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MODULE 1

SPOT SPEED STUDIES

1. Tujuan
The main objectives of this lab are to conduct a spot speed study and develop a
cumulative speed distribution curve. The speed survey is to be conducted along a straight
section of road during off-peak hours.

2. Dasar Teori
Spot speed is the speed of the vehicle as it passed a fixed point along a section of the
roadway. Spot speed is determined by measuring the time required for a vehicle to
traverse a specified distance along a road. Spot Speed studies are conducted to draw the
speed distribution curve along a road section. Figure 1 shows the cumulative spot speed
distribution on a roadway.

Figure 1 Example of Cumulative Spot Speed Distribution

In Figure 1, the vertical axis is the percentage of vehicles traveling at or below the posted
speed. In practice, the 85th percentile speed is used in recommending the posted speed to
either increase or decrease, based on several factors. The 50th percentile speed is an
alternative measure of the average speed of travel on the roadway. Thus, the spot speed
data when plotted on a graph indicates the speed characteristics of the roadway section
surveyed.

1
3. Peralatan
a. Speed Gun
b. Stop Watch
c. Measuring Tapes
d. Clipboard

4. Data yang Dibutuhkan


a. Speed (kph)
b. Travel Time (Second)
c. A road section (meter)

5. Prosedur
Basically, there are two methods by which spot speed can be recorded: manually and
automatically.
A. Manual Method
The most commonly used methods are the use of machine recorders, photographic
method and speed radar guns. However, without those fancy equipments, spot speed also
can be recorded manually. The method is explained on the following steps.
Step 1:
A straight section of the road is measured with tape measure. The length of the road
depends on the average speed of traffic at this section.

Figure 2 Example Manual Method Spot Speed Study Layout

2
For this purpose, the observer needs to mark the start and end point of the section. The
recommended trap lengths for manual speed studies are as follows:

Table 1 Recommended Trap Length


Average Speed of Traffic Recommended Trap Length
(Km/H) (meter)
< 40 25
40 - 65 50
> 65 75

Step 2:
When collecting the data, an observer starts and stops the stop watch as the vehicle
enters and departs the starting and ending points of the marked section.
Step 3:

v 24 The observer should be in such a good position so that can


t (s) (km/h) see the upcoming vehicles clearly and can start and end the
3.6 50
5.88 31 stop watch pricisely. Then directly write in the work
6.85 26 34
v sheets.
6.22 t (s)29 (km/h)
Step 4:
4.61 3.46 39 52
6.27 4.42 29 41 A sample size of at least 100-150 cars is required to get a
9.57 11.51 19 16 good distribution and compensate errors in field data
8.83 4.86 20 37
8.94 5.43 20 33 collection.
6.49 3.85 28 47
6.23 4.59 29 39 4.5 40
6. 5.9
Data Percobaan
8.41 3.821 47 31
S = 7.1 4.59 25 39 7 26 50 m = 0.05 Km v = s/t
7.37
5.29 343.49 52 6.1 Arah Masuk UI
5.9
3.2 31
56
7.74
3.1 23
58
5.82
5.3 31
Tabel 8.73
4.86 37
21 1.1 Data Percobaan Pada Motor dengan Arah Masuk UI
12.86
4.59 39
14
5.62
6.32 28
32
6.81
5.36 26 t (s)
34 v
(km/h)
5.51
3.12 58
33
6.66 27
6.72
3.75 48
27
10.85 17
6.43
3.8 47
28
9.56 19
5.91
6.79 27
30
3.55
4.9 51
37
Tabel 1.3 Data Percobaan pada Bis Kuning
4.77
3.95 46
38
dengan Arah Masuk UI
6.64
8.8 20
27
3.91
4.96 36
46
5.89
4.5 40
31
Tabel 1.2 Data Percobaan Pada Mobil dengan Arah Masuk UI
3.44 52
6.2 Arah Keluar UI
7.12 25
6.78 27
v 5.15 35
t (s) (km/h) 7.08 25
4.93 37
4.44 41
6.08 30
4.37 41
5.01 36
6.08 30
5.02 36
5.13 35
5.53 33
6.34 28
7.37 24
5.56 32
3.45 52
4 45
4.4 41
6 30
5.73 31
5.22 34
7.1 25
4.5 40
9.15 20
4.64 39
5.24 34
4.09 44
4.26 42

