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Scia Engineer

3D Frame Manual

Version: 1.0 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Ltd

GLOBAL CONSTRUCTION
SOFTWARE AND SERVICES

3D Concrete Frame

Contents
General Introduction............................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 2
Launching the program ................................................................................................................... 3
Starting new project........................................................................................................................ 4
Import drawing into the graphical window for modelling.............................................................. 7
4.1 Import DWG/ DXF File............................................................................................................. 7
Create a Slab ................................................................................................................................. 14
5.1 Create a Hole......................................................................................................................... 18
Create Columns ............................................................................................................................. 21
Create Wall.................................................................................................................................... 31
Move/Copy elements.................................................................................................................... 36
Rib ................................................................................................................................................. 42
Connections between entities .................................................................................................. 46
Steel Roof Structure .................................................................................................................. 49
Loading, Load Cases, Load groups and Load Combinations ..................................................... 67
12.1 Input of Load Cases and Load Groups................................................................................... 67
12.2 Loading Input: Concrete........................................................................................................ 71
12.3 Loading Input: Steel Roof .......................................................................................................... 77
12.4 Load Combinations ............................................................................................................... 85
12.5 Result classes ........................................................................................................................ 88
13. Supports .................................................................................................................................... 91
14. Change slab thickness ............................................................................................................... 95
15. Model Data and Element Releases ........................................................................................... 96
16. Mesh Generation and Calculation .......................................................................................... 103
17. Linear calculation .................................................................................................................... 107
18. Results ..................................................................................................................................... 110
18.4 Beam – Internal forces ........................................................................................................ 110
18.5 Beam – Deformation on Beam............................................................................................ 116
18.6 Plate (member 2D) – Deformation of nodes ...................................................................... 118
18.7 Plate (member 2D) – Internal Forces .................................................................................. 120
18.8 Plate (member 2D) – Stresses ............................................................................................. 121
18.9 Bearing Pressure ................................................................................................................. 122
19. Concrete Design ...................................................................................................................... 124

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3D Concrete Frame
19.4 Concrete calculation ........................................................................................................... 124
19.5 1D Member Design ............................................................................................................. 128
19.6 2D Member Design ............................................................................................................. 136
19.7 2D Member Design - Most Common errors....................................................................... 154
19.8 Punching Check ................................................................................................................... 154
19.9 CDD in Scia Engineer ........................................................................................................... 155

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3 storeys with flat slabs. we will model a floor slab on elastic subsoil. basic loadings and combinations. First. This training document is one of a series produced by Computer and Design Services of Arrowsmith Court. Station Approach. Analysis and Design. ribs at the edge of slabs. Broadstone. The focus here lies on the connection of members and plates. 3D Concrete Frame General Introduction This manual aims at introducing the user to the Scia Engineer functionalities regarding 3D Frame Modelling. the user must be acquainted with the basic principles of the Finite Element Method. shear wall. In order to be able to execute the examples in this manual. 1 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . slab opening. so that the interactions between these elements are correctly modelled. At the end of this tutorial we will cover reinforcement design including punching and long term deflection including creep. Dorset BH18 8AX. columns.

we will explain how to create a new project and set-up the structure. the structure will be calculated and the results can be viewed. we will describe the main functions features of Scia Engineer for the input and calculation of a 3D concrete frame building with flat slabs and steel framed roof. First. 3D Concrete Frame Introduction In this tutorial. This tutorial focuses on the features of the Concept Edition for the design of concrete and steel concrete structures. Model Geometry 2 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . After the geometry and load input.

If no protection is found. Then the starting screen of Scia Engineer appears. click [Start] and choose Programs > Scia Engineer . If no icon is installed. 3 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Launching the program To launch the program: double–click on the Scia icon in the Windows Desktop. a dialogue will appear with the limitations of the demo version. You will need a Concept or Higher Edition to complete this tutorial.

The Start Project dialogue box will pop up.Start Project 4 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Starting new project To start new project: 1. Choose New Project Figure 1 .

Figure 2 . 5 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Enter the options as shown in the Project Data Dialogue screen above. 6. 4. Click on the down arrow next to National annex to set a default annex for the project to be BS-EN NA. Choose Analysis [double click] and the Project Data dialogue box will open. This data will be used in the engineering report to compile the calculation pack.Project data 3. Click on the down arrow next to National code to set a default code for the project EC-EN. You may type your own preferences if you like. 3D Concrete Frame 2. Select General XYZ in the Type of Structure group. 5.

3D Concrete Frame
7. The Project Level is set to Advanced so that all possibilities and features are
available.

8. Tick Concrete box. This will allow you to specify the concrete material. Click on the down
arrow next to [Material] to select the default material for this project. Select Concrete C30/37
from the list.

9. Click on the down arrow next to [Reinforcement] and select B500A.

10. Tick Steel box and this will allow you to choose a steel grade for the project. Click on the down
arrow next to [Steel] and select S275.

11. Select OK.

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3D Concrete Frame

Import drawing into the graphical window for
modelling
This tutorial shows you how to model a structure using a non-structural graphical template which is
created from a DWG file. For simplicity a 2D DWG file is used, although the same operation can be
done with a 2D/3D DWG file or DXF file. The non-structural template can be created from a single
2D/3D drawing or extracted from part of a larger model.

Note: Scia Engineer has many optional ways to start modelling. You can use: Revit Link, Direct Input,
Excel Spreadsheet, Rhino Link using XML, Grid Lines 2D/3D Definition, Coordinate Input. For Revit Input
refer to the CADS “Revit Scia Engineer Link” Manual.

4.1 Import DWG/ DXF File
To import the DWG / DXF file;

1. In the [Main], double click Structure to start structural modelling. Main is by default on the
left hand side but this can be moved around if needed.

Figure 3 - Main Menu

2. To import CAD geometry, double click on Modelling/Drawing and then double click Import
DWG, DXF, VRML97.

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3D Concrete Frame

Figure 4 - Structure menu

3. The Open window appears, select DWG as shown below, go to the folder where you save the
DWG file that is supplied as a part of this tutorial, select the DWG and Press [Open].

Figure 5 - Selected DWG file

4. An Import window is displayed. Some parameters need to be adapted before importing the
drawing. These include;

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Only selected layers are shown in the preview window of the Import dialogue. The rest of the options are left as default. It may be necessary when the drawing is not in SI units or is in mm to change the scale. Note: Further information on the options can be found on http://help. Only selected types are shown in the preview window of the Import dialogue.  Entity types This list contains available entity types.  Selection mode Lines will be used in this project.001 in the Scale box.0. The lines may be assigned to particular layers.com/html/Import_into_the_graphical_window.0.0) of the co-ordinate system in Scia Engineer. The drawing is read as lines. The origin of the co-ordinate system of the imported file is placed into the origin (0. m. The default units in Scia Engineer are metres. The DWG is in millimetres. Again. On pressing the "Import" button. the property dialogue is opened and you may specify the required parameters. The default unit can be changed but we will leave it unchanged and work in metres.  Insertion point We will select Origin in 0. 3D Concrete Frame  Layers This list dialogue box contains the layers that were defined in the original DWG file. In this case all Layers will be selected by default so no action is needed. all entity types are selected by default and no action is needed.nemetschek- scia. and therefore we will type in 0.0. Now click on Import All. mm.htm 9 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .  Scale This is the scale used for the import.

