainchamber.
LTenginesareequippedwithturbochargersthat
forcehighvelocityambientairthroughtheintercoolers,
carburetorsandintakemanifolds,beforeenteringthe
combustionchamber.LTenginesaredesignedtoburn
aleanair/fuelmixturethatresultsinreducedemissions
andfuelconsumption.
+enginesoperateonnaturalgasandaredesignedfor
lowfuelconsumptionandreducedexhaustemissions.
Thistermisonlyonthe275GLengines.
D(DrawThru)featureinonlowfuelpressuresystem
equippedGSIandGLengines,theturbochargerdraws
fuelandintakeairfromtheairintakeandcarburetor(s)
(mountedontheairfilterhousing(s)andcompressesthe
mixture.Themixtureiscooledthroughtheintercooler
andthenenterstheintakemanifold(s).
Genginesarenaturallyaspiratedthatdependssolely
onatmosphericpressuretocounterthepartialvacuum
intheinductiontracttodrawincombustionair.

FORM63791
2.001 06/2012
ThisPageIntentionallyLeftBlank

FORM63791
2.002 06/2012
TYPESOFNATURALGAS
SECTION3.00
TYPESOFNATURALGAS

CoalGas:Coalgas(alsotowngasandilluminationgas) SteelGas:Gasescreatedasabyproductduringsteel
isaflammablegaseousfuelmadebythedestructive production.
distillationofcoalcontainingavarietyofcalorificgases
SweetGas:Naturalgasthatdoesnotcontainsignificant
includinghydrogen,carbonmonoxide,methaneand
amountsofhydrogensulfide.
volatilehydrocarbonstogetherwithsmallquantitiesof
noncalorificgasessuchascarbondioxideand UnconventionalGases:Naturalgasresourceswhich
nitrodgen. requiregreaterthanindustrystandardlevelsof
technologyorinvestmenttoharvest.Thethreemost
DigesterGas:Afuelgasformedbytheanaerobic
commontypesofunconventionalgasresourcesare
decompositionoforganicmatterinadigester.Itis
tightsands,coalbedmethane(CBM),andshalegas.
composedprimarilyofmethane(CH4)andcarbon
dioxide(CO2).Theheatvaluenormallyrangesfrom500 WetGas:Gaswithasmallamountofliquidpresent.
600Btu/ft3SLHV(18.6322.36J/cm3).Octanerating
of120.Hydrogensulfide(H2S)isatypicaltrace
component.
DryGas:Drygas,asusedbytheinternalcombustion
engineindustry,doesnotrefertowater,butmeansagas
freeofliquidhydrocarbons.
FieldGas:Theheatvaluenormallyrangesfrom900
1500Btu/ft3SLHV(33.5455.898J/cm3).Octanerating
of115118.
LandfillGas:Afuelgasformedbythedecomposition
oflandfillrefuse.Itiscomposedprimarilyofmethane
(CH4)andcarbondioxide.(CO2).Theheatvalue
normallyrangesfrom450550Btu/ft3SLHV(16.77
20.39J/cm3).Octaneratingof118120.Chlorineand
fluorinebearingcompoundsaretypicaltrace
components.
SaturatedGas:Ahydrocarbonmixturesaturatedwith
watervapor;i.e.,100%relativehumidity.Bothhighand
lowheatingvaluesmaybegivenonasaturatedor
unsaturatedbasis.WaukeshafollowsDEMA
recommendedpracticeandusesthesaturatedlowheat
valueofafuelgasforallperformanceandfuel
consumptioncalculations.
SourGas:Naturalgasoranyothergascontaining
significantamountsofhydrogensulfide.

FORM63791
3.001 06/2012
TYPESOFNATURALGAS

ThisPageIntentionallyLeftBlank

FORM63791
3.002 06/2012
APPENDIX

GENERAL
6
GENERATION OF ABBREVIATIONS NOT SHOWN 65 GOVERNOR
(BUILDUPS). AN APPLICATION IS AN EXAMPLE OF 67 DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAY
A COMBINATION OF ABBREVIATIONS ON THIS
LIST PLUS VARIATIONS. NO ATTEMPT HAS BEEN
MADE TO LIST ALL THE POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS 8
(BUILDUPS); TYPICAL APPLICATIONS USUALLY 81 FREQUENCY RELAY
HAVE BEEN SHOWN USING ONLY ONE OF THE 86 LOCKOUT RELAY
POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES. 87 DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

