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sensors.ppt Page 1

Who is Wilcoxon Research?

➤ Started in 1960 by engineers from United
States Navy Research Laboratory
➤ Developed Accelerometers, Impedance
Heads, and Reaction Shakers

Primary sales are to industrial customers
➤ Pulp & Paper
➤ Machine Tool
➤ Power Generation
➤ Petrochemical
➤ Food Processing
➤ Steel & Aluminum

sensors.ppt Page 2

Who is Wilcoxon Research ➤ Early Markets were Naval Engineering and Test for US. and CSI sensors. French.ppt Page 3 . and British Navies ➤ Entered Condition Monitoring in the early 1980’s with Palomar. Scientific Atlanta.

Wilcoxon Research Today ➤ Worlds largest manufacturer of industrial accelerometers ➤ Located in Metropolitan Washington DC along the I 270 Technology Corridor ➤ Approximately 120 employees sensors.ppt Page 4 .

ppt Page 5 . Basic Vibration Sensors Ele c tro dynamic Velocity Trans duc e r Acc e lerome te r Noncontacting Displacement Transducer sensors.

ppt Page 6 . Eddy Current Probe Fabrication sensors.

probe and extension cable ➤ Voltage applied to the Driver causes an RF signal to be generated ➤ Signal is transmitted to the probe by the extension cable ➤ Coil inside probe tip serves as an antenna and radiates high frequency energy into free space ➤ Any conductive material within the field absorbs energy and causes output of probe to decrease proportional to gap distance sensors.ppt Page 7 .How It Works ➤ Three matched components .Driver. Eddy Current Probe .

ppt Page 8 . Eddy Current Probe sensors.

sensors.ppt Page 9 .

0.8 mils Frequency Response 0 to 600.000 CPM (Theoretical) Temperature Range Driver -60 F to +212 F Probe and Cable -30 F to +350 F Relative Humidity to 95% noncondensing sensors. Eddy Current Specifications Calibrated Range 80 mils beginning at approx.ppt Page 10 . 10 mils Scale Factor 200mV/mil over a 80 mil range Linearity 200 mV/mil straight line +/.

Fabrication of Electrodynamic Velocity Sensor ➤ Housing vibrates while the spring-suspended coil remains stationary ➤ Amplitude of the output voltage is proportional to the velocity of the vibration sensors.ppt Page 11 .

Types of Accelerometers ➤ Piezoelectric – Charge mode – Internally amplified ➤ Strain Gauge ➤ Piezoresistive ➤ Variable Capacitance ➤ Others sensors.ppt Page 12 .

Piezoelectric Accelerometers Mo unting ➤ Measures Acceleration Co nn e c to r Am plifie r S c re w P ie zo c e ram ic ➤ Velocity or Displacement S e is m ic Output Available Mas s Co nne c to r Mo unting Bas e ➤ Very Sensitive 2339b ➤ Contacting S e is m ic Ma s s Am plifie r P ie zo c e ra m ic s ➤ Measures Absolute Casing Motion Co nne c to r Mo u nting B as e 23 3 9a ➤ Measures Very Low Frequency Am plifie r P ie zo c e ra m ic s ➤ Measures Very High Mo unting S e is m ic Ma s s Frequency Ba s e 2208a .R1 sensors.ppt Page 13 .

ppt Page 14 .How It Works ➤ Piezoelectric material (sensing element) is placed under load using a mass Co nne c to r ➤ As ‘stack’ vibrates. Piezoelectric Accelerometer . crystal is squeezed or released S e is m ic Ma s s Am plifie r ➤ Charge output is proportional to the force P ie zo c e ram ic s (and acceleration) Mo unting Bas e ➤ Electronics convert charge output into 2339a voltage output sensors.

Operational Range sensors.ppt Page 15 .