Click on the 3 dots next to layer as shown below.Import DWG file menu 5. Since we chose the Line option a Line window box will pop up.Line Import options 6. Figure 7 . 10 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Now press OK. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 6 . A new window Layers will open. Click on New in the left bottom corner and type in GF ACAD.

11 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 8 – Layers 7. After pressing OK. the drawing will be imported into Scia Engineer.

Click File-> Save As. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 9 . 12 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . The latest Scia Engineer has an auto-save option but it is advisable to save the project periodically. Give the file a name and save in your preferred location.Imported DWG Now we can start inserting the analytical model for calculation purposes.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 10 .Saving the file 13 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

7). 3D Concrete Frame Create a Slab From the Structure menu which is still open. For the Type. we chose the name “S1”. The slab of our example has a thickness of 300mm. Next. we can specify the CAD type for this plate. We called it CONCRETE SLAB. we can set the material to C30/37 by clicking on the down arrow next to Material and enter the thickness. The priorities for the CAD types can be adapted below Setup > Beam types (Structural) >.e. GA drawings tool or to be used for Steel Connection design as it assigns a trimming priority i. 14 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .Input Plane 2D Member In the dialogue that appears we can enter miscellaneous parameters for the plate. Figure 11 . you can assign a unique name to the plate. double click on 2D member and select the Plate option by double clicking. The 2D member window will open. You can change a layer by clicking on the three dots next to Layer as we did before and create a new layer as before (see Fig. which member is supported and which is supporting. In order to easily select a plate in a large structure. This is only relevant if Scia Engineer is used to create a Structural Model View. Press OK and the program will automatically ask for the starting point of the new element. In this example.

therefore click on Existing Polygon / Polyline . Rectangular or Arbitrary outline and are shown below. the additional options below are activated just under the command line and with these options. Figure 12 . You may have slightly different node numberings but this is ok. To display the node numbers select the icon as below . To end the command. The alternative way to end a command is to press ESC.Select Slab Polyline Scia Engineer will now say report in the command line: “New 2D Member – Select closed polygon or polyline>”. select the slab edge polyline (shown in Figure13). 3D Concrete Frame By default. right mouse click and select [ END]. a slab of arbitrary form can be entered. We need to end the command. The options are: Existing Polygon / Polyline. Circular. Once you are happy with the model you can untick again. Similarly to display rendered surface press the options as below . 15 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . In this example the slab edge line is drawn as a polyline.

Now the imported DXF will disappear.Fast Adjustment of View Parameters Figure 14 . 3D Concrete Frame Note: You can switch the drawings ON/OFF by clicking on Fast Adjustment of View Parameters on whole model. See Figure 14 below.Turn ON/OFF imported drawings 16 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Go to Modelling/Drawing and untick Lines. To turn it back ON just tick the option back ON. Figure 13 .

Figure 16 . several options can be checked to display the Local Axes system of the slab.Node Numbering/Slab Geometry In View> Set View Parameters> Set View Parameters for all. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 15 . Node Labels or Slab Member Label.View Parameters settings 17 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

Figure 17 . Double click Opening to define one. From the View toolbar select View Z to work in plan view.1 Create a Hole First let us adjust the structure. 3D Concrete Frame 5.2D member opening 18 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .Adjust View Then go to Structure / 2D member / 2D Member components / Opening. Figure 18 .

So. select [New Rectangle] from the [Command Line]. Click on opposite corners of the rectangle of the DWG as shown below. 19 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .Press OK to define opening Press [OK]. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 19 . The quickest way for creating a rectangular opening is to specify it’s diagonal end points.

Create Opening Note: You can render surface as before if you would like to check the opening. Figure 21 . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 20 .Slab with opening 20 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

double click on 1D member/ and choose to define the columns. The Cross-section window opens. Figure 22 . Double click on Column and the Cross-Sections manager opens.New Cross Section Dialogue Box Select the rectangular section and press Add. From the Structure menu. First. 21 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Create Columns 1. we need to define the column cross section.

Enter 400mm for height H and 400mm for width B. The rest will be left as default and we will use C30/37 concrete. you can change the properties of the rectangular section. 22 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . In this window. Click [Add] one more time and type in 500 for H and 400 for B as shown below. 3. the profile is added to the Items in Project group. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 23 – Cross-Section Input 2. Click [OK] to confirm. 4.

We will change the layers by clicking on the Three Dots next to Layers and create a CONCRETE COLUMNS layer as before. 6. the profile is added to the Items in Project group. Column window opens up. 23 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Now select 400x 400 Column and click Close. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 24 – Cross-Section Size 5. Click [OK] to confirm.

Layers 7. Figure 26 – Column Options 24 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 25 . Set the layer to CONCRETE COLUMNS.0m and the Insertion Point is set to Bottom. Length will be changed to 3. Click OK. 8.

Next. Please click on Snap Mode (by default in the bottom right corner shown below). you will be asked in the command line for an insertion point. 25 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Pick the points as shown below and in that order. Figure 27 – 400 x 400 Column Insertion Note: you may need to change the Snap Mode options to make sure you can select midpoints to. 3D Concrete Frame 9. Click OK. 10.

This will open a new window called Cursor snap setting. Please tick the midpoints and intersections option. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 28 – Snap mode setting 11. 26 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Figure 29 – Snap Mode 12. The Column window will pop up. 14. Once all the columns have been input as shown in Figure 28 press ESC to end the command and ESC again to deselect all the inserted elements. Now start selecting the 400x400 columns as described above. Change the CrossSection to 500x400 Column as shown below and the rest is left as defaults. ESC finishes all the commands. Now double click Column again on the left side of the Structure menu as before to insert the 500x400 Column. Press OK. 13. 27 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

28 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Press ESC to end the command and ESC again to deselect the inserted element. Figure 31 – RC Column Insertion point 15. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 30 – Column Options Press OK and select the midpoint as shown below.

Change the Cross-Section by clicking on the 3 dots. Figure 32 – New Cross-Section Input 17. The last columns to add will be a steel post hidden in the balcony frame. Now place the column at the location shown below. Click on New and choose Profile Library. 29 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Double click Column again on the left side of the Structure menu as before to insert the RHS post. 3D Concrete Frame 16. The Column window will pop up. Select Add and OK.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 33 – RHS insertion point Now you should have structure like below. Figure 34 – 3D Wall 30 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

Figure 35 – Wall Options 31 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Create Wall 1. double click 2D member/ to define the wall properties. From the Structure menu.

3D Concrete Frame In the section Thickness (mm) field enter 200. In the Points on line curve – length type in 0. Layer – press the [Three dot] button to create a new Layer Shear Walls. 2. we will utilise the DWG we imported. Wall length is 3000mm. See figure below. repeat 1 and both start points. Pick up three edges of the opening as shown below. 32 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Confirm your input with the [OK] button.440 for length. The last step is to go back to Snap Mode. Figure 36 – Shear Wall Input 4. Confirm with [OK]. 3. The insertion position is by default set to Bottom. To do so we will use an option called Select Line which can be found at the bottom of Scia near the command line shown below. To input the walls.

