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Magsaysay St., Vira, Roxas, Isabela

A.Y 2016-2017


Name: Richelle B. Acosta

Topic: Mechanics of Movements

Locomotor and Non-Locomotor Movements


This are done by moving the body from one place to another.
WALKING is shifting ones weight from one foot to the other.
RUNNING is moving with longer strides and in faster speed than walking
HOPPING is springing on one foot and landing on the same foot.
SKIPPING is done with a step and a hop using the same foot.
JUMPING is springing on one foot or both feet and landing on both feet. (on landing always bend
knees slightly.)
LEAPING is springing on one foot and landing on the other foot (wide stride).
SLIDING is done by gliding on the floor, sideward or forward using the right and left foot alternately.
GALLOPING is stepping on one foot and cutting the other, either sideward or forward.
BENDING OR FLEXING is moving the muscles around a joint where two body parts meet.
STRETCHING OR EXTENDING is done by straightening or extending any part of the body from
the joints.
LIFTING OR RAISING is elevating a part of the body, usually for the arms and legs.
TWISTING is moving a part of the body around a long axis, usually for the head and body.
ROTATING OR ENCIRCLING is done by moving a part of the body around axis.
SWINGING is a pendular movement below an axis.
SWAYING is a pendular movement above an axis.

Muscular actions of the upper extremities

The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in an animal extending from the deltoid region to
the hand, including the arm, axilla shoulder.
Musculoskeletal system

Shoulder girdle composed of the clavicle and the scapula, connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton through
the sternoclavicular joint (the only joint in the upper limb that directly articulates with the trunk), a ball and socket
joint supported by the subclavius muscle which acts as a dynamic ligament

Shoulder join

The glenohumeral joint (colloquially called the shoulder joint) is the highly mobile ball and socket joint
between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus. Lacking the passive stabilisation
offered by ligaments in other joints, the glenohumeral joint is actively stabilised by the rotator cuff, a group
of short muscles stretching from the scapula to the humerus. Little inferior support is available to the joint
and dislocation of the shoulder almost exclusively occurs in this direction.


The arm proper (brachium), sometimes called the upper arm, the region between the shoulder and the
elbow, is composed of the humerus with the elbow joint at its distal end.

The elbow joint is a complex of three joints the humeroradial, humeroulnar, and superior radioulnar
joints the former two allowing flexion and extension whilst the latter, together with its inferior namesake,
allows supination and pronation at the wrist. Triceps is the major extensor and brachialis and biceps the
major flexors. Biceps is, however, the major supinator and while performing this action it ceases to be an
effective flexor at the elbow.


The forearm (antebrachium), composed of the radius and ulna; the latter is the main distal part of the elbow
joint, while the former composes the main proximal part of the wrist joint


The wrist (carpus) composed of the carpal bones, articulates at the wrist joint (or radiocarpal joint)
proximally and the carpometacarpal joint distally. The wrist can be divided into two components separated
by the midcarpal joints. The small movements of the eight carpal bones during composite movements at
the wrist are complex to describe, but flexion mainly occurs in the midcarpal joint whilst extension mainly
occurs in the radiocarpal joint; the latter joint also providing most of adduction and abduction at the wrist.

The hand (manus) the metacarpals (in the hand proper) and the phalanges of the fingers, form
the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP, including the knuckles) and interphalangeal joints

Neurovascular system

Branches of brachial plexus

The motor and sensory supply of the upper limb is provided by the brachial plexus which is formed by the
ventral rami of spinal nerves C5-T1. In the posterior triangle of the neck these rami form three trunks from
which fibers enter the axilla region (armpit) to innervate the muscles of the anterior and posterior
compartments of the limb. In the axilla, cords are formed to split into branches, including the five terminal
branches listed below. [11] The muscles of the upper limb are innervated segmentally proximal to distal so
that the proximal muscles are innervated by higher segments (C5C6) and the distal muscles are
innervated by lower segments (C8T1). [12]

Motor innervation of upper limb by the five terminal nerves of the brachial plexus:[12]

The musculocutaneous nerve innervates all the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm.