VARIATIONS:
1) SUFFIXES a
C CRANK TERMINATION a CIRCUIT BREAKER "a" CONTACT
J DIFFERENTIAL
H HIGH
L LOW A
LB LEFT BANK ABC AIR BYPASS CONTROL
O OVER AC ALTERNATING CURRENT
RB RIGHT BANK ACA ALTERNATING CURRENT AMMETER
U UNDER ACB AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER
W WARNING ACPM AC POWER MONITOR
Z ZERO SPEED ACR AUTOMATIC CONTROL RELAY
EXAMPLE: REW - RESET WARNING ACS AUTOMATIC CONTROL SWITCH
ACV ALTERNATING CURRENT VOLTMETER
NUMBERS SIGNIFY ADDITIONAL DEVICES ADL ALARM DISCONNECT LIGHT
WITH THE SAME FUNCTION ADR ALARM DISCONNECT RELAY
EXAMPLE: RR2 - RUN RELAY 2 ADS ALARM DISCONNECT SWITCH
AETL AUXILIARY EXPANSION TANK LEVEL
2) PREFIXES AFM AIR/FUEL MODULE
NUMBERS SIGNIFY ADDITIONAL DEVICES AFML AIR/FUEL MODULE LIGHT
WITH THE SIMILAR FUNCTION AHOR ALARM HOLDOFF RELAY
ALM ALARM
3) SUFFIXES FOR TERMINAL BLOCKS ONLY ALR ALARM RELAY
DC (NO SUFFIX) AOL AUTOMATIC OFF LIGHT
A AC APG AIR PRESSURE GAUGE
S SIGNAL (mV & mA) APL AIR PRESSURE LIGHT
APR AIR PRESSURE RELAY
4) TERMINAL DESIGNATIONS APS AIR PRESSURE SWITCH
G CIRCUIT BREAKER AR AUXILIARY RELAY
L CIRCUIT BREAKER, LOAD SIDE ARL AUTOMATIC RUN LIGHT
T GENERATOR ARR AUTOMATIC RUN RELAY
N NEUTRAL ARSR AUTOMATIC RUN STATUS RELAY
GND GROUND AS AMMETER SWITCH
ASBR AUTOMATIC STANDBY RELAY
5) AC WIRE NUMBER CODING ASBSR AUTOMATIC STANDBY STATUS RELAY
1C11 ASV AIR SOLENOID VALVE
1 MULTIPLE LINES OF SAME PHASE ATS ALARM TEST SWITCH
C TYPE- C FOR CURRENT AVS AMMETER AND VOLTMETER SWITCH
P FOR POTENTIAL ASL AUTOMATIC STANDBY LIGHT
1 PHASE (0 FOR COMMON) AUX AUXILIARY
1 LINE CONTINUATION THROUGH AW AUXILIARY WATER
MULTIPLE DEVICES AWR AUXILIARY WARNING LIGHT
AWTL AUXILIARY WATER TEMPERATURE
LIGHT
MISC AWTR AUXILIARY WATER TEMPERATURE
--- CUSTOMER WIRING RELAY
AWTS AUXILIARY WATER TEMPERATURE
COMPONENT NOT SUPPLIED BY SWITCH
WAUKESHA AXC AUXILIARY COOLANT
# COMPONENT SUPPLIED AS A LOOSE
PART