Now double click on Wall again as before. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 37 – Snap modes Say OK. Figure 38 – Shear Walls 33 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Click on both corners of the shaft to finish the Shear Walls. See below.

We will add one more wall. Double click Wall again and accept the defaults using 200mm THK wall. Figure 40 – Line to be selected to draw the wall Now you will have a structure like below. Now you have finished one floor you will have a structure as below. 3D Concrete Frame 5. 34 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Figure 39 – 3D model 6.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 41 – 3D Model 35 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Move/Copy elements First switch the AutoCAD layer off. Press [Close]. 4. Select GF CAD and Untick “Current used activity”. 2. A pop up window as below will come up. Please say YES. 36 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3. 1. Select Layers from the project Menu. We do not need it anymore.

3D Concrete Frame Note: The other way to quickly turn OFF the drawings is to select fast adjustment of view parameters on whole project. columns and shear walls including all the data: 5. Figure 42 – Y direction view 37 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Put the model in Y View ( or X View depending on your preference) . To copy the slab. then select Modelling/Drawing and untick the option Lines.

Click in the working area and select all the elements by right to left rectangle. Select all the elements by windowing around them. o Number of Copies=2. o Untick define distance by cursor. 3D Concrete Frame 6. 38 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . o Type in 3m in the z-direction. Figure 43 – MultiCopy option Now you will have a frame as shown below. Now go to Modify->MultiCopy. 7. o Press OK.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 44 – 3D model Select one of the Slabs and copy it to the 3rd Floor. Select the 2nd floor level Slab and right mouse click and choose Copy. You can use the same as with columns by going to Modify->Copy (this depends on your preference). 39 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Figure 45 . Figure 46 – Starting Point And End point will be the top of the same column.Copy The starting point: Choose the bottom of the column on the 2nd floor. A pop up window will come up as below: 40 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Select YES. Figure 47 – 3D structure 41 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . You will now have a structure as below which is nearly finished concrete 3D structure but in this tutorial we will add some additional features like downstands.

Select 42 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Create a new layer by clicking on the 3 dots next to Layer as already explained previously and create a new layer called CONCRETE RIBS. forces 4. 3D Concrete Frame Rib In this example we will use the Rib option to define a down-stand beam. Figure 48 – Rib Input Rib is input as an Edge beam with Effective Slab width for int. To insert a rib go to: Structure / 2D Member / 2D member components / Rib.2/2 =2. you'll see the internal forces in the T-beam. When viewing the member internal forces with the option 'Rib' activated. Select the 3rd Floor Slab as master and we will use the same cross-section as for columns 400x400 RC downstand. The part of the slab (specified with the acting width) and the 1D member are replaced by a T-beam and the internal forces are shown with respect to the centroid of the T-beam. Note: The shape of the rib could have been changed to slab right instead and the width set to ½ of the value used instead.1m and for check 400mm. Press [OK]. This will create L-beam as edge beam.

Figure 49 – Rib Insert Points In Scia Engineer 2015. 43 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . The Start/End points are shown in the figure below. you will see the effective width of the rib used for internal forces calculation. 3D Concrete Frame You will be asked for a Start point in the Command Line.

Figure 50 – Effective width of Edge beam 44 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Follow the same steps to create a downstand on the 2nd floor and 1st floor.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 51 – 3D model Press ESC to end the command and ESC again to deselect all members. 45 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

all connections are rigid unless specified otherwise.  A new window will open up called Setup for connection of structural entities.  Tick the option Check (merge duplicate nodes.  Press ESC twice just to make sure no elements are selected otherwise only the selected elements will be connected. When working in a General XYZ environment which we set at the start of the project. erase invalid entities) and leave the rest as defaults. via the ‘Geometry manipulations’ toolbar or you can go to Modify->Connect members/nodes.  Connect members/nodes. 3D Concrete Frame Connections between entities It is good practice to run the Connect members/nodes command once the model is finished and ready to be calculated. or Structure >Model data> Connect members/nodes. 46 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .  Say YES to the below pop up window.

47 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 52 – Connect members and nodes Press [OK]. A new pop up window will appear as we ticked the additional check called Check of structure data. Press OK. You will get a message as below ( or similar). Accept the defaults and select Check.

48 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 53 – Check of Data Press OK when the below message pops up.

From the Main menu (on the left hand side of the menu area) double click on Line Grid and storeys. A new window will pop up called 3D Line Grid. 3D Concrete Frame Steel Roof Structure The roof structure will be inserted using Grid Lines just to illustrate a different way of modelling. Double click on 3D Line Grid. 49 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Figure 54 – Main Menu 1. Type the values as shown in Figure below.

50 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Now press OK twice. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 55 – Grid Definition 2. You will now be asked to Enter Point in the command line.

Now you will see a model like below. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 56 – Grid Insertion Point 3. 51 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

5. Press ESC twice. In order to snap to grid lines we need to go back to Snap Mode as described before and tick Line Grid. 52 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 57 – Grid Inserted 4. Choose Close to return to Main. Now we are ready to input the steel structure using the 3D Grid Lines.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 58 – Snap Mode Press OK. Select Y direction by clicking the option below and window around as shown. Figure 59 – Activity by Selection 53 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . We will then isolate this part.

a) Select Shear Walls of the isolated floor. Click on New. Now we will place the steel on the top. c) As a Start Point pick the bottom node and as an End Point select the node just above it to copy the walls vertically. Click on the 3 dots next to CrossSection to create a new steel cross-section. Figure 60 – Walls Selected b) Go to Modify-> Copy. Go to 1D Member-> Column (double click). Select Profile Library-> UKC-> 152/152/37 and select ADD. 10. 3D Concrete Frame 6. 8. 9. 7. 54 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . A new cross-section window will pop out. Go to Structure in the Main Menu. First we will copy the shear walls up by one level. Now rotate the model to make it easier to input the steel roof by holding down CTRL + RIGHT MOUSE CLICK. Now move with the mouse and the model will rotate.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 61 – New Cross Section Input 11. 55 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 12. Press Close. Select the Steel section and press OK.

8m. 56 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Insertion point set to Bottom. Create a new layer called Steel and set Length to be 2. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 62 – Cross Sections 13. A Column window will pop up.

See Figure below for the location using grid lines snap points and midpoints at 2 instances. Press OK and start inserting the columns. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 63 – Column Input 14. 57 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame

Figure 64 – Key Plan

15. Press ESC twice.
16. Now select Member and connect the columns using the same section 152UKC37 from node
to node as shown in the figure above and connecting it to the shear wall. Part of the roof will
be left to cantilever.

The last thing is to modify the vertical co-ordinates of the shear wall at the roof level. This is because
we copied the shear walls and they were 3m high but the roof is modelled at 2.8m. To do this rotate
the model into Y-Direction as before. Window around the top nodes (from left corner to right) and in
the Properties dialogue you can change the nodal Z co-ordinate to 11.8 to drop the level by 200mm.