The median nerve innervates all the muscles of the anterior compartment of the
forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris and the ulnar part of the flexor digitorum profundus. It also
innervates the three thenar muscles and the first and second lumbricals.

The ulnar nerve innervates the muscles of the forearm and hand not innervated by the median

The axillary nerve innervates the deltoid and teres minor.

The radial nerve innervates the posterior muscles of the arm and forearm

Collateral branches of the brachial plexus:

The dorsal scapular nerve innervates rhomboid major and minor.

The long thoracic nerve innervates serratus anterior.

The suprascapular nerve innervates supraspinatus and infraspinatus

The lateral pectoral nerve innervates pectoralis major

The medial pectoral nerve innervates pectoralis major and minor

The upper subscapular nerve innervates subscapularis

The thoracodorsal nerve innervates latissimus dorsi

The lower subscapular nerve innervates subscapularis and teres major

The medial brachial cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of medial arm

The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of medial forear

Muscular actions of the lower extremities

The human leg, in the general sense, is the entire lower extremity or limb[1][2] of the human body, including
the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers[3][4][5] only
to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle (called crus in Latin; the posterior of
the crus is the sura).
Legs are used for standing, walking, jumping, running, kicking, and dancing and similar activities, and
constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs generally have greater
hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males.

Muscles of the Hip

There are several ways of classifying the muscles of the hip: (1) By location or innervation (ventral and
dorsal divisions of the plexus layer); (2) by development on the basis of their points of insertion (a posterior
group in two layers and an anterior group); and (3) by function (i.e. extensors, flexors, adductors, and

The muscles of the thigh can be classified into three groups according to their location: anterior and
posterior muscles and the adductors (on the medial side). All the adductors except gracilis insert on the
femur and act on the hip joint, and so functionally qualify as hip muscles. The majority of the thigh muscles,
the "true" thigh muscles, insert on the leg (either the tibia or the fibula) and act primarily on the knee joint.
Generally, the extensors lie on anterior of the thigh and flexors lie on the posterior. Even though the
sartorius flexes the knee, it is ontogenetically considered an extensor since its displacement is secondary.

With the popliteus (see above) as the single exception, all muscles in the leg are attached to the foot and,
based on location, can be classified into an anterior and a posterior group separated from each other by the
tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane. In turn, these two groups can be subdivided into
subgroups or layers the anterior group consists of the extensors and the peroneals, and the posterior
group of a superficial and a deep layer. Functionally, the muscles of the leg are either extensors,
responsible for the dorsiflexion of the foot, or flexors, responsible for the plantar flexion. These muscles can
also classified by innervation, muscles supplied by the anterior subdivision of the plexus and those supplied
by the posterior subdivision.[23] The leg muscles acting on the foot are called the extrinsic foot muscles
whilst the foot muscles located in the foot are called intrinsic.
Dorsiflexion (extension) and plantar flexion occur around the transverse axis running through the ankle joint
from the tip of the medial malleolus to the tip of the lateral malleolus. Pronation (eversion) and supination
(inversion) occur along the oblique axis of the ankle joint. [22]

