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PureWater
Handbook

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Notice

Notice
GEhasmadeaseriousefforttoprovideaccurateinformationinthisbook.However,asinallpublications,
thepossibilityexistsforerrorsandmisprintsinthetext.Variationsindatamayalsooccurdependingonfield
conditions.Informationinthisguideshouldonlybeusedasageneralguide.GEdoesnotrepresentthein
formationasbeingexact.Pleasenotifyusofanyerrors,omissionsormisprintsinthisbook.Yoursuggestions
forfutureeditionswillhelptomakethishandbookasaccurateandinformativeaspossible.

TermsappearinginboldfacetypethroughoutthisHandbookstextalsoappearintheGlossary.

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Page5
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TableofContents

TableofContents

Section1Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................................1

Section2WaterTheProblemofPurity.................................................................................................................................................2
2.1 NaturalContaminationandPurification......................................................................................................2
2.2 BacterialContamination......................................................................................................................................2

Section3IdentifyingImpurities...................................................................................................................................................................3
3.1 GeneralQualitativeIdentification...................................................................................................................3
Turbidity.......................................................................................................................................................................3
Taste..............................................................................................................................................................................3
Color...............................................................................................................................................................................3
Odor...............................................................................................................................................................................3
FurtherAnalysis.......................................................................................................................................................3
3.2 GeneralQuantitativeIdentification................................................................................................................4
pH....................................................................................................................................................................................4
TotalSolids..................................................................................................................................................................4
Conductivity/Resistivity........................................................................................................................................5
MicrobiologicalContamination........................................................................................................................5
3.3 SpecificImpurities...................................................................................................................................................6
CommonIons............................................................................................................................................................6
DissolvedGases.......................................................................................................................................................9
HeavyMetals.............................................................................................................................................................9
DissolvedOrganicCompounds........................................................................................................................9
VolatileOrganicCompounds(VOC).............................................................................................................10
RadioactiveConstituents..................................................................................................................................10

Section4MethodsofWaterPurification..............................................................................................................................................11
4.1 MunicipalorUtilityWaterTreatment.........................................................................................................11
ScreenPrefiltration..............................................................................................................................................11
Clarification.............................................................................................................................................................11
LimeSodaAshTreatment...............................................................................................................................12
Disinfection..............................................................................................................................................................12
pHAdjustment.......................................................................................................................................................12
4.2 OnSiteTreatment...............................................................................................................................................12
ChemicalAddition................................................................................................................................................12
TankTypePressureFilters...............................................................................................................................13
PreCoatFilters......................................................................................................................................................14
CartridgeFilters.....................................................................................................................................................14
IonExchangeSystems.......................................................................................................................................16
OrganicScavenging............................................................................................................................................18
DistillationandPureSteamGenerators....................................................................................................18
Electrodialysis........................................................................................................................................................20
Electrodeionization(EDI)...................................................................................................................................21
CrossflowFiltrationSystems(ReverseOsmosisandSimilarProcesses)...................................23
MembraneConfigurations...............................................................................................................................26
DisinfectionControlofMicrobes...............................................................................................................27

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Section5ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems.................................................................................................30
5.1 PotableWater........................................................................................................................................................30
ResidentialWaterPurificationSystem.......................................................................................................30
5.2 CommercialScalePurifiedWaterTreatmentSystem.......................................................................30
PreTreatment........................................................................................................................................................30
ReverseOsmosisUnit.........................................................................................................................................30
StorageandDistribution...................................................................................................................................30
OptionstoConsider.............................................................................................................................................30
5.3 WaterforPharmaceuticalUse......................................................................................................................31
USPPurifiedWaterSystem..............................................................................................................................31
USPWaterforInjection(WFI)System.........................................................................................................32
5.4 BoilerFeedandPowerGeneratorWater.................................................................................................32
HighPressureSteamGeneration................................................................................................................32
5.5 PotableWater/BoilerFeed/Humidification/GeneralRinse.............................................................33
PreTreatment........................................................................................................................................................33
ReverseOsmosisUnit.........................................................................................................................................33
StorageandDistribution...................................................................................................................................33
OptionstoConsider.............................................................................................................................................33
5.6 WaterforElectronics..........................................................................................................................................34
UltrapureWater(18megohm).......................................................................................................................34
5.7 WaterforLaboratoryUse................................................................................................................................36
ReagentGradeWaterforLaboratoryUse..............................................................................................36
5.8 WaterforBeverageManufacturing............................................................................................................36
BottledWater.........................................................................................................................................................37
SoftDrinks................................................................................................................................................................37
Juices.........................................................................................................................................................................37
BeverageWaterRequirements.....................................................................................................................37
BottledWaterRequirements..........................................................................................................................38
Section6WaterPurificationintothe21stCentury.........................................................................................................................39

Section7Appendices.....................................................................................................................................................................................40
AppendixA:U.S.NationalDrinkingWaterRegulations(asofFebruary1996)......................................40
AppendixB:ElectronicGradeWater.....................................................................................................................44
AppendixC:ReagentGradeWater.......................................................................................................................46
AppendixD:USP23WFIandPurifiedWaterStandards..................................................................................47
WaterforInjection...............................................................................................................................................47
PurifiedWater........................................................................................................................................................47
USP23(continued)...............................................................................................................................................48
AppendixE:MetricConversionsVolume(metricandU.S.liquidmeasures)..........................................49
AppendixF:SiltDensityIndex(SDI)........................................................................................................................50
Recommendations..............................................................................................................................................50
ProcedureandDiscussion...............................................................................................................................50
AppendixG.............................................................................................................................................................................51
RyznarStabilityIndex.........................................................................................................................................53
AppendixH.............................................................................................................................................................................54
AppendixI:SieveMeshConversionTable...............................................................................................................55
Section8GlossaryofWaterPurificationTerms...............................................................................................................................56