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3D Concrete Frame

Figure 65 – Y-View

Press TAB on your keyboard and the wall coordinates will change.
You will now see a model like below.

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3D Concrete Frame

Figure 66 – 3D model

The roof needs to have some bracing system to transfer lateral forces. For this we will create a new
cross-section. Click on Libraries and select Cross – Sections.

Figure 67 – Cross-Sections

60 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

Select L and choose 100/100/10 UKAEA as below. 3D Concrete Frame A new window will pop up. Click New. Change the name to UKA 100/100/10 and select OK followed by Close and Close again. Figure 68 – New Cross-Section Click ADD. 61 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

62 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Now window around the steel frame and click Activity by selection ( Selected members On). 3D Concrete Frame Figure 69 – Cross-Section input Put the view into Y direction as before by clicking on the below option. This way you will isolate the roof structure. You can now rotate the model by holding down CTRL + right mouse click.

3D Concrete Frame Go to Structure-> 1D Member-> Member and double click on it. 63 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Model the bracing by picking end nodes so you will have a system like below. Change FEM type to axial only. Now press OK. Figure 70 – New Member Now you will be asked to select a Start Point. From Cross-Section choose UKA100/100/10 and create a new layer as before called Bracing.

As the bracing system was shown already we will “portalise” some of the frames in the Y.direction. The last thing to do is to select all the slabs and delete the opening at the raft level and copy an opening to the 3rd floor. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 71 – Bracing System It may be a good idea to either brace or create an additional horizontal restraint at the roof level. Press Activity On/Off and you will see the whole structure again. 64 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Figure 72 – Modifying model instructions Press ESC twice. 65 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Select the “opening” at raft level as below and press DEL on your keyboard and say OK to the message that will pop up. The opening will be deleted.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 73 – Selected Opening 66 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

In an exclusive group. etc) Permanent LG 1 Imposed Load Imposed load Variable LG 2 Wind E-W Wind East-West Direction Variable LG 3 Wind N-S Wind North-South Direction Variable LG 3 12.1 Input of Load Cases and Load Groups 1. you must first enter load cases. 3D Concrete Frame Loading. the different loads attributed to the group cannot act together in a combination. together or exclusive. In this project. Load groups and Load Combinations Each load is attributed to a load case. The definition of each of the load cases is important as it is used by the automatic combination generator. 2. Load Cases. The load group further defines the variable load case as either default. For default combinations on the other hand. no load cases being defined yet. five load cases are entered: Name Description Type Load group Self-weight Self-weight of the Structure Self-weight LG 1 Dead Load Dead Load (Ceiling. 67 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Before you can define loads. Each variable load case has a further category of load group. The action type of a load case can be permanent or variable. the combination generator allows the simultaneous action of the loads of a same group. It is recommended that a thorough study is made of the chapter in the reference manual before proceeding with a design project. finishes. thus the Load Case data dialogue box automatically appear. As in this tutorial. A load case can contain different load types. Double-click Load in the Main Window.

At the side. Click [OK] to confirm. Repeat steps 2-3 entering Imposed Load for the Name and Variable for the Type of load case. Click [OK] to confirm. Enter the data as shown above and click [OK] to confirm. 68 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Repeat steps 2-3 entering Dead Load for the Name and Permanent for the Type of load case. 5. the actual load case is given. 4. 3D Concrete Frame 3.

click on the [Three Dots] button to open the Load Group dialogue box. 69 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame 6. To add a variable loads group.

10. Repeat steps 2-3 to create a new load case Wind N-S. Select the Exclusive button to prevent the load case from this group being put in the same load combination. from the variable loads group). 3D Concrete Frame 7. the Load cases data dialogue box is active again and the variable load group is added. Repeat steps 6-8 entering Wind in Group specification and choose W-wind load for EC-load type. Variable type and put it in the Wind variable group (select Wind Excl. 70 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Enter the data as shown above and click [OK} to confirm. Click [OK] to confirm. The Load groups dialogue box disappears. 9. 8. Repeat step 2-3 entering Wind E-W Load for the Name and Variable for the Type of load case.

Choose Dead Load. 3D Concrete Frame 11. 2.2 Loading Input: Concrete 1. Press [CLOSE] to close the Load case data dialogue box. 71 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Open Load Menu. 12.

Surface Load 72 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Double click on Surface load > on 2D member in the Load menu.Load Menu 3. A Surface force dialogue box appears where a 2D load of -2. Figure 75 .5 kN/m² in Global Z direction is entered on the full surface of the slab. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 74 .

7. if it’s only one slab in the project. However. 73 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Click [OK] to confirm. 5. Repeat steps 1-2 entering a load of -3 kN/m² in Global Z direction. Select the slabs by clicking on their boundaries. Click [OK] to confirm. select LC3 Imposed Load.Dead Load 6. 8. the load will be automatically applied on this slab. In the Load Menu. 3D Concrete Frame 4. Figure 76 .

Double click on Line Force > 2D Member Edge in the Load Menu. select Wind E-W Load. The Line force on 2D member Edge dialogue box appears where a 2D load of 3.Imposed Load 9. 10.0 kN/m in Global X direction is entered at the edge of the slab. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 77 . In the Load Menu. 74 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Figure 78 – Line force 11. Figure 79 . Select slab boundaries as shown below.Wind Load (E-W) 75 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

13.0 kN/m in Global Y direction is entered at the edge of the slab. A Line force on 2D member Edge dialogue box appears where a 2D load of 3. 3D Concrete Frame 12. In the Load Menu. select Wind N-S Load.Wind Load (N-S) 76 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Double click on Line Force > 2D Member Edge in the Load Menu. Figure 80 – Line Force Figure 81 .

hinged link with beams. 77 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame You may have multi-copied everything at this stage instead but for the purpose of this tutorial we decided to show you how to choose surfaces to apply loads manually. Change the Load Transfer method to Accurate (FEM). For the purpose of this tutorial we will only consider wind in two orthogonal directions.3 Loading Input: Steel Roof The Steel Roof vertical loads will be applied using load panels. Change the Load transfer direction to X (LCS panel). A new window will pop up called Panel. Go to Structure-> Load Panel-> Load to panel edges and beams. Loads can be copied by Selecting the Load >Right mouse click in workspace> Select Copy add data. Note. 2. Figure 82 – Copy Add data 12. 1.

Press OK. Now you will be asked for a start point. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 83 – Panel Input 3. 78 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Once you have picked point 4 press ESC twice. See the points below. 4.

Now we double click on Load to panel edges and beam again to add further load panels. 79 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Each time you finish an area you can press ESC and continue inputting load panels. You will end up with panels like below. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 84 – Insertion Point 5. Place the rest of the load panels.

Panels 6.0 kN/m2 . Go to Dead Load and input surface load-> on 2D member. Value is -1. Open Load again. 7. 80 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 85 .

75kN/m2. Now switch the load to Imposed Load as we did for concrete and input . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 86 – Surface Load 8. 9. Press OK and select all the panels. 81 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 0.

50kN/m. 82 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . The wind load on the steel roof frame will be applied using Line Force-> on beam. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 87 – 3D view 10. Change the Direction to Z and Value to 1. Switch to Wind E-W.