2 b
25 SYNCHRONIZING CHECK RELAY b CIRCUIT BREAKER "b" CONTACT
27 UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY
B
3 BAC BREAKER ALARM (BELL) CONTACT
32 REVERSE POWER RELAY BAL BREAKER ALARM LIGHT
BAMR BREAKER ALARM MODE RELAY
BAR BREAKER ALARM RELAY
4 BASR BREAKER ALARM SETUP RELAY
46 NEGATIVE SEQUENCE OVERCURRENT BATT BATTERY
RELAY BC BATTERY CHARGER
47 UNDERVOLTAGE PHASE SEQUENCE BCA BATTERY CHARGER ALTERNATOR
RELAY BCCS BATTERY CHARGER CONTROL SWITCH
BCDR BATTERY CHARGER DISCONNECT
RELAY
5 BCFL BATTERY CHARGER FAILURE LIGHT
50 INSTANT OVERCURRENT RELAY BCPL BATTERY CHARGER AC POWER LOSS
51 TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY LIGHT
51-R TIME-OVERCURRENT RELAY BCPT BUS CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMER
W/VOLTAGE RESTRAINT BF BUS FUSE
52 CIRCUIT BREAKER BGS BASE GROUND STUD
52-TIE CIRCUIT BREAKER-TIE BLDR BASELOAD RELAY
59 OVERVOLTAGE RELAY BLL BATTERY LEVEL LIGHT
BLR BATTERY LEVEL RELAY
BLS BATTERY LEVEL SWITCH
BLT BATTERY LEVEL TIMER
FORM63791
06/2012
BMR BUS MONITORING RELAY DOCT DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT TIMER
BPT BUS POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER DOD DELAY ON DROPOUT
BUFL BUS UNDERFREQUENCY LIGHT DPG DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAUGE
DPL DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE LIGHT
DPR DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE RELAY
C DPS DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SWITCH
CAP CAPACITOR DS DETONATION SENSOR
CASR CONTROL IN AUTOMATIC STANDBY DSAR DETONATION SENSOR ALARM
RELAY DSL DELAYED SHUTDOWN LIGHT
CB CIRCUIT BREAKER DSM DETONATION SENSING MODULE
CB/MCP CIRCUIT BREAKER/MOTOR CIRCUIT DSMAL DETONATION SENSING MODULE
PROTECTOR ALARM LIGHT
CBCHR CIRCUIT BREAKER CHARGING RELAY DSMF DETONATION SENSING MODULE
CBCL CIRCUIT BREAKER CLOSED LIGHT FILTER
CBCR CIRCUIT BREAKER CLOSE RELAY DSML DETONATION SENSING MODULE LIGHT
CBCS CIRCUIT BREAKER CONTROL SWITCH DSR DELAYED SHUTDOWN RELAY
CBDL CIRCUIT BREAKER DISCONNECTED DSSR DETONATION SENSOR SHUTDOWN
LIGHT RELAY
CBDSR CIRCUIT BREAKER DELAYED SLAVE DST DELAYED SHUTDOWN TIMER
RELAY DTLL DAY TANK LEVEL LIGHT
CBLL CIRCUIT BREAKER LOCKOUT LIGHT DTLR DAY TANK LEVEL RELAY
CBLR CIRCUIT BREAKER LOCKOUT RELAY DTLS DAY TANK LEVEL SWITCH
CBM CURRENT BOOST MODULE
CBOL CIRCUIT BREAKER OPEN LIGHT
CBOR CIRCUIT BREAKER OPEN RELAY E
CBRR CIRCUIT BREAKER RESET RELAY EBTL ENGINE BEARING TEMPERATURE
CBSR CIRCUIT BREAKER SLAVE RELAY LIGHT
CBT CURRENT BOOST TRANSFORMER EBTR ENGINE BEARING TEMPERATURE
CBTL CIRCUIT BREAKER TRIPPED LIGHT RELAY
CBTR CIRCUIT BREAKER TRIPPED RELAY EBTS ENGINE BEARING TEMPERATURE
CBURR CIRCUIT BREAKER UNDERVOLTAGE SWITCH
RELEASE RELAY ECDPR ENGINE COOLANT DIFFERENTIAL
CC CLOSING COIL PRESSURE RELAY
CCBSR CONNECTED CIRCUIT BREAKER ECDPT ENGINE COOLANT DIFFERENTIAL