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Introduction

Section1
Introduction

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Formorethan30yearstherehasbeenremarkable Sciencehasfoundthattherearenotwowater
growthintheneedforqualitywaterpurificationby treatmentproblemsexactlyalike.Therewillalways
allcategoriesofusersmunicipal,industrial,insti beslightdifferenceswithmorethanonetechnical
tutional,medical,commercialandresidential.The lyacceptableandscientificallysoundsolutionto
increasinglybroadrangeofrequirementsforwater anygivenwatertreatmentproblem.Beyondthese
qualityhasmotivatedthewatertreatmentindustry twostatements,therearenoabsolutesinwater
torefineexistingtechniques,combinemethodsand treatment.
explorenewwaterpurificationtechnologies.
Althoughgreatimprovementshavebeenmade,
mythsandmisconceptionsstillexist.ThisPureWa
terHandbookbyGEwillclearupcommonmiscon
ceptionsandincreasethereadersunderstanding
ofthecapabilitiesofavailabletechnologiesand
howthesetechnologiesmightbeapplied.

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TheProblemofPurity

5to6.Theresultofcontactwithhigherlevelsof
Section2 thesedissolvedgasesisusuallyamildlyacidiccon
WaterTheProblemofPurity ditionwhatistodaycalledacidrainthatmay
haveapHaslowas4.0.
Initspurestate,waterisoneofthemostaggressive Astheprecipitationnearstheground,itpicksup
solventsknown.Calledtheuniversalsolvent,wa manyadditionalcontaminantsairborneparticu
ter,toacertaindegree,willdissolvevirtuallyevery lates,spores,bacteria,andemissionsfromcount
thingtowhichitisexposed.Purewaterhasavery lessothersources.
highenergystateand,likeeverythingelseinnature,
seemstoachieveenergyequilibriumwithitssur Mostprecipitationfallsintotheocean,andsome

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roundings.Itwilldissolvethequantityofmaterial evaporatesbeforereachingtheearthssurface.The
availableuntilthesolutionreachessaturation,the precipitationthatreacheslandreplenishes
pointatwhichnohigherlevelofsolidscanbedis groundwateraquifersandsurfacewatersupplies.
solved.Contaminantsfoundinwaterincludeat Thewaterthatpercolatesdownthroughtheporous
mosphericgases,minerals,organicmaterials(some uppercrustoftheearthissubstantiallyfilteredby
naturallyoccurring,othersmanmade)plusany thatprocess.Mostoftheparticulatematterisre
materialsusedtotransportorstorewater.Thehy moved,muchoftheorganiccontaminationiscon
drologiccycle(Figure1)illustratestheprocessof sumedbybacterialactivityinthesoil,anda
contaminationandnaturalpurification. relativelyclean,mildlyacidicsolutionresults.This
acidicconditionallowsthewatertodissolvemany
minerals,especiallylimestone,whichcontributes
calcium.Othergeologicformationscontributemin
PRECIPITATION EVAPORATION
erals,suchasmagnesium,iron,sulfatesandchlo
rides.Theadditionofthesemineralsusuallyraises
groundwaterpHtoarangeof7to8.5.
SURFACERUNOFF
Thismineralbearingwaterisstoredinnaturalun
TRANSPIRATION PERCOLATION
dergroundformationscalledaquifers.Thesearethe
LAKE sourceofthewellwaterusedbyhomes,industries
EVAPORATION andmunicipalities.
RIVER
WATERTABLE
Surfacewaterssuchasrivers,lakesandreservoirs
GROUNDWATERSTORAGE typicallycontainlessmineralcontaminationbe
OCEAN
causethatwaterdidnotpassthroughtheearths
soils.Surfacewaterswill,however,holdhigherlev
ROCKSTRATA
(CONFININGLAYER) elsoforganicsandundissolvedparticlesbecause
thewaterhascontactedvegetationandcaused
Figure1:HydrologicCycle
runofftopickupsurfacedebris.

2.1NaturalContaminationand 2.2BacterialContamination
Purification Onedifficultyofwaterpurityisbacterialcontamina
tionandcontrolofbacterialgrowth.
Waterevaporatesfromsurfacesuppliesandtran
spiresfromvegetationdirectlyintotheatmosphere. Waterisessentialforalllife.Itisanecessarymedi
umforbacterialgrowthbecauseitcarriesnutrients.
Theevaporatedwaterthencondensesinthecooler
Itisanessentialcomponentoflivingcells.Itsther
aironnucleisuchasdustparticlesandeventually
malstabilityprovidesacontrolledenvironment.
returnstotheearthssurfaceasrain,snow,sleet,or
Waterwillsupportbacterialgrowthwitheventhe
otherprecipitation.Itdissolvesgasessuchascar
mostminutenutrientsourcesavailable.
bondioxide,oxygen,andnaturalandindustrial
emissionssuchasnitricandsulfuricoxides,aswell
ascarbonmonoxide.TypicalrainwaterhasapHof

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IdentifyingImpurities

Suspendedmattercanalsobeexpressedquantita
Section3 tivelyinpartspermillion(ppm)byweightormilli
IdentifyingImpurities gramsperliter(mg/L).Thisisaccomplishedby
gravimetricanalysis,typicallyfilteringthesample
Theimpactofthevariousimpuritiesgenerateddur througha0.45micronmembranedisc,thendrying
ingthehydrologiccycleand/orbacterialcoloniza andweighingtheresidue.
tiondependsuponthewaterusersparticular TheSiltDensityIndex(SDI)providesarelativevalue
requirements.Inordertoassesstheneedfortreat ofsuspendedmatter.Themeasuredvaluesreflect
mentandtheappropriatetechnology,thespecific therateatwhicha0.45micronfilterwillplugwith
contaminantsmustbeidentifiedandmeasured. particulatematerialinthesourcewater.TheSDI
testiscommonlyusedtocorrelatethelevelofsus
pendedsolidsinfeedwaterthattendstofoulre
3.1GeneralQualitative verseosmosissystems.
Identification
Qualitativeidentificationisusuallyusedtodescribe Taste
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thevisibleoraestheticcharacteristicsofwater.
Thetastesenseismoderatelyaccurateandableto
Amongotherstheseinclude:
detectconcentrationsfromafewtenthstoseveral
turbidity(clarity) hundredppm.However,tasteoftencannotidentify
taste particularcontaminants.Abadtastemaybean
color indicationofharmfulcontaminationindrinkingwa
ter,butcertainlycannotbereliedontodetectall
odor
harmfulcontaminants.