Press OK. Select the beams as below. 83 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 88 – Line Force 11.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 89 – Line Force input 12. Pick the beams below.5kN/m. Apply the same as before but change the Value to -1. 84 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Switch to Wind N-S.

Linear .serviceability This combination defines a base for the automatic generation of serviceability combinations.4 Load Combinations The background of code combinations in Scia Engineer: Scia Engineer offers the following types of combinations.serviceability This combination defines one particular user-specified serviceability combination. Envelope . 85 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 12.ultimate This combination defines a base for the automatic generation of ultimate combinations. Code dependent combinations According to the active code set for the project the program may offer a set of other combinations based on the particular Design Code.ultimate This combination defines one particular user-specified ultimate combination. Envelope . Linear . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 90 – Line Force Input You can now close the Load.

The user has to input Partial Safety Factors manually. Figure 91 – Combinations Exploded 3. Click Ok. Usually. A code-related combination is an extension of the envelope. 2. Combinations-> Combinations (double click) and click Add All. You will not be able to change this and Scia will automatically assign safety factors. Scia Engineer will automatically assign partial safety factors. Once again. more than one linear combination can be generated from the envelope. This is the same for linear combinations. 86 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . code related combinations). Click Ok. 1. You can click on Explode to linear. This way you will see what combinations Scia Engineer uses for calculation (delete the exploded combinations once you happy with what Scia Engineer does in the background). 3D Concrete Frame An envelope contains all the load cases specified by the user and combined in all possible ways according to defined Action type. Load type. We will use this combination type in this tutorial. all the load cases specified by the user are combined in all possible ways according to specified Action type. You will see that all the factors are “Greyed Out” and set to 1. Change the name to ULS and Type to EN-ULS (STR/GEO) Set B. Load type and Load group of individual load cases inserted into the combination. To insert the combinations (here we insert. Go to Load cases.0. Load group of individual load cases and with respect to regulations of the particular Design Code. Click on New and change the Name to SLS and type to EN-SLS Characteristic.

The default combination set used in Scia Engineer is 6. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 92 . Change the Values to 6.10. A new window will pop up called Manager for National Annexes. We will change this. 4. Click on the 3 dots next to National Annex. 87 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .Combinations Now you have both ULS and SLS set up so click Close.10b.10a & 6. Go to Main-> Project. Click on the 3 dots next to EN1990 (Basis of structural design).

12. The program then treats the class like an envelope of results. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 93 – Setup Manager Press OK-> Close-> OK. To insert result classes. They allow the user to define a set (a class) of results for selected load cases and load case combinations. 88 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .5 Result classes The last step is to set up Result Classes. Result classes represent a very powerful and useful tool for the evaluation of results.

3D Concrete Frame 1. In the Name type in ULS+SLS and add an Ultimate Combination and Serviceability combination by clicking on it and selecting Add. Go to Load cases. 89 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Figure 94 – Result Classes Select OK and Close. Combinations-> Result Classes and double click.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 95 – Setup Manager 90 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

91 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . We will treat the ground floor as a raft. The analysis of a raft foundation requires the input of the soil stiffness. Supports After the geometry input has finished.foundation). One way to do this using a finite element plate as the slab is to assign the supporting surface with soil stiffness parameters. we will input supports. 1. 3. Click on the three dots next to Suboils. Figure 96 – Project Data 2. Now in Structure-> Model Data-> Support double click on surface (el. C values also called “modulus of subgrade reaction”. 3D Concrete Frame 13. Go to Main-> Project-> Functionality and tick the option Suboil and press OK.

92 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 97 – Surface support 4. In this project we will use 12 000kN/m^3 (12MN/m3) as C1z assuming clayey soil condition. We need to set the correct C1z which is the vertical modulus of subgrade reaction.

C2.e. this parameter represents the interaction due to shear action among the spring elements. With this extra parameter the displacement of the model can be more realistic compared to the one parameter model. i. Press OK and select the ground floor slab. 93 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . using just C1. This feature is not available in the Concept Edition. Physically. This model is also known as a two parameter model because it takes another term into account. 5. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 98 – Subgrade Reactions Scia Engineer uses the Pasternak foundation model. In this model the springs are coupled with one another.

3D Concrete Frame

Figure 99 - Raft

94 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

3D Concrete Frame

14. Change slab thickness

Select the Raft and change the thickness to 350mm leaving the slabs at 300mm.

Figure 100 – Change of thickness

95 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

3D Concrete Frame

15. Model Data and Element Releases
The core and frame action using downstands will be used for stability. Select one Column and then in
the properties highlight Type and click on Select elements by property.

1. All Columns will now be selected. In Properties, change FEM Type to Axial Only.

Figure 101 – Axial Only Columns

2. Select the below 11 columns and change it back to Standard as these columns will be
connected rigidly to the edge beams. 6 concrete beams to provide stability in the X-direction
and work with the core and 2 steel columns to create a portalised frame providing stability in

96 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

A new window will pop up that allows you to apply releases on members. 97 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . The last 3 steel columns are part of a frame picking up the cantilever roof beams. Select All the bracings UKA 100/100/10 and make them Axial Force only too. Go to Structure-> Model Data-> Hinge on Beam and double click. Figure 103 – Axial Only Bracing 4. Figure 102 – Stability Frame 3. Apply hinges as per below plan view. 3D Concrete Frame the Y-direction and work with the core to provide roof stability. Now we will apply releases to make some of the roof beams simply supported.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 104 – Hinge On Beam 98 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Figure 105 – Hinge Key Plan The below beams will remain fully fixed as one part works as a cantilever and the other is a portalised frame. Figure 106 – Fixed end beams 99 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

we need to select the below 5 columns which we changed to Standard and apply a hinge at the bottom of these so we do not transfer any moment in the slab below. Figure 108 – Activity by Selection 100 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Select Hinge on beam and choose Begin position and select all 5 columns as below. Select all the slabs and click on Activity by Selection. 3D Concrete Frame We only want to design a moment connection at the top of the columns. Figure 107 – Hinge Modification At the moment there is a moment transfer between the wall and slabs.

Go to Structure-> Model Data-> Hinge on 2D member edge. Figure 109 – Hinge on 2D member edge 101 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame This way you will only see the slabs and you can apply hinges around the opening easier.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 110 – Applied Hinges 102 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame

16. Mesh Generation and Calculation
To set up the Finite Element mesh go to Setup >Mesh->Mesh setup will open and change the Average
size of 2D element/curved element to 0.4m. Click OK.
The basic rule for the size of 2D mesh elements: take 1 to 2 times the thickness of the plates in the
project if the mesh is defined manually. Scia Engineer 14 onwards has AMR (Automatic Mesh
Refinement) that will generate the mesh automatically but it is not explained here.

Figure 111 – Mesh Setup

The adopted mesh size for 2D members is valid for the entire model.

To refine the mesh locally around a specific node, 2D member edge or on a surface go to Calculation,
Mesh > Local mesh refinement. That way for example, a coarse distribution can be adopted on the
global structure and a more refined mesh for a specific 2D element.