SENSING RELAY TIMER
CCCT CROSS CURRENT COMPENSATION ECP ENGINE COOLANT PRESSURE
TRANSFORMER ECPT ENGINE COOLANT PRESSURE TIMER
CEC CUSTOM ENGINE CONTROL ECU ENGINE CONTROL UNIT
CLOK CLOCK RELAY EFL ENGINE FAILURE LIGHT
CNG COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS EFR ENGINE FAILURE RELAY
CNL CRANK LIGHT EMSL EMERGENCY STOP LIGHT
CNR CRANK RELAY EMSR EMERGENCY STOP RELAY
CNT CRANK TIMER EMSS EMERGENCY STOP SWITCH
COL CONTROL OFF LIGHT ERR ENGINE RUN RELAY
CP COOLANT PRESSURE ERSR ENGINE RELAY-STOP RELAY
CPL CONTROL POWER ON LIGHT ERSS ENGINE RUN-STOP SWITCH
CPM COOLANT PRESSURE METER ESM ENGINE SYSTEM MANAGER
CPT CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMER ESS ENGINE SPEED CONTROL SWITCH
CR CONTROL RELAY ETL EXHAUST TEMPERATURE LIGHT
CRCS COOLANT RATE OF CHANGE ETR EXHAUST TEMPERATURE RELAY
SHUTDOWN ETS EXHAUST TEMPERATURE SWITCH
CRCSL COOLANT RATE OF CHANGE ETT EXHAUST TEMPERATURE
SHUTDOWN LIGHT THERMOCOUPLE
CRS CONTROL RESET SWITCH EVC ENGINE VIBRATION CONTACT
CRT CRANK/REST TIMER EVL ENGINE VIBRATION LIGHT
CS CONTROL SWITCH EVR ENGINE VIBRATION RELAY
CSH CABINET SPACE HEATER EVS ENGINE VIBRATION SWITCH
CSL CUSTOMER SPARE LIGHT EWH ENGINE WATER HEATER
CSR CUSTOMER SPARE RELAY EWHDR ENGINE WATER HEATER DISCONNECT
CSS CUSTOMER SPARE SWITCH RELAY
CT CURRENT TRANSFORMER EWHR ENGINE WATER HEATER RELAY
CTLR CRANK TERMINATION LOCKOUT RELAY EWL ENGINE WARNING LIGHT
CTR CRANK TERMINATION RELAY EX FLD EXCITER FIELD
CTS CRANK TERMINATION SWITCH EXHT EXHAUST TEMPERATURE
CYL CYLINDER
CYPM CYCLE PRELUBE MODULE
F
F FUSE
D FB FEEDER BREAKER
D DIODE FBCR FEEDER BREAKER CLOSE RELAY
DAL DETONATION ALARM LIGHT FBLO FEEDER BREAKER LOCKOUT
DAT DROPOUT TRIP FBR FEEDER BREAKER RELAY
DBL DEAD BUS LIGHT FC FUEL CHANGE
DBR DEAD BUS RELAY FCR FUSE CHECK RELAY
DC DIRECT CURRENT FL FAILURE LIGHT
DC-DC DC TO DC CONVERTER FLAS FLASHER
DCA DIRECT CURRENT AMMETER FLG FUEL LEVEL GAUGE
DCL DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT LIGHT FLL FUEL LEVEL LIGHT
DCR DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT RELAY FLR FUEL LEVEL RELAY
DCV DIRECT CURRENT VOLTMETER FLS FUEL LEVEL SWITCH
DF DIESEL FUEL FM FREQUENCY METER
DG DIGESTER GAS FPG FUEL PRESSURE GAUGE
DGL DIGESTER GAS LIGHT FPL FUEL PRESSURE LIGHT
DGPL DIGESTER GAS PRESSURE LIGHT FPR FUEL PRESSURE RELAY
DGPR DIGESTER GAS PRESSURE RELAY FPS FUEL PRESSURE SWITCH
DGPS DIGESTER GAS PRESSURE SWITCH FPTD FUEL PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
DGR DIGESTER GAS RELAY FR FAILURE RELAY
DGSV DIGESTER GAS SOLENOID VALVE FRDR FAILURE RELAY DISCONNECT RELAY
DIFL DIFFERENTIAL FAULT LIGHT FS FLOW SWITCH
DIFR DIFFERENTIAL FAULT RELAY FSS FUEL SELECTOR SWITCH
DOCL DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT LIGHT FSV FUEL SOLENOID VALVE
DOCR DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAY FTL FULL THROTTLE LIGHT