Tabel 1.4 Data Percobaan Pada Motor dengan Arah Keluar UI

v
t (s) (km/h)
48.76 4
37
88.12 2
6.2 29
5.81 31
4.95 36
5.55 32
7.42 24
5.41 33
7.31 25
6.67 27
5.21 35
6.8 26
5.28 34
4.85
5.57 32
7.48 24
5.62 32
25.56 7
10.4 17
5.55 32
10.64 17
5.94 30
4.88 37
7.53 24v
t (s)
12.1 (km/h)
15
4.38
4.88 41
37
27.55
7.53 247
39.9
12.1 155
10.8 17
37.7 5

Tabel 1.5 Data Percobaan Pada Mobil dengan Arah Keluar UI

Tabel 1.6 Data Percobaan Pada Bis Kuning dengan Arah Keluar UI
7. Pengolahan Data
7.1 Arah Masuk UI
Spot Speed Kum. Kum.
Frekuensi
(km/h) Frekuensi Persentil
16 1 1 3.333333333
17 0 1 3.333333333
18 0 1 3.333333333
19 0 1 3.333333333
20 1 2 6.666666667
21 0 2 6.666666667
22 0 2 6.666666667
23 0 2 6.666666667
24 0 2 6.666666667
25 0 2 6.666666667
26 1 3 10
27 1 4 13.33333333
28 1 5 16.66666667
29 0 5 16.66666667
30 0 5 16.66666667
31 1 6 20
32 0 6 20
33 1 7 23.33333333
34 3 10 33.33333333
35 0 10 33.33333333
36 1 11 36.66666667
37 2 13 43.33333333
38 0 13 43.33333333
39 3 16 53.33333333
40 2 18 60
41 1 19 63.33333333
42 0 19 63.33333333
43 0 19 63.33333333
44 0 19 63.33333333
45 0 19 63.33333333
46 1 20 66.66666667
47 3 23 76.66666667
48 1 24 80
49 0 24 80
50 0 24 80
51 1 25 83.33333333
52 2 27 90
53 0 27 90
54 0 27 90
55 0 27 90
56 1 28 93.33333333
57 0 28 93.33333333
58 2 30 100

Spot
Speed 39.76666
(km/h) 667
38.66
Spot Speed 66666
50% (km/h) 7
Spot Speed
85% (km/h) 51.25
Tabel 1.7 Pengolahan Data Pada Motor dengan Arah Masuk UI
Distribusi SPOT SPEED kumulatif motor arah masuk ui
120

100

80

persentase kumulatif (%) 60

40

20

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70

spot speed (KM/H)

Grafik 1.1 Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Motor Arah Masuk UI

Spot Speed Frekue Kum. Kum.


(Km/h) nsi Frekuensi Persentil
3.333333
14 1 1 333
3.333333
15 0 1 333
3.333333
16 0 1 333
3.333333
17 0 1 333
3.333333
18 0 1 333
6.666666
19 1 2 667
13.33333
20 2 4 333
21 2 6 20
22 0 6 20
23.33333
23 1 7 333
26.66666
24 1 8 667
25 1 9 30
36.66666
26 2 11 667
43.33333
27 2 13 333
28 2 15 50
29 3 18 60
63.33333
30 1 19 333
76.66666
31 4 23 667
32 1 24 80
83.33333
33 1 25 333
83.33333
34 0 25 333
83.33333
35 0 25 333
83.33333
36 0 25 333
86.66666
37 1 26 667
38 1 27 90
93.33333
39 1 28 333
93.33333
40 0 28 333
93.33333
41 0 28 333
93.33333
42 0 28 333
93.33333
43 0 28 333
93.33333
44 0 28 333
93.33333
45 0 28 333
96.66666
46 1 29 667
96.66666
47 0 29 667
96.66666
48 0 29 667
96.66666
49 0 29 667
50 1 30 100

Spot Speed 28.8333


avg 3333
Spot Speed
50% 28
Spot Speed
85% 36.5
Tabel 1.8 Pengolahan Data Pada Mobil dengan Arah Masuk UI

Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif pada Mobil Arah Masuk UI


120

100

80

pERSENTASE KUMULATIF (%) 60

40

20

0
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

spot speed (KM/H)