Turbidity Color
Turbidityconsistsofsuspendedmaterialinwater,
Coloriscontributedprimarilybyorganicmaterial,
causingacloudyappearance.Thiscloudyappear
althoughsomemetalionsmayalsotintwater.
anceiscausedbythescatteringandabsorptionof
Whilenottypicallyahealthconcern,colordoesin
lightbytheseparticles.Thesuspendedmattermay
dicateacertainlevelofimpurities,andcanbean
beinorganicororganic.Generallythesmallsizeof
aestheticconcern.Truecolorreferstothecolorof
theparticlespreventsrapidsettlingofthematerial
asamplewithitsturbidityremoved.Turbiditycon
andthewatermustbetreatedtoreduceitsturbidi
tributestoapparentcolor.Colorcanbemeasured
ty. byvisualcomparisonofsampleswithcalibrated
Correlationofturbiditywiththeconcentrationof glassampulesorknownconcentrationsofcolored
particlespresentisdifficultsincethelight solutions.Colorcanalsobemeasuredusingaspec
scatteringpropertiesvaryamongmaterialsandare trophotometer.
notnecessarilyproportionaltotheirconcentration.

Turbiditycanbemeasuredbydifferentopticalsys Odor
tems.Suchmeasurementssimplyshowtherelative
Thehumannoseisthemostsensitiveodor
resistancetolighttransmittance,notanabsolute
detectingdeviceavailable.Itcandetectodorsin
levelofcontamination.
lowconcentrationsdowntopartsperbillion(ppb).
Acandleturbidimeterisaverybasicvisualmethod Smellisusefulbecauseitprovidesanearlyindica
usedtomeasurehighlyturbidwater.Itsresultsare tionofcontaminationwhichcouldbehazardousor
expressedinJacksonTurbidityUnits(JTU).Anephe atleastreducetheaestheticqualityofthewater.
lometerismoreusefulinlowturbiditywater,with
resultsexpressedinNephelometricTurbidityUnits
(NTU)orFormazinTurbidityUnits(FTU).JTUand
FurtherAnalysis
NTUarenotequivalent. Furtheranalysisshouldfocusonidentificationand
quantificationofspecificcontaminantsresponsible

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IdentifyingImpurities

forthewaterquality.Suchcontaminantscanbe TotalSolids
dividedintotwogroups:dissolvedcontaminants
TotalSolids(TS)(Table1)isthesumofTotalDis
andparticulatematter.Dissolvedcontaminantsare
mostlyionicatomsoragroupofatomscarryingan solvedSolids(TDS)andTotalSuspendedSolids(TSS).
Inwateranalysisthesequantitiesaredetermined
electriccharge.Theyareusuallyassociatedwith
gravimetricallybydryingasampleandweighing
waterqualityandhealthconcerns.Particulatemat
theresidue.Inthefield,TDSiscommonlymeasured
tertypicallysilt,sand,virus,bacteriaorcolor
byaconductivitymeter(Figure3)whichiscorrela
causingparticlesisnotdissolvedinwater.Particu
latematterisusuallyresponsibleforaesthetic tivetoaspecificsaltsolutionhowever,thismeas
urementisonlyanapproximationmostoftenbased
characteristicssuchascolor,orparameterssuchas
onamultiplicationfactorof0.66oftheelectrical
turbidity,whichaffectswaterprocesses.
conductivity.(SeeTable2.)

3.2GeneralQuantitative Table1:ExampleTotalSolids(TS)
Identification TDS TSS
Followingarethemajorquantitativeanalyses
Organic Inorganic Organic Inorganic
whichdefinewaterquality.
humicacid reactivesilica algae silt

pH tannin (dissolved) fungi rust


pyrogens saltions bacteria floc
Therelativeacidicorbasiclevelofasolutionis

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measuredbypH.ThepHisameasureofhydrogen clays
ionconcentrationinwater,specificallythenegative
logarithm(log)ofthehydrogenionconcentration.
ThemeasurementofpHliesonascaleof0to14
(Figure2),withapHof7.0beingneutral(i.e.,neither
acidicnorbasic),andbearingequalnumbersofhy
droxyl(OH)andhydrogen(H+)ions.ApHofless
than7.0isacidicapHofmorethan7.0isbasic.

pH

01234567891011121314
moreacidic neutral morebasic
Figure2:pHValue

SincepHisexpressedinlogform,apHof6.0is10
timesmoreacidicthanapHof7.0,andapHof5.0
is100timesmoreacidicthanapHof7.0.ThepH
hasaneffectonmanyphasesofwatertreatment
suchascoagulation,chlorinationandwatersoften
ing.Italsoaffectsthescalingpotentialofwater Figure3:FieldConductivityMeter
sources.
ThepHlevelcanbedeterminedbyvariousmeans
suchascolorindicators,pHpaperorpHmeters.A
pHmeteristhemostcommonandaccuratemeans
usedtomeasurepH.