FORM63791
06/2012
FTPL FAILURE TO PARALLEL LIGHT IMTS INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE
FTPR FAILURE TO PARALLEL RELAY SWITCH
FTPT FAILURE TO PARALLEL TIMER IMTT INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE
FTPTR FAILURE TO PARALLEL TIMER RELAY TIMER
FTR FULL THROTTLE RELAY IMVG INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM GAUGE
FTS FULL THROTTLE SWITCH IMVPG INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM/PRESSURE
FTT FULL THROTTLE TIMER GAUGE
INTM INTAKE MANIFOLD
IP IGNITION PICKUP
G ISL IDLE SHUTDOWN LIGHT
GA GOVERNOR ACTUATOR ISR IDLE SHUTDOWN RELAY
GBTL GENERATOR BEARING TEMPERATURE IST IDLE SHUTDOWN TIMER
LIGHT ISTR IDLE SHUTDOWN TIMER RELAY
GBTR GENERATOR BEARING TEMPERATURE ITR IGNITION TIMING RELAY
RELAY
GBTS GENERATOR BEARING TEMPERATURE
SWITCH J
GCB GOVERNOR CONTROL BOX J JUMPER
GCT GROUND CURRENT TRANSFORMER JC ENGINE JACKET COOLANT
GEC GOVERNOR EXPORT CONTROL JCH JACKET COOLANT HEATER
GEN GENERATOR JCHDR JACKET COOLANT HEATER
GFL GROUND FAULT LIGHT DISCONNECT RELAY
GFR GROUND FAULT RELAY JETL JACKET EXPANSION TANK LEVEL
GGOL GENERATOR GROUND OVERCURRENT JW JACKET WATER
LIGHT JWDPS JACKET WATER DIFFERENTIAL
GGS GENERATOR GROUND STUD PRESSURE SWITCH
GIC GOVERNOR IMPORT CONTROL JWTG JACKET WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE
GIEC GOVERNOR IMPORT/EXPORT
CONTROL
GLC GOVERNOR LOADING CONTROL K
GLL GENERATOR LOADED LIGHT K CONTACT
GML GENERATOR METERING LIGHT KDM KNOCK DETECTION MODULE
GMR GENERATOR METERING RELAY KWHM KILOWATT HOURMETER
GND GROUND
GPR GENERATOR PROTECTION RELAY
GRR GENERATOR RUNNING RELAY L
GSH GENERATOR SPACE HEATER LAR LOAD ADD RELAY
GSHDR GENERATOR SPACE HEATER LAT LOAD ADD TIMER
DISCONNECT RELAY LB LEFT BANK
GSP GOVERNOR SPEED POTENTIOMETER LBCL LOAD BREAKER CLOSED LIGHT
GSR GAS SOLENOID RELAY LBOL LOAD BREAKER OPEN LIGHT
GSV GAS SOLENOID VALVE LBR LOAD BREAKER RELAY
GSVSS GAS SOLENOID VALVE SPEED SWITCH LCL LOAD CLOSED LIGHT
GTL GENERATOR TEMPERATURE LIGHT LD LOAD DUMP
GTR GENERATOR TEMPERATURE RELAY LDCL LOAD DUMP CONTROL LIGHT
GTS GENERATOR TEMPERATURE SWITCH LDCR LOAD DUMP CONTROL RELAY
GVL GENERATOR VIBRATION LIGHT LDCS LOAD DUMP CONTROL SWITCH
GVR GENERATOR VIBRATION RELAY LDL LOAD DUMP LIGHT
GVS GENERATOR VIBRATION SWITCH LDLL LOAD DUMP LOCKOUT LIGHT
GWTL GENERATOR WINDING TEMPERATURE LDPL LOAD DUMP IN PROGRESS LIGHT
LIGHT LDR LOAD DUMP RELAY
GWTR GENERATOR WINDING TEMPERATURE LDRE LOAD DUMP RESET
RELAY LDRR LOAD DUMP RESET RELAY
GWTS GENERATOR WINDING TEMPERATURE LDRS LOAD DUMP RESET SWITCH
SWITCH LDSR LOAD DUMP SEQUENCE RELAY
LDSS LOAD DUMP SELECTOR SWITCH
LDST LOAD DUMP SEQUENCE TIMER
H LDT LOAD DUMP TIMER
HBR HOT BUS RELAY LH LEFT HAND
HBT HOT BUS TIMER LOCDR LUBE OIL CIRCULATING PUMP
HF HEATER FEEDBACK DISCONNECT RELAY
HICT HIGH INTERCOOLER INLET WATER LOCP LUBE OIL CIRCULATING PUMP
TEMP. LOCR LUBE OIL CIRCULATING PUMP RELAY
HLR HIGH LOAD RELAY LOCT OIL CYCLE TIMER
HLT HIGH LOAD TIMER LOH LUBE OIL HEATER
HMI HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE LOHDR LUBE OIL HEATER DISCONNECT RELAY
HOR HOLD OFF RELAY LOHR LUBE OIL HEATER RELAY
HPU HALL PICKUP LOL LOAD OPENED LIGHT
HTR HEATER LOPG LUBE OIL PRESSURE GAUGE
LOTG LUBE OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE
LPG LIQUID PROPANE GAS
I LR LOAD RELAY
IGN IGNITION LRT LOAD RELAY TIMER
IGNC IGNITION COIL LS LIMIT SWITCH
IGNS IGNITION SWITCH LSR LOAD SENSING RELAY
IM IGNITION MODULE LTS LAMP TEST SWITCH
IMP INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE
IMPG INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAUGE
IMPL INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE LIGHT M
IMPR INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE RELAY MAG MAGNETO
IMPS INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE SWITCH MC MASTER CONTROL
IMPT INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE MCB MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER
TRANSDUCER MCF MASTER CONTOL FUSE
IMSR INTAKE MANIFOLD SWITCH RELAY MCR MOTOR CONTROL RELAY
IMST INTAKE MANIFOLD SWITCH TIMER MCS MODE CONTROL SWITCH
IMT INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE MFR METERING FAILURE RELAY
IMTL INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE MFT MASTER FREQUENCY TRIMMER
LIGHT MGSV MAIN GAS SOLENOID VALVE
IMTR INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE MGV MAIN GAS VALVE
RELAY MGVP MAIN GAS VALVE PILOT
IMTRT INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE MOP MOTOR OPERATED POTENTIOMETER
RELAY (TIMED) MP MAGNETIC PICKUP