Spot
Speed Frekue Kum. Kum.
(Km/h) nsi Frekuensi Persentil
33.33333
17 1 1 333
66.66666
19 1 2 667
27 1 3 100

Grafik 1.2 Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Mobil Arah Masuk UI

Spot Speed
avg 21
Spot Speed
50% 18
Spot Speed 23
85% .4

Tabel 1.8 Pengolahan Data Pada Bis Kuning dengan Arah Masuk UI
Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Bis kuning arah masuk ui
120

100

80

Persentase kumuatif (%) 60

40

20

0
16 18 20 22 24 26 28

spot speed (km/h)

Grafik 1.3 Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Bis Kuning Arah Masuk UI
Spot Speed Frekuens Kum. Kum.
(Km/h) i Frekuensi Persentil
20 1 1 3.333333333
21 0 1 3.333333333
22 0 1 3.333333333
23 0 1 3.333333333
24 1 2 6.666666667
25 3 5 16.66666667
26 0 5 16.66666667
27 1 6 20
28 1 7 23.33333333
29 0 7 23.33333333
30 3 10 33.33333333
31 1 11 36.66666667
32 1 12 40
33 1 13 43.33333333
34 2 15 50
35 2 17 56.66666667
36 2 19 63.33333333
37 1 20 66.66666667
38 0 20 66.66666667
39 1 21 70
40 1 22 73.33333333
41 3 25 83.33333333
42 1 26 86.66666667
43 0 26 86.66666667
44 1 27 90
45 1 28 93.33333333
46 0 28 93.33333333
47 0 28 93.33333333
48 0 28 93.33333333
49 0 28 93.33333333
50 0 28 93.33333333
51 0 28 93.33333333
52 2 30 100

Spot Speed 34
avg .8
Spot Speed
50% 34
Spot Speed 41
85% .5

Tabel 1.9 Pengolahan Data Pada Motor dengan Arah Keluar UI

Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Motor Arah Keluar UI


120

100

80

PERSENTASE KUMULATIF (%) 60

40

20

0
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

SPOT SPEED (KM/H)

Grafik 1.4 Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Motor Arah Keluar UI


Spot Frekuensi Kum. Kum.
Speed Frekuensi Persentil
(Km/h)
3.3333333
2 1 1 33
3.3333333
3 0 1 33
6.6666666
4 1 2 67
5 1 3 10
6 0 3 10
13.333333
7 1 4 33
13.333333
8 0 4 33
13.333333
9 0 4 33
13.333333
10 0 4 33
13.333333
11 0 4 33
13.333333
12 0 4 33
13.333333
13 0 4 33
13.333333
14 0 4 33
15 2 6 20
16 0 6 20
17 3 9 30
18 0 9 30
19 0 9 30
20 0 9 30
21 0 9 30
22 0 9 30
23 0 9 30
43.333333
24 4 13 33
46.666666
25 1 14 67
26 1 15 50
53.333333
27 1 16 33
53.333333
28 0 16 33
56.666666
29 1 17 67
30 1 18 60
63.333333
31 1 19 33
76.666666
32 4 23 67
33 1 24 80
83.333333
34 1 25 33
86.666666
35 1 26 67
36 1 27 90
37 3 30 100

Spot
Speed 24.666
avg 66667
Spot
Speed
50% 26
Spot
Speed
85% 34.5

Tabel 1.10 Pengolahan Data Pada Mobil dengan Arah Keluar UI

Distribusi Spot Speed KumIlatif Mobil Arah KeluaR UI


120

100

80

pERSENTASE KUMULATIF (%) 60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

SPOT SPEED (KM/H)

Grafik 1.5 Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Mobil Arah Keluar UI

Spot
Speed Kum. Kum.
(Km/h) Frekuensi Frekuensi Persentil
5 1 1 33.33333333
7 1 2 66.66666667
41 1 3 100

17.666666
Spot Speed avg 67
Spot Speed 50% 6
Spot Speed 85% 25.7
Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Bis Kuning Arah Keluar UI
120

100

80

PERSENTASE KUMULATIF (%) 60

40

20

0
0 5 10 1 5 2 0 25 30 3 5 4 0 45

SPOT SPEED (KM/H)

Grafik 1.6 Distribusi Spot Speed Kumulatif Bis Kuning Arah Keluar UI