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IdentifyingImpurities

Table2:RelativeConcentrationofDissolvedMinerals Conductivity/Resistivity
versusConductivityandResistance@25C
Ionsconductelectricity.Becausepurewatercon
Total Specific
mg/L Dissolved Conductance Specific
tainsfewions,ithasahighresistancetoelectrical
Sodium Solidsmg/L MicroSiemens/ Resistance Grainsper current.Themeasurementofwaterselectrical
Chloride CaCO3 cm ohms/cm Gallon conductivity,orresistivity,canprovideanassess
0.05 0.043 0.105 9,523,800 0.0025 mentoftotalionicconcentration.Conductivityis
0.1 0.085 0.212 4,716,980 0.0049 describedinmicroSiemens/cm(S)andismeasured
0.2 0.170 0.424 3,558,490 0.0099 byaconductivitymeter(Figure4)andcell.Resistivi
0.3 0.255 0.637 1,569,850 0.0149 tyisdescribedinmegohmcm,istheinverseof
0.4 0.340 0.848 1,179,240 0.0198 conductivityandismeasuredbyaresistivitymeter
0.5 0.425 1.06 943,396 0.0248 andcell.
0.6 0.510 1.273 785,545 0.0298
0.7 0.595 1.985 673,400 0.0347
0.8 0.680 1.696 589,622 0.0397
0.9 0.765 1.908 524,109 0.0447
1.0 0.85 2.12 471,698 0.0497
2.0 1.70 6.37 156,985 0.0994
4.0 3.40 8.48 117,924 0.1988
5.0 4.25 10.6 94,339 0.2485
6.0 5.10 12.73 78,554 0.2982
7.0 5.95 14.85 67,340 0.3479
8.0 6.80 16.96 58,962 0.3976
9.0 7.65 19.08 52,410 0.4473
10.0 8.5 21.2 47,169 0.4970
20.0 17.0 42.4 23,584 0.9941
30.0 25.5 63.7 15,698 1.4912
40.0 34.0 84.8 11,792 1.9883 Figure4:OnLineConductivityMeter
50.0 42.5 106.0 9,433 2.4853

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60.0 51.0 127.3 7,855 2.9824


70.0 59.5 148.5 6,734 3.4795 Table2expressestherelativeconcentrationsof
80.0 68.0 169.6 5,896 3.9766 sodiumchlorideversusconductivityandresistance.
90.0 76.5 190.8 5,241 4.4736 Asageneralrule,ionicdissolvedcontent,ex
100.0 85.0 212.0 4,716 4.9707 pressedinppmormg/L,isapproximatelyonehalf
200.0 170.0 410.0 2,439 9.9415 totwothirdstheconductanceofwater.Othersalt
300.0 255.0 610.0 1,639 14.9122 solutionsareusedandthecurvevaries.Monovalent
400.0 340.0 812.0 1,231 19.8830 saltshavehigherconductivitiesthanmultivalent
500.0 425.0 1,008.0 992 24.8538 salts.
600.0 510.0 1,206.0 829 29.8245
700.0 595.0 1,410.0 709 34.7953
800.0 680.0 1,605.0 623 39.7660
MicrobiologicalContamination
900.0 765.0 1,806.0 553 44.7368 Microbiologicalcontaminationcanbeclassifiedas
1,000.0 850.0 2,000.0 500 49.7076 viableandnonviable.Viableorganismsarethose
2,000.01,700.0 3,830.0 261 99.4152 thathavetheabilitytoreproduceandproliferate.
3,000.02,550.0 5,670.0 176 149.1228 Nonviableorganismscannotreproduceormultiply.
4,000.03,400.0 7,500.0 133 198.8304
5,000.04,250.0 9,240.0 108 248.5380
BacterialContamination
6,000.05,100.0 10,950.0 91 298.2456
7,000.05,950.0 12,650.0 79 347.9532 BacterialcontaminationisquantifiedasColony
8,000.06,800.0 14,340.0 69 397.6608 FormingUnits(CFU),ameasureofthetotalviable
9,000.07,650.0 16,000.0 62 447.3684 bacterialpopulation.CFUsaretypicallydetermined
10,000.08,500.0 17,600.0 56 497.0760 byincubatingasampleonanutritionalmedium
andcountingthenumberofbacterialcoloniesthat

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IdentifyingImpurities

grow.Eachcolonyisassumedtohavegrownfrom TotalOrganicCarbon(TOC)
asinglebacterialcell.ThisiscalledaStandard
TOCisadirectmeasureoftheorganic,oxidizable,
PlateCountandisthemostcommonmethod.Oth carbonbasedmaterialinwater.TOCisavital
erlesscommonmethodsofenumeratingmicrobial measurementusedinsophisticatedwatertreat
contaminationincludetheMostProbableNumber, mentsystemssuchaselectronicsgradewhere
whichisastatisticalprobabilityofthebacterial anyamountofcontaminationcanadverselyaffect
populationinasmallsample,andtheDirect productqualityandyield.
Count,whichisanactualcountofcellsobserved
throughamicroscope. BiochemicalOxygenDemand(BOD)
BODisameasureoforganicmaterialcontamina
PyrogenicContamination
tioninwater,specifiedinmg/L.BODistheamount
Pyrogensaresubstancesthatcaninduceafeverin ofdissolvedoxygenrequiredforthebiochemical
awarmbloodedanimal.Themostcommonpyro decompositionoforganiccompoundsandtheoxi
genicsubstanceisthebacterialendotoxin.These dationofcertaininorganicmaterials(e.g.,iron,sul
endotoxinsarelipopolysaccharidecompounds fites).TypicallythetestforBODisconductedovera
fromthecellwallsofgramnegativebacteria.They fivedayperiod.
canbepyrogenicwhethertheyarepartofintact
viablecellsorsimplyfragmentsfromruptured ChemicalOxygenDemand(COD)
cells.Theyaremorestablethanbacterialcellsand CODisanothermeasureoforganicmaterialcon
arenotdestroyedbyallconditions(suchasauto
taminationinwaterspecifiedinmg/L.CODisthe
claving)thatkillbacteria.Theirmolecularweight
amountofdissolvedoxygenrequiredtocause
(MW)isgenerallyacceptedtobeapproximately chemicaloxidationoftheorganicmaterialinwater.
10,000.Onemolecularweight(MW)isapproximate
lyequaltoonedalton.However,inaqueousenvi BothBODandCODarekeyindicatorsoftheenvi
ronmentstheytendtoagglomeratetolargersizes. ronmentalhealthofasurfacewatersupply.They
PyrogensarequantifiedasEndotoxinUnitspermil arecommonlyusedinwastewatertreatmentbut
liliter(EU/mL). rarelyingeneralwatertreatment.