Three of the anterior muscles are extensors. From its origin on the lateral surface of the tibia and the
interosseus membrane, the three-sided belly of the tibialis anterior extends down below
the superior and inferior extensor retinacula to its insertion on the plantar side of the medial cuneiform
bone and the first metatarsal bone. In the non-weight-bearing leg, the anterior tibialis dorsal flexes the foot
and lifts the medial edge of the foot. In the weight-bearing leg, it pulls the leg towards the foot. The extensor
digitorum longus has a wide origin stretching from the lateral condyle of the tibia down along the anterior
side of the fibula, and the interosseus membrane. At the ankle, the tendon divides into four that stretch
across the foot to the dorsal aponeuroses of the last phalanges of the four lateral toes. In the non-weight-
bearing leg, the muscle extends the digits and dorsiflexes the foot, and in the weight-bearing leg acts
similar to the tibialis anterior. The extensor hallucis longus has its origin on the fibula and the interosseus
membrane between the two other extensors and is, similarly to the extensor digitorum, is inserted on the
last phalanx of big toe ("hallux"). The muscle dorsiflexes the hallux, and acts similar to the tibialis anterior in
the weight-bearing leg.[24] Two muscles on the lateral side of the leg form the peroneal group. The peroneus
longus and brevis both have their origins on the fibula and they both pass behind the lateral
malleolus where their tendons pass under the peroneal retinacula. Under the foot, the longus stretches
from the lateral to the medial side in a groove, thus bracing the transverse arch of the foot. The brevis is
attached on the lateral side to the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal. Together the two peroneals form the
strongest pronators of the foot.[25] The peroneus muscles are highly variable and several variants can
occasionally be present.

The intrinsic muscles of the foot, muscles whose bellies are located in the foot proper, are either dorsal
(top) or plantar (sole). On the dorsal side, two long extrinsic extensor muscles are superficial to the intrinsic
muscles, and their tendons form the dorsal aponeurosis of the toes. The short intrinsic extensors and the
plantar and dorsal interossei radiates into these aponeuroses.

Flexibility can be simply defined as the available range of motion (ROM) provided by a specific joint or
group of joints. For the most part, exercises that increase flexibility are performed with intentions to boost
overall muscle length, reduce the risks of injury and to potentially improve muscular performance
in physical activity.[33] Stretching muscles after engagement in any physical activity can improve muscular
strength, increase flexibility, and reduce muscle soreness.If limited movement is present within a joint, the
insufficient extensibility of the muscle, or muscle group, could be restricting the activity of the affected

Stretching prior to strenuous physical activity has been thought to increase muscular performance by
extending the soft tissue past its attainable length in order to increase range of motion. Many physically
active individuals practice these techniques as a warm-up in order to achieve a certain level of muscular
preparation for specific exercise movements. When stretching, muscles should feel somewhat
uncomfortable but not physically agonizing.

Plantar flexion: One of the most popular lower leg muscle stretches is the step standing heel raises, which
mainly involves the gastrocnemius, soleus, and the Achilles tendon. Standing heel raises allow the
individual to activate their calf muscles by standing on a step with toes and forefoot, leaving the heel
hanging off the step, and plantar flexing the ankle joint by raising the heel. This exercise is easily modified
by holding on to a nearby rail for balance and is generally repeated 5-10 times.
Dorsiflexion: In order to stretch the anterior muscles of the lower leg, crossover shin stretches work well.
This motion will stretch the dorsiflexion muscles, mainly the anterior tibialis, extensor hallucis
longus and extensor digitorum longus, by slowly causing the muscles to lengthen as body weight is leaned
on the ankle joint by using the floor as resistance against the top of the foot. [37] Crossover shin stretches
can vary in intensity depending on the amount of body weight applied on the ankle joint as the individual
bends at the knee. This stretch is typically held for 1530 seconds.
Eversion and inversion: Stretching the eversion and inversion muscles allows for better range of motion
to the ankle joint.[33] Seated ankle elevations and depressions will stretch the peroneus and tibilalis muscles
that are associated with these movements as they lengthen. Eversion muscles are stretched when the
ankle becomes depressed from the starting position. In like manner, the inversion muscles are stretched
when the ankle joint becomes elevated. Throughout this seated stretch, the ankle joint is to remain
supported while depressed and elevated with the ipsilateral (same side) hand in order to sustain the stretch
for 1015 seconds. This stretch will increase overall eversion and inversion muscle group length and
provide more flexibility to the ankle joint for larger range of motion during activity