The mesh is generated through Mesh generation in the Structure menu tree. To display the
mesh, this option must be activated in the View parameters setting:

To generate the mesh go to Calculation, mesh > Mesh generation

103 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

3D Concrete Frame

To display the mesh go to View parameters > Structure > Mesh.

Figure 112 – Quick View Adjustment

Or View > Set View > Set View Parameters for all > Structure > Mesh >Draw Mesh.

104 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

3D Concrete Frame

Figure 113 – View Parameters Setting

105 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited

3D Concrete Frame Figure 114 – Meshed Structure N. 106 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Scia Engineer 2014 and higher has automatic mesh refinement (Adaptive Mesh Refinement). This is not covered in this tutorial.B. Please refer to FAQ Automatic Mesh Refinement.

next open the Calculation item. In the main menu open the item Calculation. the program will automatically generate the mesh before starting the calculation. Say OK to the below and then Check. Linear calculation After refinement and generation of the mesh. Figure 115 – Connect members and nodes Now you are ready to run the calculations. If the mesh hasn’t been generated yet. Before any calculation is carried out it is advisable to go to Modify-> Connect members/nodes and say YES to the message that will pop up. 3D Concrete Frame 17. 107 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 1. mesh. you can start the linear calculation.

After the calculation. The window FE analysis appears. Click [OK] to close this window. 3. 3D Concrete Frame 2. Click [OK] to start the calculation. a dialogue appears to announce that the calculation is finished and the maximum deformation and rotation for the normative load case is shown. 108 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame 109 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

The results Menu becomes available only after running the calculations. The options in the Properties Window are configured in the following way: • The Selection field is set to All. 2. For further information please refer to the FAQ called “1-D Member vs Rib option in Scia Engineer. In the [Results] menu Main > Results. • The Values are wanted for My. • Tick the option Rib/Integration strip. N. 3D Concrete Frame 18. 110 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . open the Beams group and select Internal forces on beams.4 Beam – Internal forces 1. Results 18. • The Extreme field is changed to Global.B. • The Load type is set to Combinations and Combination to ULS.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 116 – Internal Forces Properties 3. Click on Refresh to display the results on the graphical screen in accordance with the set options. 111 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Please bear in mind that since the option Rib/Integration Strip is ticked you will see that the Edge beams act as a T-beam and you will see a bending moment integrated from the slab.

membrane force in the slab multiplied with the distance between the centre plane of the slab and centroid of the T-beam Figure 117 – BMD Frames Shear Force: change the values in properties to Vz and press Refresh 112 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame The moment in the T-beam consists of 4 components: . .moment in the slab .moment in the rectangular 1D member .normal force in the 1D member multiplied with the distance between the centroid of the rectangular member and centroid of the T-beam.

Click the Preview option to show tabulated results of internal forces on beam. 113 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 118 – SFD Frames Axial Force. change the values to N and click Refresh Figure 119 – Axial Forces 4.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 120 – Internal Forces Figure 121 – BMD 114 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

BMD: ROOF 115 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Select the roof only and click on Activity by Selection (Selected members On). Figure 122 – Activity by Selection Now in the results Beams-> Internal forces on beams change the Extreme to Member and click Refresh. We would like to investigate the bending moments at the roof level. Figure 123 . 3D Concrete Frame From the above you can see that the frame has the biggest moment.

• The Extreme field is changed to Global. 116 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . open the Beams group and select Deformation on Beam. 3D Concrete Frame The bending moment looks as expected. • The Values are wanted for Deformed Structure. You can check all the forces in a similar manner for example Axial Forces in the bracing system by changing the values to N and selecting only bracings. The options in the Properties Window are configured in the following way: • The Selection field is set to All. • The Load type is set to Combinations and Combination to SLS.5 Beam – Deformation on Beam In the [Results] menu. Figure 124 .AXIAL: BRACING 18.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 125 – Deflected Shape You can check translation and rotation in each direction separately if needed by changing the values in the Properties. Figure 126 . Click on the Preview.Deflection Another way of looking at the results is to use either: 117 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

open the 2D Members group and select Displacement of nodes. Figure 127 – 3D Displacement Or Displacement of Nodes. 3D Concrete Frame 3D Displacement as shown below.6 Plate (member 2D) – Deformation of nodes 1. Figure 128 – Displacement of Nodes 18. 118 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . In the Results menu.

Figure 129 2D Displacements 119 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame 2. you can view the deformations of the floor slab. Set the options as below in the properties and click Refresh. The user can choose to view various results types. Look at both Minimum/Maximum Envelope. In the Properties menu below.

This time select the 1st floor slab and in the Properties change the Selection to Current. Click Refresh and have a look at mx and my. You will see that with the Ribs option ticked. Scia Engineer has mxy too and the internal forces use transformation by Bauman to convert into Design moments top and bottom. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 130 – 2D Displacements 18. When validating the results you may need to look at maximum/minimum. select Member 2D – Internal Forces and in the Properties menu. the bending moment in the slab is 0 as the moment would be shown if you look at Beams-> Internal Forces on beam and ticking Rib. Tick the Rib option and look at the forces. 120 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . you can view the internal forces.7 Plate (member 2D) – Internal Forces In the Results menu.

check Maximum and Minimum values. Again. The top and bottom are determined by the orientation of the local Z-axis. select Member 2D – Stresses and in the Properties menu. with +ve representing the top of the slab and –ve representing the bottom. You can choose the value to be shown. you can view the stresses. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 131 – Internal Forces on Slab 18.8 Plate (member 2D) – Stresses In the Results menu. Figure 132 – 2D Stresses 121 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

122 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .Contact stresses.9 Bearing Pressure Go to Results-> Member 2D. Go to Setup-> Units-> Loads/Results and here change the units of Stress to kN/m^2. 18. 3D Concrete Frame You can check the wall stress for the Wind load case to see tension and compression stress. • The Extreme field is changed to Global. • The Load type is set to Combinations and Combination to SLS. Figure 133 – Shear Wall Streses Note: In 1D & 2D members: Positive value = Tension & Negative value = Compression. This time try to use the 3D Stress as shown below. • The Values are wanted for Sigmaz. The options in the Properties Window are configured in the following way: • The Selection field is set to All.

the maximum and minimum bearing pressure. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 134 – Change Units Now click on Refresh and you will see the bearing pressure.B. Figure 135 – Bearing Pressure N. Assume the allowable bearing pressure at given depth = 150kN/m2 and therefore OK. Make sure to check both. 123 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame 19.4 Concrete calculation We will first explain the theoretical reinforcement calculation. the different parameters for the concrete calculation can be adapted. the program must have a diameter as a starting value for the calculation. 124 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . For the theoretical reinforcement calculation. Concrete Design The concrete modules of Scia Engineer contain a number of powerful tools to execute the concrete calculations in accordance with the chosen standard. 2. Double-Click Design Defaults. The possibilities at a glance are: • Input of advanced concrete data • Reduction of Moment and Shear at the supports • Design calculation of the Theoretically Required Reinforcement • Input of the Practical Reinforcement • Capacity check • Stress/strain check • Crack check • Calculation of the physical non-linear (PNL) deformation taking into account creep deflection In this tutorial. we will only explain the basics of the concrete calculation. Double click on Concrete to open the concrete menu. 1. 19.