Thetraditionalmethodforpyrogendetectionused
liverabbitsasthetestorganism.Todaythemost 3.3SpecificImpurities
commonmethodistheLimulusAmoebocyteLysate
Manyindividualimpuritiescanbequantified
(LAL)test.Endotoxinsreactwithapurifiedextractof
throughwateranalysistechniques.Belowisadis
thebloodofthehorseshoecrabLimuluspolyphe
cussionofmostionicindividualcontaminants.

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musandthisreactioncanbeusedtodeterminethe
endotoxinconcentration.Thereareseveralversions
oftheLALtestrangingfromthesemiquantitative CommonIons
gelclotmethodtothefullyautomatedkinetic Anumberoftermsareusedtoexpressthelevelof
turbidmetricmethodwhichissensitiveto0.001 mineralcontaminationinawatersupply.
EU/mL.Thereisanendotoxinlimitinthepharma
ceuticalindustryforUSPWaterForInjection(WFI)
Table3:UnitsofConcentration
of0.25EU/mL.TheLALtestisrelativelyquickand
inexpensive. Unit Abbreviation Describes
TheLALtestisusedifthereisaconcernabouten milligramsperliter mg/L weightpervolume
dotoxinsinthefinishedwater,suchasinpharma
partspermillion ppm weightinweight
ceuticaluses.However,duetotheswiftresultsand
therelativelylowcostoftheLALtest,otherindus partsperbillion ppb weightinweight
trieswithcriticalwaterqualityneedsarebeginning partspertrillion ppt weightinweight
touseitasaquickindicatorofpossiblebacterial
grainspergallon gpg weightpervolume
contaminationortotalorganiccarbon(TOC).
milliequivalents meq/L weightpervolume
perliter

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IdentifyingImpurities

Table4illustratestherelationships. becomesferricwhichisinsolubleandsoprecipi
tates,leadingtoarusty(redbrown)appearancein
Table4:Conversions
water.Thischangecanoccurwhendeepwellwater
mg/L/17.1 =gpg ispumpedintoadistributionsystemwhereitad
ppm/17.1 =gpg sorbsoxygen.Ferricironcancreatehavocwith
gpgx17.1 =ppmormg/L valves,piping,watertreatmentequipment,andwa
terusingdevices.
mg/L(expressedasCaCO3 )x50 =meq/L
ppmx1000 =ppb Certainbacteriacanfurthercomplicateironprob
ppbx1000 =ppt lems.OrganismssuchasCrenothrix,Sphaerotilus
andGallionellauseironasanenergysource.These
ironreducingbacteriaeventuallyformarusty,ge
WaterHardness latinoussludgethatcanplugawaterpipe.When
diagnosinganironproblem,itisveryimportantto
Thepresenceofcalcium(Ca2+ )andmagnesium
determinewhetherornotsuchbacteriaarepre
(Mg2+ )ionsinawatersupplyiscommonlyknownas
sent.
hardness.Itisusuallyexpressedasgrainspergal
lon(gpg).Hardnessmineralsexisttosomedegreein
Manganese
virtuallyeverywatersupply.Table5classifiesthe
degreeofhardness: Althoughmanganesebehaveslikeiron,muchlower
concentrationscancausewatersystemproblems.
However,manganesedoesnotoccurasfrequently
Table5:WaterHardnessClassification
asiron.Manganeseformsadark,almostblack,
HardnessLevel precipitate.

mg/L gpg Classification


Sulfate
017 <1 softwater
Sulfate(SO42)isverycommon.Whenpresentat
1760 13.5 slightlyhardwater lowerlevels,sulfatesaltscreateproblemsonlyfor
60120 3.57.0moderatelyhardwater criticalmanufacturingprocesses.Athigherlevels,
120180 7.010.5hardwater theyareassociatedwithabittertasteandlaxative
effect.Manydivalentmetalsulfatesaltsarevirtual
>180 >10.5 veryhardwater
lyinsolubleandprecipitateatlowconcentrations.
Themainproblemassociatedwithhardnessisscale
formation.Evenlevelsaslowas5to8mg/L(0.3to Chloride
0.5gpg)aretooextremeformanyuses.Thesource
Chloride(Cl)saltsarecommonwatercontami
ofhardnessiscalciumandmagnesiumbearing nants.Thecriticallevelofchloridedependsonthe
mineralsdissolvedingroundwater.Carbonateand intendeduseofthewater.Athighlevels,chloride
noncarbonatehardnessaretermsusedtode
causesasaltyorbrackishtasteandcaninterfere
scribethesourceofcalciumandmagnesium.Car
withcertainwatertreatmentmethods.Chlorides
bonatehardnessusuallyresultsfromdolomitic
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limestone(calciumandmagnesiumcarbonate) alsocorrodethemetalsofwatersupplysystems,
includingsomestainlesssteels.
whilenoncarbonatehardnessgenerallycomes
fromchlorideandsulfatesalts. Alkalinity