FORM63791
06/2012
MPC MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL CONTROLLER
MRFR MASTER FAILURE RELAY PLL POWER LOSS LIGHT
MRL MANUAL RUN LIGHT PLR POWER LOSS RELAY
MRSR MANUAL RUN STATUS RELAY PLS POWER LOSS SWITCH
MS MOTOR STARTER PLST POWER LOSS SEQUENCE TIMER
MSOL MOTOR STARTER OVERLOAD PLSTR POWER LOSS SHUTDOWN TIMER
MSS MODE SELECTOR SWITCH RELAY
MSV MANIFOLD SELECTOR VALVE PLT POWER LOSS TIMER
MVC MANUAL VOLTAGE CONTROL PLTR POWER LOSS TIMER RELAY
MVSV MANIFOLD VACUUM SELECTOR VALVE PMG PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR
PMR PRELUBE MOTOR RELAY
POT POTENTIOMETER
N PPM PRELUBE PUMP MOTOR
N NEUTRAL PPR PRELUBE PUMP RELAY
NCT NEUTRAL CURRENT TRANSFORMER PS PRELUBE SWITCH
NG NATURAL GAS PSCR POSITION SEQUENCE CHANGE RELAY
NGL NATURAL GAS LIGHT PSCS POSITIION SEQUENCE CHANGE
NGPL NATURAL GAS PRESSURE LIGHT SWITCH
NGPR NATURAL GAS PRESSURE RELAY PSCT POSITION SEQUENCE CHANGE TIMER
NGPS NATURAL GAS PRESSURE SWITCH PSL PRELUBE SEQUENCE LIGHT
NGR NATURAL GAS RELAY PSPL PUMP SUCTION PRESSURE LIGHT
NGSV NATURAL GAS SOLENOID VALVE PSPR PUMP SECTION PRESSURE RELAY
NSL NEGATIVE SEQUENCE LIGHT PSR PRELUBE SEQUENCE RELAY
NSR NEGATIVE SEQUENCE RELAY PST PRELUBE SEQUENCE TIMER
PSTR PRELUBE SEQUENCE TIMER RELAY
PSV PRELUBE SOLENOID VALVE
O PT POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
O2S OXYGEN SENSOR PVL PUMP VIBRATION LIGHT
OCL OVERCRANK LIGHT PVR PUMP VIBRATION RELAY
OCR OVERCRANK RELAY PXS PROXIMITY SWITCH
OCT OVERCRANK TIMER PYM PYROMETER
OCUL OVERCURRENT LIGHT
OCUR OVERCURRENT RELAY
OFDG OIL FILTER DIFFERENTIAL GAUGE R
OFDL OIL FILTER DIFFERENTIAL LIGHT R RESISTOR
OFDP OIL FILTER DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE RB RIGHT BANK
OFDR OIL FILTER DIFFERENTIAL RELAY RC RESET CONTACT
OFDS OIL FILTER DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH RCR REST CYCLE RELAY
OFL OVERFREQUENCY LIGHT RCUR REVERSE CURRENT RELAY
OFR OVERFREQUENCY RELAY RE RESET
OLDL OVERLOAD LIGHT RFLW RADIATOR FAN LIGHT WARNING
OLDR OVERLOAD RELAY RFM RADIATOR FAN MOTOR
OLDT OVERLOAD TIMER RFMS RADIATOR FAN MOTOR STARTER
OLG OIL LEVEL GAUGE RFRW RADIATOR FAN RELAY WARNING
OLL OIL LEVEL LIGHT RH RIGHT HAND
OLR OIL LEVEL RELAY RHEO RHEOSTAT
OLRE OVERLOAD RESET RL RUN LIGHT
OLS OIL LEVEL SWITCH RPL REVERSE POWER LIGHT
OPAR OIL PRESSURE AUXILIARY RELAY RPR REVERSE POWER RELAY
OPBR OIL PRESSURE BUILD-UP RELAY RPS REVERSE POWER SENSOR
OPBT OIL PRESSURE BUILD-UP TIMER RPT REVERSE POWER TIMER
OPG OIL PRESSURE GAUGE RR RUN RELAY
OPL OIL PRESSURE LIGHT RSC REMOTE START CONTACTS
OPP OPPOSITE RSL RUN SOLENOID
OPR OIL PRESSURE RELAY RT REST TIMER
OPS OIL PRESSURE SWITCH RTD RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE
OSL OVERSPEED LIGHT DETECTOR
OSR OVERSPEED RELAY RTALR READY TO ACCEPT LOAD RELAY
OSS OVERSPEED SWITCH RTR REST RELAY
OT OPERATOR TERMIINAL RVL RADIATOR VIBRATION LIGHT
OTG OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE RVR RADIATOR VIBRATION RELAY
OTL OIL TEMPERATURE LIGHT RWM RECORDING WATTMETER
OTR OIL TEMPERATURE RELAY
OTS OIL TEMPERATURE SWITCH
OUFL OVER/UNDER FREQUENCY LIGHT S
OUFR OVER/UNDER FREQUENCY RELAY SAA SPECIAL APPLICATION APPROVAL
OUVL OVER/UNDER VOLTAGE LIGHT SADR SYSTEM ALARM DISCONNECT RELAY
OUVR OVER/UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY SAM SIGNAL ALARM MODULE
OVCB OVERVOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER SARL SIGNAL ADJUST RATE LIMITER
OVL OVERVOLTAGE LIGHT SAS SPEED ADJUST SWITCH
OVR OVERVOLTAGE RELAY SBL STAND BY LIGHT
OVS OVERVOLTAGE SENSOR SBR SERIES BOOST RESERVOIR
SBT SERIES BOOST TRANSFORMER
SCHL SEQUENCE CHANGE LIGHT
P SCORL SEQUENCE CORRECT LIGHT
PBTL PUMP BEARING TEMPERATURE LIGHT SCR SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
PBTR PUMP BEARING TEMPERATURE RELAY SCS SHORT CIRCUIT SUSTAIN
PC PERSONAL COMPUTER SDCT SIGNAL DISCONNECT CHANGE TIMER
PF POWER FACTOR SDT SHUTDOWN TIMER
PFM POWER FACTOR METER SEDT START ENGINE SIGNAL DISCONNECT
PGF PROPANE GAS FUEL TIMER
PFR POWER FAILURE RELAY SEL SELECTOR SWITCH
PGFSV PROPANE GAS FUEL SOLENOID VALVE SGFL SYSTEM GROUND FAULT LIGHT
PG PROPANE GAS SGFR SYSTEM GROUND FAULT RELAY
PGL PROPANE GAS LIGHT SH SENSOR HEATER
PGS PANEL GROUND STUD SHTC SHUNT TRIP COIL
PGSV PRECHAMBER GAS SOLENOID VALVE SIOPR SPEED INCREASER PRESSURE RELAY
PH PHASE SIOPS SPEED INCREASER OIL PRESSURE
PIL PANEL ILLUMINATION LIGHT SWITCH
PILS PANEL ILLUMINATION LIGHT SWITCH SIOTL SPEED INCREASER OIL TEMPERATURE
PIT POWER ISOLATION TRANSFORMER LIGHT
PLC PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC SIOTR SPEED INCREASER OIL TEMPERATURE RELAY

