You are on page 1of 6

04-Jan-16

Loads on Offshore Structures

Earthquake Engineering Research Centre


International Institute of Information Technology
IIIT Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad - 500032

Type of loads:

Gravity loads Accidental loads


- Dead loads - Fire loads
- Live loads - Blast loads
- Fluid loads Seismic loads
Environmental loads Vessel deflection
- Wind loads induced loads

- Wave loads
- Current loads
Inertia loads
Fatigue loads
2

1
04-Jan-16

Gravity loads:

Dead loads include all fixed items in the structures. It


includes all primary steel structural members.
Facility loads:
- Mechanical equipment
- Electrical equipment
- Instrumentation items
Live loads
- Storage 20 kN/m2
- Walkway 5 kN/m2
- Access platform 5 kN/m2
- Galley 10 kN/m2 3

Environmental loads:

Wind loads
Wave loads
Current loads
Spectrum

Wind spectrum
Seismic loads Wave spectrum

Complex Fixed
structures structures

Frequency

2
04-Jan-16

Wind loads:

Response

Response
Due to turbulence Due to turbulence
gust gust

Due to mean wind Due to mean wind

Time Time

(a) Short period structures (b) Long period structures

Load transfer mechanism:


Gravity loads

Wind
loads

Environmental loads
(Wave and current)

Soft soil layer

Hard soil layer


Pile reaction

3
04-Jan-16

Wind averaging period:

Structure Wind speed Load Dynamic


Smaller elements in Static or
3 s gust
structure dynamic
Structures smaller than 50 m 5 s gust Dynamic
Structures larger than 50 m Total static
15 s gust
load
1 minute Dynamically
Large super structure (deck)
sustained sensitive
Substructure (jacket) 1 hour Total static Dynamically
sustained load insensitive

4
04-Jan-16

Calculation of Wind Force:


For strong wind conditions the design wind speed U(z,t) at
height z above sea level and corresponding to an averaging
time period t(s); where t<to, to=3600 s.
t
U( z, t ) = U (z ) 1 0.41 x I u (z ) x ln ft/s

to
Where the 1 hour mean wind speed U(z) at level is given by,
z
; C = 5.73 x 10 (1 + 0.0457 x U o )
-2
U( z) = U o 1 + C x ln
32.8
The turbulence intensity Iu(z) at level z is given by,
0.22
z
I u (z ) = (0.061 + 0.0131U o )
32.8

Where Uo (ft/s) is 1 hr mean wind speed at 32.8 ft. 9

Calculation of Wind Force:


Wind drag force on an object should be, Empirical relations based
on regression analysis

F = 0.5 [U (z, t )]2 C s A


Where,
Source: API RP 2A , Clause 2.3.2
F=wind force
=mass density of air (slug/ft3, 0.0023668 slug/ft3)
U=wind speed (ft/s) Averaging time period plays a major
role in design wind load.
Cs=shape co.efficient
-1 hr average Practice in U.S.A
A=Area of object (ft2) -30, 10, 1 min average
-15, 5, 3 s gust
Practice in INDIA

10

5
04-Jan-16

11