For this example. you can adapt the default value. we choose to set the default diameter of the main column & beam reinforcement to 20mm and the stirrup to 8mm. 3D Concrete Frame On the tab Design defaults. Figure 136 – Concrete Setup 125 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

3D Concrete Frame Figure 137 – Concrete Setup And 16’s for Slab as shown in Figure 139. 126 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

A critical member will be used for the design. In this tutorial we will design 1 Column as a typical 1D element and 1 Rib (T-beam section). Go to Setup-> Concrete Solver and turn OFF the second order eccentricity calculation for Columns by unticking Use buckling data as shown below. see Concrete menu > 2D member > Member data. You may need to check Cover etc but this is not covered here as the options are clear. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 138 – Concrete Default Setting Click OK to confirm your selection. You will need to assign the Member Data to an element if you would like to use different settings from the general one but we will not do this here. (Or 1D). In this example we will not consider second order moments but this is a useful option to have. 127 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Member data It is possible to overwrite the data from the general setups by means of Member data.

This will be the layer. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 139 – Use Buckling Data 19.5 1D Member Design Select all the concrete columns. please select one of the concrete columns and in the properties click in the layer field and select filter by property as before. we need to find something unique for all the concrete columns. In order to use filter by property. To select all the concrete columns. 128 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

B167 has the highest axial forces and the column is designed as per the min. B1 is a moment frame and therefore there is a Myd moment included in the design. Now click Refresh and Preview. the user has the choice for the action Single Check at the bottom of the Properties menu. • The Values are wanted for As Total Req. Figure 140 – Reinforcement Design When going to Concrete menu > Member design . 3D Concrete Frame In 1D Member-> Member Design.Design The options in the Properties Window are configured in the following way: • The Selection field is set to Current. • The Load type is set to Combinations and Combination to ULS. There the proposed configuration can be found: 129 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Select B1. • The Extreme field is changed to Global.Design. reinforcement requirement. This will show you the amount of reinforcement required.

This is a simple representation of the bar configuration. 130 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Press <Esc> to cancel the selection. 2. Click Redes (without As)-> New reinforcement to enter the practical reinforcement. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 141 – Single Check You can go through the different tabs to see different results and validate them. so the user can easily understand how the bars should be inputted. Entering the practical reinforcement 1.

The Longitudinal Reinforcement Manager appears. select 2 node points of the column. 131 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame 3. 4. Select the column as above B1 with the left mouse button and also.

Click on Edit. 6. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 142 – Longitudinal Reinforcement input These are preset templates. Change the diameter to 20 and do this for both layers. 5. 132 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

You will be asked the below: 133 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 143 – Longitudinal Reinforcement Input 7. Click OK twice.

Click ok. Go to Member Check-> Check of non-prestressed concrete-> Overall Check and Select Refresh whilst column B1 is selected. 134 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 9. And click Preview. 3D Concrete Frame You can either use Concrete setup which we did as H20 or use the template we just created which is the same. See settings below. Select the ULS combination. The last thing is to do a capacity check. 8.

Calculation of cracks is not supported for columns.B. The principle of 1D element reinforcement design stays the same and therefore you should be able to follow the above but select only the T-section beams and run the reinforcement design as for columns. Figure 145 – Edge Beam Design Make sure when looking at the T-section that the Rib/Integration Strip is ticked so the T-section internal forces are being taken into account when calculating the reinforcement. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 144 .Reinforcement Design N. 135 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Only for Beams and Plates.

Unless you rotate the local axis of the slab then:  As1+: Top Reinforcement in local X direction  As2+: Top Reinforcement in local Y-direction  As1-: Bottom Reinforcement in local X-direction  As2-: Bottom Reinforcement in local Y-direction We will need to apply an averaging point. Longitudinal reinforcement The available values here are: As1+. 136 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . As2+. 3D Concrete Frame 19. In the Properties select the options as shown below and select raft only.Surprises and Pitfalls by Johan Blaauwendraad. Theoretically required reinforcement To calculate how much reinforcement is needed go to the Concrete menu > 2D member > Member design > Member design ULS. As1-. a raft reinforcement is designed to illustrate how to design and input reinforcement.6 2D Member Design In this tutorial. Go to 2D Member design-> Averaging Strip. The below is used from Plates and FEM. As2-.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 146 .Smearing out of moment peak You can watch a youtube video showing how to deal with peaks in Scia by following the below link: https://www. We say all columns are 400x400 so apply a 1.com/watch?v=xAqEH7JVEvA Say we apply the below averaging at all column locations.5x1. 137 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .youtube. Go to 2D member in concrete menu and choose Averaging Strip.5 point averaging strip.

Figure 148 – Averaged Nodes Now make sure that Averaging Strip is ticked in the Properties when looking at the reinforcement again. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 147 – Averaging Point We will apply the same point averaging at the corners of the lift shaft walls. The averaging strips are now applied at the locations as shown below. This is needed due to the nature of FE analysis and inherent singularity locations. 138 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

Reinforcement Design Looking at the Asw values it suggests that the shear reinforcement is too high. Make sure you select only the bottom nodes and change the settings to Current Selection only.Reinforcement Design Click Refresh and check reinforcement for all directions. You will see the below reinforcement if you click on Preview. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 149 . 139 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . You can run a punching check by going to Punching-> Punching Check. Figure 150 .

Figure 152 – Punching Check In the Properties click on Single Check and select the node which shows the red circle 1. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 151 – Punching Check Click Refresh.37. 140 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . You will see the below. It states that the “maximum shear stress was exceeded”. You will see the below. A new window pop up will come up and then go to Design of reinforcement.

141 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 153 – Single Punching Check Therefore. select the Raft Slab and change the thickness to 500mm.

Asuser: Practical Reinforcement (user applied). 142 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Note: There are two options when looking at the punching reinforcement: 1. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 154 – Change of Thickness Now re-run the calculation. Check the punching using theoretically calculated reinforcement or 2. Check the punching using applied reinforcement (see the next section on how to apply reinforcement). Astot: Theoretical Reinforcement calculated in Scia. The choice of reinforcement to be used can be seen in the Properties when Punching check is selected (see below).

Scia will store the amount of theoretical reinforcement needed and check the punching. Figure 155 . 3D Concrete Frame So if we are to check the punching again using option 1 we need to first run Member Design ULS and then go to punching. 1. Member Design ULS. 143 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .Reinforcement Design 2. In this way. Punching check: The green circles are the number of critical perimeters where reinforcement is needed.

In order to check Design ULS + SLS you will need to have a class ULS+SLS. Combinations-> Result Classes and double click. You will see the below if not then create it like we created the combinations before. 144 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 156 – Punching Check The last option to cover is Design ULS+SLS. If you would like to check this then please go to Load cases. The SLS part adds crack check. This is normally done automatically if you have created both ULS and SLS combinations.

145 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 157 – Result Classes Now click Close and go back to Concrete-> 2D member-> Member Design ULS+SLS and click Refresh. Change the Properties to look like below.