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SIOTS SPEED INCREASER OIL TEMPERATURE UOLD UNIT OVERLOAD
SWITCH UOLDL UNIT OVERLOAD LIGHT
SIVL SPEED INCREASER VIBRATION LIGHT UOLDR UNIT OVERLOAD RELAY
SIVR SPEED INCREASER VIBRATION RELAY UOLDT UNIT OVERLOAD TIMER
SL SYNCHRONIZING LAMP URPL UTILITY REVERSE POWER LIGHT
SLL SAFETY LOCKOUT LIGHT URPL UTILITY REVERSE POWER RELAY
SM STARTING MOTOR URR UTILITY RETURN RELAY
SMB STARTING MOTOR CONTACTOR
URT UTILITY RETURN TIMER
BREAKER
SMC STARTING MOTOR CONTACTOR
USL UNDERSPEED LIGHT
SMS STEPPER MOTOR SWITCHING USR UNDERSPEED RELAY
SNRT SHUTDOWN NOT RESET TIMER USS UNDERSPEED SWITCH
SP SPARE UTFR UTILITY FAILURE RELAY
SPH SPACE HEATER UUFL UNIT UNDERFREQUENCY LIGHT
SPL SPARE LIGHT UUFR UNIT UNDERFREQUENCY RELAY
SPLW SPARE LIGHT WARNING UUFT UNIT UNFERFREQUENCY TIMER
SPM SYNCHRONIZING/PARALLELING UVL UNDERVOLTAGE LIGHT
MODULE UVR UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY
SPR SPARE RELAY UVRC UNDERVOLTAGE RELEASE COIL
SPS SPEED SWITCH UVS UNDERVOLTAGE SENSOR
SR START RELAY UVT UNDERVOLTAGE TIMER
SS SYNCHRONIZING SWITCH
UVTC UNDERVOLTAGE TRIP COIL
SSS SEQUENCE SELECTOR SWITCH
STR SHUNT TRIP RELAY
SU
SW
SENDING UNIT
SWITCH
V
SYN SYNCHROSCOPE VAR VOLTAGE ADJUSTING RHEOSTAT
VAR/PF VOLTAMPERE REACTIVE/POWER
FACTOR CONTROL
T VAS VOLTAGE ADJUST SWITCH
TACH TACHOMETER VBR VOLTAGE BUILD-UP RELAY
TB1 TB-START CONTROLLER VBS VOLTAGE BUILD-UP SWITCH