Iron Alkalinityisagenerictermusedtodescribecar
bonates(CO3 2),bicarbonates(HCO3 )andhydrox
Iron,whichmakesup5%oftheearthscrust,isa ides(OH).Whenpresentwithhardnessorcertain
commonwatercontaminant.Itcanbedifficultto heavymetals,alkalinitycontributestoscaling.The
removebecauseitmaychangevalencestates
presenceofalkalinitymayalsoraisethepH.
thatis,changefromthewatersolubleferrousstate
(Fe2+ )totheinsolubleferricstate(Fe3+ ).Whenoxy
genoranoxidizingagentisintroduced,ferrousiron

M1003ENMar09 Page7

Page14
IdentifyingImpurities

NitrateNitrite andasanefficientbiocide.Chlorinedioxidecan
maintainaresidualforextendedperiodsoftimein
Althoughnitrate(NO3 )andnitrite(NO2 )saltsmay
adistributionsystemanddoesnotformtrihalome
occurnaturally,theirpresenceinawatersupply
thanes(THMs)orchloraminesifthestabilizedsodi
usuallyindicatesmanmadepollution.Themost
umchloriteformisused.Thepossibletoxicityofthe
commonsourcesofnitrate/nitritecontamination
chlorateandchloriteions(reactionbyproducts)
areanimalwastes,primaryorsecondarysewage,
maybeaconcernforpotablewaterapplications.
industrialchemicalsandfertilizers.Evenlownitrate
levelsaretoxictohumans,especiallyinfants,and
Silica
contributetothelossofyounglivestockonfarms
withnitratecontaminatedwatersupplies. Everywatersupplycontainsatleastsomesilica
(SiO2).Silicaoccursnaturallyatlevelsrangingfroma
Chlorine fewppmtomorethan200ppm.Itisoneofthemost
prevalentelementsintheworld.Amongtheprob
Chlorine,becauseofitsbactericidalqualities,isim
lemscreatedbysilicaarescalingorglassingin
portantinthetreatmentofmostmunicipalwater
boilers,stills,andcoolingwatersystems,ordeposits
supplies.Itisusuallymonitoredasfreechlorine(Cl2)
onturbineblades.Silicascaleisdifficulttoremove.
inconcentrationsof0.1to2.0ppm.Insolution,
chlorinegasdissolvesandreactswithwaterto Silicachemistryiscomplex.Anunusualcharacteris
formthehypochloriteanion(ClO)andhypo ticofsilicaisitssolubility.Unlikemanyscalingsalts,
chlorousacid(HClO).Therelativeconcentrationof silicaismoresolubleathigherpHranges.Silicais
eachionisdependentuponpH.AtaneutralpHof7, usuallyencounteredintwoforms:ionicandcolloi
essentiallyallchlorineexistsasthehypochlorite dal(reactiveandnonreactivebasedonthetypical
anionwhichisthestrongeroxidizingform.Belowa analyticaltechniques).Silicacanbepresentinnatu
pHof7,hypochlorousacidisdominant,andhas ralwatersinacombinationofthreeforms:reactive
betterdisinfectantpropertiesthantheanioncoun (ionic),nonreactive(colloidal)andparticulate.
terpart.Althoughchlorinesmicrobialactionisgen
IonicSilica(reactive)Ionicorreactivesilicaexists
erallyrequired,chlorineandthecompoundsit
inanSiO2complex.Itisnotastronglychargedion
formsmaycauseadisagreeabletasteandodor.
andthereforeisnoteasilyremovedbyionex
Chlorinealsoformssmallamountsoftrihalogenat
change.However,whenconcentratedtolevels
edmethanecompounds(THMs),whicharearec
above100ppm,ionicsilicamaypolymerizetoform
ognizedhealthhazardconcernascarcinogenic
acolloid.
materials.Theorganicmaterialswithwhichthe
chlorinereactsareknownasTHMprecursors. ColloidalSilica(nonreactive)Atconcentrations
over100ppm,silicamayformcolloidsof20,000
Chloramines molecularweightandlarger,stilltoosmalltobe
effectivelyremovedbyaparticlefilter.Colloidalsili
Insomecases,chlorineisalsopresentaschlora
caiseasilyremovedwithultrafiltration,orcanbe
mine(i.e.,monochloramine,NH2Cl)asaresultof
reducedbychemicaltreatment(limesoftening).
freechlorinereactingwithammoniacompounds.
Theammoniaisaddedtoawatersupplytostabi Colloidalsilicacanlowertheefficiencyoffiltration
lizethefreechlorine.Chloraminesarenotaseffec systems(suchasreverseosmosis).Anysilicacan
tiveamicrobialdeterrentaschlorine,butprovide affectyieldsinsemiconductormanufacturingandis
longerlastingresiduals. amajorconcerninhighpressureboilersystems.

ChlorineDioxide Aluminum

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Thismaterialisoftenproducedonsiteprimarilyby Aluminum(Al3 + )maybepresentasaresultofthe
largemunicipalitiesviathereactionbetweenchlo additionofaluminumsulfate[Al2(SO4)3]knownas
rineorsodiumhypochloriteandsodiumchlorite.A alum,acommonlyusedflocculant.Aluminumcan
morecostlysourceofchlorinedioxideisavailable causescalingincoolingandboilersystems,isa
asastabilizedsodiumchloritesolution.Chlorine problemfordialysispatients,andmayhavesome
dioxidehasbeenusedfortasteandodorcontrol effectsongeneralhumanhealth.Aluminumisleast