This can be changed by clicking on Tree-> Project-> Select the 3Dots next to National Annex. The crack formation can be checked using Member check – Crack Control.Reinforcement Design You can see the crack being shown w1+ and w2+. 146 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Please click on the 3 dots next to EN 1992-1- 1. This will not be covered here. 3D Concrete Frame If you now look at Preview you will see the below: Figure 158 . Now you will see the below and you can set a different value for crack and adopt some other code parameters if needed. You can select it and run it but it may be a good idea to run Crack Control and Punching once we insert a reinforcement in. The default crack limit is set to 0. The Manager for National annexes will pop up.3mm.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 159 – Concrete Setup To add Practical Reinforcement in the Concrete Menu click on 2D Member design-> Double click on Reinforcement 2D and add 20mm Bars at 200 c/c as a basic mat. 147 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . See the below. You need to do this for Lower and Upper Reinforcement.

148 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Do the same for the upper. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 160 – Lower Reinforcement Input Click OK and use the below option and select the raft.

149 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . See the screenshot below. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 161 – Upper Reinforcement Input Go back to Member design ULS and change the Reinforcement to User Reinforcement.

This is done in the same manner as basic mat but in patches.Reinforcement Design The last option is to choose Additional Reinforcement that needs to be applied on top of the basic mat. 3D Concrete Frame Click Refresh and Preview to see the below. 150 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Figure 162 .

This is why we setup a class at the beginning as already explained.Reinforcement Design This follows exactly the same principle as ULS but satisfies crack too. The next stage is to check ULS+SLS. 3D Concrete Frame The above uses ULS reinforcement design to make sure flexural rebar is provided. 151 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . To add Additional Reinforcement go to the Concrete Menu click on 2D Member design-> Double click on Reinforcement 2D and add 16mm Bars at 200 c/c. Figure 163 . For the purpose of this tutorial apply this over each column and in both directions. We shall add additional top reinforcement around the columns.

We will use the Averaging Strip as an outline and you will have inserted the additional bar as below. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 164 – Reinforcement Input Press OK. 152 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . You will be asked to select a starting point so click on the New rectangle as shown below and draw a rectangle around each column.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 165 – Additional Reinforcement In your project you may need to rationalise this. Figure 166 – User Reinforcement 153 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . Have a look at the User Reinforcement as we did before and you will see the below.

following the principal directions). This is a way of failure that isn't considered in any other calculation software (according to the developer of our solver). Failure of the strut is generally caused by inefficient reinforcement geometry. inefficient. Purely augmenting the reinforcement amount is. but is less practical. 3D Concrete Frame 19. and do not occur in reality. we will move on to check the Punching Reinforcement.Error E6: Allowable concrete strut pressure exceeded This means in fact that the resistance of the virtual concrete strut is exhausted. 154 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . You have roughly 2 options: you can just ignore the peaks or average them. because we are not dealing with a singularity here. The virtual concrete strut symbolises the stiffening function of the concrete continuum. The pressure in the strut may not exceed 80% of the concrete strength fcd (this reduction coefficient can be adapted in the Concrete Setup). Choosing another reinforcement geometry may be the optimum solution (“trajectory reinforcement”. but is a real issue.8 Punching Check Once the slab was designed for ULS+SLS. 19.Most Common errors . Most of the time these peak values are singularities. Also the use of Averaging strips won't help in most of the cases of E6 errors. in order to provide for the effective diminishing of the ‘plain’ concrete strength due to parallel cracks. The solution is to try a thicker cross-section or a higher concrete class.7 2D Member Design . for example by means of Averaging strips. This time select the type of reinforcement to be As User as that is what we will put in in reality. so the concrete strut gets ‘crushed’. this is generally the easiest way to improve the bearing capacity of the concrete strut. Click Refresh and select only the bottom nodes as before. .Error E8: Shear: concrete bearing capacity exceeded This error message is found at locations with high peak values for the shear stress. however.

9 CDD in Scia Engineer Creation of concrete combinations To perform a CDD calculation in SE. 155 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . it is necessary first to create what is called ‘concrete combinations’. Three types of concrete combinations have to be created: . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 167 – Punching Check 19.Immediate (CC1): containing all permanent loads: checkbox: ‘used to determine permanent Code Dependant Deflections’.

As soon as the linear calculation and the calculation of the theoretical reinforcement have been finished successfully. 156 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . .Total (CC3): containing all load cases. 3D Concrete Frame . the option ‘Concrete – Code dependent deflections’ is available. You need to make sure that you understand which reinforcement is used when the Long Term Deflection is calculated. Go to Setup-> Concrete Solver and select the option below.Creep (CC2): containing all permanent loads and a percentage of variable loads: checkbox: ‘used to determine permanent Code Dependant Deflections caused by creep’.

user: Calculation of deflection takes into account only the reinforcement you put in. For example assume we need 1000mm2/m and we will put in 1. In Order: [As. We will use as a default As.5 as a coefficient as below.[As. [As. As. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 168 – Concrete Setup Here you will see a similar setup to the one when looking at punching and crack. user]: Calculation of deflection checks if the theoretical reinforcement was calculated and if not then it will use the one that you input. Note: If you go to Setup-> Solver then at the bottom of the pop up window you can see Coefficient for reinforcement.designed: Calculation of deflection takes into account only theoretical reinforcement not the one you put in. designed and press OK.user. 157 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . As.designed]: Calculation of deflection checks if you have put a reinforcement in and if not then it will use the calculated theoretical reinforcement instead. The options are: As.user].designed]. This is used as a multiplier to the theoretical reinforcement when CDD is calculated. In Order: [As.

We will leave it at 1.5 and press OK. Now run the calculations again. 158 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 169 – Solver Setup This means Scia will calculate the deflection as if you had 1500mm2/m.

3D Concrete Frame Figure 170 .Calculation Once the calculation is finished we need to run Member design ULS as we have only applied reinforcement at a raft so Scia will use theoretical reinforcement for the rest. Now press Calculation again and you will have a new option available as below. 159 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

Go to Mesh Setup and change the below to 5. 160 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . When you try to run the calculation you will receive the below message.Option ‘Concrete – CDD deformations’ Click Ok and the calculation will now take a little longer depending on your computational power. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 171 .

You need to recalculate linear calculation and reinforcement again. You will then get the below once the analysis is finished. Now re-run the linear calculation and member design and follow the below. You will be asked the below. Run CDD calculation. 3D Concrete Frame Figure 172 – Mesh Setup Click OK and YES. Say Yes. 161 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited .

*Non linear + creep: deformation as result of CDD calculation + creep deformation. 3D Concrete Frame The following results can be viewed for every concrete combination: *Linear: deformation as result of linear calculation. Figure 173 – Deformations CDD 162 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . *Non linear: deformation as result of CDD calculation. Now you can check the deflection including creep. The creep deformation is calculated based on CC2 with the checkbox ‘used to determine permanent Code Dependant Deflections caused by creep’. Let us calculate the non linear + creep deflection for CC3 (total).

163 Copyright © Computer and Design Services Limited . 3D Concrete Frame Figure 174 – CDD Deflection We have finished the initial design and covered basic concrete functionality and design. The second part of this tutorial covers steel roof design.