01 Displacement Acceleration (g) .0001 .000 Hz .000 60.000 ➤ Very Little Vibration 100 Displacement (mils pp) Amplitude in terms of 10 Acceleration is Produced EU 1.1 ➤ Much Larger Amplitudes Velocity (ips) are produced in terms of .1 1 10 100 1.001 .6 60 600 6. Vibration vs.0 at Low Frequencies (mils pp) (ips) (g) 0.000 cpm FREQUENCY 1607-R1 sensors. Frequency 1.ppt Page 16 .

ppt Page 17 . Eddy Probe Advantages Disadvantages ➤ Low frequency response ➤ Difficult to install (to 0 Hz) ➤ Practical limits of high ➤ Can measure relative frequency displacement displacement measurement ➤ Useful as a key phasor ➤ Calibration dependent for dynamic balancing & on shaft material analysis ➤ Shaft runout / glitch ➤ Reliable if property produces false signals installed and maintained sensors.

ppt Page 18 . Electrodynamic Velocity Transducer Advantages Disadvantages ➤ No external powering ➤ Not useful for very ➤ Powerful signal Output low frequency ➤ Easy to use (not as ➤ Not useful for very sensitive to mounting high frequency problems as alternative) ➤ Moving parts wear ➤ Ability to operate at ➤ Mounting orientation elevated temperatures may be important ➤ Size ➤ Accuracy (resolution / noise as compared to alternatives) sensors.

ppt Page 19 . industrial design sensors. Internally Amplified Accelerometer Advantages Disadvantages ➤ Very wide frequency ➤ Not responsive to 0 Hz ➤ Wide amplitude range ➤ Internal Amplifier ➤ Broad temperature limits temperature range ➤ Velocity or displacement output available ➤ Rugged.

Low Frequency Accelerometer Considerations ➤ High Sensitivity Co nne c to r ➤ Low Noise Am plifie r ➤ Low Pass Filter P ie zo c e ram ic s ➤ Environmental Protection S e is m ic Mas s Mo unting B as e ➤ Overload Protected 2208a .ppt Page 20 .R1 ➤ Resists Thermal transients ➤ Low Strain Sensitivity ➤ Limited Amplitude Range sensors.

ppt Page 21 . 736 732A. Sensitivity Selection 799M 793. 786A 797. 732AT sensors.

Electronic Sensor Noise ➤ Sets the Absolute Measurement Floor ➤ Increases as Frequency Decreases ➤ Dependent on Charge Sensitivity PZT Piezoceramics are very sensitive and must be used for Low Frequency Accelerometers sensors.ppt Page 22 .

500 mV/g 100 mV/g sensors.ppt Page 23 .

11 µg 0.R1 sensors.16 µg 0.ppt Page 24 .560 sec (42.280 sec 2.3 min) Overlapping Measurement Time for Eight (8) Averages Without 320 sec 640 sec 1.7 min) Overlapping 2348a .79 µg 0.056 µg (1 µg/⌦ Hz) Measurement Time 40 sec 80 sec 160 sec 320 sec (5.3 min) Per Data Set Measurement Time for Four (4) Averages Without 160 sec 320 sec 640 sec 1.280 sec (21. Electronic Sensor Noise ➤ Electronic Sensor Noise can be Improved by using more Lines of Resolution ➤ The Cost is greater Measurement Time ➤ Data Acquisition Time = Lines/Fmax Lines of Res olution 400 800 1600 3200 3200 Electronic Spectral Noise of a Low Frequency Sensor 0.

Summary of Concepts Reminder .very little motion in terms of acceleration is produced at low frequencies sensors.ppt Page 25 .

Strain Gage Accelerometers ➤ Metal (wire or foil) strain gages on a beam or diaphragm structure ➤ Measure strain caused by inertial forces on mass ➤ Low sensitivity and/or low natural frequency ➤ Rarely used. being replaced by PR and VC sensors.ppt Page 26 .

ppt Page 27 . Piezoresistive Accelerometers sensors.

ppt Page 28 . Variable Capacitance sensors.

ppt Page 29 . Servo Force Balance sensors.