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Page15
IdentifyingImpurities

solubleattheneutralpHcommontomanynatural Oxygen
watersources.
Dissolvedoxygen(O2)cancorrodewaterlines,boil
ersandheatexchangers,butisonlysolubleto
Sodium
about14ppmatatmosphericpressure.
Thesodiumion(Na+ )isintroducednaturallydueto
thedissolutionofsaltssuchassodiumchloride HydrogenSulfide
(NaCl),sodiumcarbonate(Na2CO3),sodiumnitrate
Theinfamousrotteneggodor,hydrogensulfide
(NaNO3)andsodiumsulfate(Na2SO4).Itisalsoadd
(H2S)cancontributetocorrosion.Itisfoundprimari
edduringwatersofteningordischargefromindus
lyinwellwatersuppliesorotheranaerobicsources.
trialbrineprocesses.Byitselfthesodiumionis
H2Scanbereadilyoxidizedbychlorineorozoneto
rarelyaproblem,butwhenitssaltsarethesource
eliminatesulfur.
ofchlorides(Cl)orhydroxides(OH),itcancause
corrosionofboilers,andathighconcentrations
Radon
(suchasseawater)itwillcorrodestainlesssteels.
Radonisawatersolublegasproducedbythede
Potassium cayofradiumanditsisotopes.Itistheheaviestgas
knownandoccursnaturallyingroundwaterfrom
Potassiumisanessentialelementmostoftenfound
contactwithgraniteformations,phosphateand
withchloride(KCl)andhassimilareffectsbutisless
uraniumdeposits.Prolongedexposuremaycause
commonthansodiumchloride.Itisusedinsome
humanhealthproblemsincludingcancer.
industrialprocesses.ThepresenceofKClistypically
aproblemwhenonlyultrapurewaterqualityisre
quired. HeavyMetals
Heavymetalssuchaslead,arsenic,cadmium,se
Phosphate
leniumandchromiumwhenpresentabovecer
Mostphosphates(PO4 3)commonlyentersurface tainlevelscanhaveharmfuleffectsonhuman
watersuppliesthroughrunoffoffertilizersandde health.Inaddition,minuteconcentrationsmayin
tergentsinwhichphosphatesarecommoningre terferewiththemanufactureandeffectivenessof
dients.Phosphatesalsoenterthehydrologiccycle pharmaceuticalproducts,aswellaslaboratoryand
throughthebreakdownoforganicdebris. industrialprocessesofasensitivenature.
Phosphatesareusedinmanyantiscalantformula
tions.Atthelevelsfoundinmostwatersupplies DissolvedOrganicCompounds
phosphatesdonotcauseaproblemunlessul
trapurewaterisrequired.Phosphatesmayfoster Dissolvedorganicmaterialsoccurinwaterbothas
algaebloomsinsurfacewatersoropenstorage theproductofmaterialdecompositionandaspollu
tanks. tionfromsyntheticcompoundssuchaspesticides.

NaturallyOccurring
DissolvedGases
Tannins,humicacidandfulvicacidsarecommon
CarbonDioxide naturalcontaminants.Theycausecolorinthewater
anddetractfromtheaestheticsofwaterbut,unless
Dissolvedcarbondioxide(CO2)associateswithwa
theyreactwithcertainhalogens,theyhaveno
termoleculestoformcarbonicacid(H2CO3),reduc
knownhealthconsequencesinnormalconcentra
ingthepHandcontributingtocorrosioninwater
tions.Inthepresenceoffreehalogencompounds
lines,especiallysteamandcondensatelines.Car
(principallychlorineorbromine),theyformchlorin
bonicacid,inturn,dissociatestobicarbonate
atedhydrocarbonsandtrihalomethanes(THMs),
(HCO3 )orcarbonate(CO3 2),dependingonpH.Most
whicharesuspectedcarcinogens.Maximumallow
oftheCO2foundinwatercomesnotfromtheat
ablelimitsofTHMsinmunicipalsystemshavebeen
mospherebutfromcarbonatethatthewaterhas
imposedbytheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalPro
dissolvedfromrockformations.
tectionAgency(EPA).

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M1003ENMar09 Page9

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IdentifyingImpurities

SyntheticOrganicCompounds(SOCs) RadioactiveConstituents
Awidevarietyofsyntheticcompoundswhichare Waterinitselfisnotradioactivebutmaycontain
potentialhealthhazardsarepresentinwatersys radionuclides.Theyareintroducedeitherasnatu
temsduetotheuseofindustrialandagricultural rallyoccurringisotopes(veryrare)orrefinednucle
chemicals.Thesecompoundsarenotreadilybiode arproductsfromindustrialormedicalprocesses,
gradableandleachfromsoilorarecarriedbyrun radioactivefalloutornuclearpowerplants.
offintowatersources.Manyaresuspected
carcinogensandareregulatedbytheEPA.

VolatileOrganicCompounds(VOC)
Duetorelativelylowmolecularweight,manysyn
theticorganiccompoundssuchascarbontetra
chloride,chloroformandmethylenechloridewill
easilyvolatilize.Volatilityisthetendencyofacom
poundtopassintothevaporstate.Mostareintro
ducedintothewatersupplyintheirliquidphase.If
ingestedtheymaybeabsorbedintotheblood
stream.Manyaresuspectedcarcinogens.

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Page17
MethodsofWaterPurification

ply,removeslargeparticulatemattertoprotect
Section4 downstreamequipmentfromclogging,fouling,or
MethodsofWaterPurification physicaldamage.

