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# 04-Jan-16

## Earthquake Engineering Research Centre

International Institute of Information Technology

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includes all primary steel structural members.
- Mechanical equipment
- Electrical equipment
- Instrumentation items
- Storage 20 kN/m2
- Walkway 5 kN/m2
- Access platform 5 kN/m2
- Galley 10 kN/m2 3

Spectrum

Wind spectrum

Complex Fixed
structures structures

Frequency

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Response

Response
Due to turbulence Due to turbulence
gust gust

Time Time

## (a) Short period structures (b) Long period structures

Wind

(Wave and current)

Pile reaction

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## Structure Wind speed Load Dynamic

Smaller elements in Static or
3 s gust
structure dynamic
Structures smaller than 50 m 5 s gust Dynamic
Structures larger than 50 m Total static
15 s gust
1 minute Dynamically
Large super structure (deck)
sustained sensitive
Substructure (jacket) 1 hour Total static Dynamically

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## Calculation of Wind Force:

For strong wind conditions the design wind speed U(z,t) at
height z above sea level and corresponding to an averaging
time period t(s); where t<to, to=3600 s.
t
U( z, t ) = U (z ) 1 0.41 x I u (z ) x ln ft/s

to
Where the 1 hour mean wind speed U(z) at level is given by,
z
; C = 5.73 x 10 (1 + 0.0457 x U o )
-2
U( z) = U o 1 + C x ln
32.8
The turbulence intensity Iu(z) at level z is given by,
0.22
z
I u (z ) = (0.061 + 0.0131U o )
32.8

## Calculation of Wind Force:

Wind drag force on an object should be, Empirical relations based
on regression analysis

## F = 0.5 [U (z, t )]2 C s A

Where,
Source: API RP 2A , Clause 2.3.2
F=wind force
=mass density of air (slug/ft3, 0.0023668 slug/ft3)
U=wind speed (ft/s) Averaging time period plays a major