VBT VOLTAGE BUILD-UP TIMER
TB2 TB-ENGOMATIC CONTROL VCB VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
VDS VOLTAGE DROOP SWITCH
TB3 TB-GENERATOR
VFT VOLTAGE/FREQUENCY TIMER
VLR VOLTAGE LOWER RELAY
TB4 TB-AS ASSIGNED ON DRAWINGS
VM VOLTMETER
TB5 CIRCUIT BREAKER AUX TERMINAL VR VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VRM VARMETER
TB6 TB-UNIT VRR VOLTAGE RAISE RELAY
VS VOLTMETER SWITCH
TB7 TB-ENGINE VSC VIBRATION SWITCH CONTACT
VSL VIBRATION SWITCH LIGHT
TB7S ENGINE/AIR FUEL RATIO VSR VIBRATION SWITCH RELAY
CONTROL/TC JUNCTION BOX VT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
VUBL VOLTAGE UNBALANCE LIGHT
TB8 TB-ANNUNCIATOR PANEL VUBR VOLTAGE UNBALANCE RELAY
TB9 TB-AS ASSIGNED ON DRAWINGS

TB10 TB-ENGINE INSTRUMENT PANEL


W
WFL WATER FLOW LIGHT
TB11 TB-ENGINE CONTROLS (AFRC) WFR WATER FLOW RELAY
WGC WASTE GATE CONTROL
TB12 TB-PRESSURE/TEMP MONITOR WHDM WATTHOUR DEMAND METER
WHM WATTHOUR METER
TC THERMOCOUPLE WL WARNING LIGHT
TCEC THERMOCOUPLE-EXHAUST COMMON WLG WATER LEVEL GAUGE
TCIM THERMOCOUPLE-INTAKE MANIFOLD WLL WATER LEVEL LIGHT
TCM TURBOCHARGER CONTROL MODULE WLR WATER LEVEL RELAY
TCPT THERMOCOUPLE-PRE TURBOCHARGER WLS WATER LEVEL SWITCH
TD TRANSDUCER WM WATTMETER
TH THERMOSTAT
WPG WATER PRESSURE GAUGE
THM TOTAL HOUR METER
TLI TOTAL LOAD INDICATOR WPL WATER PRESSURE LIGHT
TOC TRUCK (BREAKER) OPERATED WPR WATER PRESSURE RELAY
CONTACT WPS WATER PRESSURE SWITCH
TOPS TURBOCHARGER OIL PRESSURE WR WARNING RELAY
SWITCH WTD WATT TRANSDUCER
TRS TRANSFER SWITCH WTG WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE
TRSR TRANSFER SWITCH RELAY WTL WATER TEMPERATURE LIGHT
TS TEST SWITCH WTR WATER TEMPERATURE RELAY
WTS WATER TEMPERATURE SWITCH
WUR WARM-UP RELAY
U WUT WARM-UP TIMER
UAF UNIT AUTO FAULT
UAR UNIT AUTO READY
UBUF
UCBC
UNIT BUS UNDERFREQUENCY
UNIT CB CLOSED
Z
ZD ZENER DIODE
UCS UNIT COMMON SPARE
UFL UNDERFREQUENCY LIGHT ZSR ZERO SPEED RELAY
UFR UNDERFREQUENCY RELAY ZSS ZERO SPEED SWITCH
UFT UNDERFREQUENCY TIMER
ZST ZERO SPEED TIMER

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