Watertreatmentcanbedefinedasanyprocedure Clarification
ormethodusedtoalterthecompositionorbehav
iorofawatersupply.Watersuppliesareclassified Clarification(Figure5)isgenerallyamultisteppro
aseithersurfacewaterorgroundwater.Thisclassi cesstoreduceturbidityandremovesuspended
ficationoftendeterminestheconditionandthere matter.First,theadditionofchemicalcoagulantsor
forethetreatmentofthewater.Themajorityof pHadjustmentchemicalsreacttoformfloc.The
publicormunicipalwatercomesfromsurfacewa flocsettlesbygravityinsettlingtanksorisremoved
tersuchasrivers,lakesandreservoirs.Themajority asthewaterpercolatesthroughagravityfilter.The
ofprivatewatersuppliesconsistofgroundwater clarificationprocesseffectivelyremovesparticles
pumpedfromwells. largerthan25microns.Clarificationstepsmayalso
betakentoreducenaturallyoccurringiron,andto
removecolors,taste,andodorbyaddingstrong
4.1MunicipalorUtilityWater oxidizingagentssuchaschlorine.Wheregravity
filtersareused,activatedcarbonslurriesaresome
Treatment
timesaddedtoaidincolorandodorremoval.
Mostmunicipalwaterdistributedinacityorcom
Clarificationcanremoveahighpercentageofsus
munitytodayhasbeentreatedextensively.Specific
pendedsolidsatarelativelylowcostpergallon.
watertreatmentmethodsandstepstakenbymu
However,mostclarificationprocesseswillnotre
nicipalitiestomeetlocal,stateornationalstand
movealltypesofsuspendedorcolloidalcontami
ardsvary,butarecategorizedbelow.
nationandremovefewdissolvedsolids.Theclarifi
clarificationprocessisnot100%efficienttherefore,
ScreenPrefiltration watertreatedthroughclarificationmaystillcontain
somesuspendedmaterials.
Acoarsescreen,usually50to100mesh(305to140
microns),attheintakepointofasurfacewatersup

Figure5:Clarifier

M1003ENMar09 Page11

Page18
MethodsofWaterPurification

LimeSodaAshTreatment 4.2OnSiteTreatment
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Theadditionoflime(CaO)andsodaash(Na2CO3) Afterthewaterisdeliveredfromtheutilityorthe
reducesthelevelofcalciumandmagnesiumandis well,therearemanyonsiteoptionsforfurther
referredtoaslimesoftening.Thepurposeoflime treatmenttomeetspecificenduserequirements.
softeningistoprecipitatecalciumandmagnesium
hydroxides(hardness)andtohelpclarifythewater.
Theprocessisinexpensivebutonlymarginallyef ChemicalAddition
fective,usuallyproducingwaterof50to120ppm(3
pHAdjustment
to7gpg)hardness.Ashortcomingofthisprocessis
thehighpHofthetreatedwater,usuallyinthe8.5 Certainchemicals,membranes,ionexchangeres
to10.0range.UnlessthepHisbufferedtoapproxi insandothermaterialsaresensitivetospecificpH
mately7.5to8.0,theconditionofthewaterisusu conditions.Forexample,preventionofacidcorro
allyunacceptableforgeneralprocessuse. sioninboilerfeedwatertypicallyrequirespHad
justmentintherangeof8.3to9.0.

Disinfection ToraisepH,sodaashorcausticsodamaybeinex
pensivelyadded.However,bothcausehandling
Disinfectionisoneofthemostimportantstepsin difficulties,requirefinetuning,andaddtotheTDS.
municipalwatertreatment.Usuallychlorinegasis
fedintothesupplyafterthewaterhasbeenclari ToreducepH,abufferingsolutionsuchassulfuric
fiedand/orsoftened.Thechlorinekillsbacteria.In acid(H2SO4)isaddedintotheflowwithachemical
ordertomaintainthekillpotentialanexcessof lyresistantpump(Figure6).
chlorineisfedintothesupplytomaintainaresidual.
Thechlorinelevelatoutlyingdistributionpointsis
usuallymonitoredatatargetlevelofabout0.2to
0.5ppm.However,ifthewatersupplyisheavily
contaminatedwithorganics,thechlorinemayreact
toformchloraminesandcertainchlorinatedhydro
carbons(THMs),manyofwhichareconsideredcar
cinogenic.Inothercasesthechlorinecandissipate
andnoresiduallevelismaintainedatthepointof
use,allowingmicrobialgrowthtooccur.Toprevent
thisproblem,somemunicipalitiesaddammoniaor
othernitrogencompoundstocreatechloramines.
TheNH2Clcompoundsformedhaveamuchlonger
halflife,allowingameasurablechlorineresidualto
bemaintainedtoextremepointsofuse.Theresid
ualchloraminesmayposetheirownproblems.

pHAdjustment
Figure6:ChemicallyResistantPump
MunicipalwatersmaybepHadjustedtoapproxi
mately7.5to8.0topreventcorrosionofwater
pipesandfixtures,particularlytopreventdissolu Dispersants
tionofleadintoapotablewatersupply.Inthecase
ofexcessivealkalinity,thepHmaybereducedby Dispersants,alsoknownasantiscalants,areadded
whenscalingmaybeexpectedduetotheconcen
theadditionofacid.Thealkalinitywillconvertto
trationofspecificionsinthestreamexceedingtheir
CO2.
solubilitylimit.Dispersantsdisruptcrystalformation,
therebypreventingtheirgrowthandsubsequent
precipitation.

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MethodsofWaterPurification

Sequestering(Chelating)Agents ea(12.15m3/hperm2),withatleasta30inch(76.2
cm)filterbeddepth.
Sequesteringagentsareusedtopreventthenega
tiveeffectsofhardnesscausedbythedepositionof Anotherimportantdesigncriterionisbackwash
Ca,Mg,Fe,MnandAl. flowrate.Backwashflowratesareafunctionof
backwashwatertemperature,type,size,anddensi
OxidizingAgents tyofmedia,andthespecificdesignofthepressure

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Oxidizingagentshavetwodistinctfunctions:asa filter.Mediawithdensitiesof90100lb/ft 3generally
require12to16gpm/ft2ofbedarea.Lessdense
biocide,ortoneutralizereducingagents.Forinfor
mediamayuselowerbackwashrates.Verycold
mationonbiocides,seethesectionondisinfection.
waterusessomewhatlowerbackwashrates,and
warmerwaterrequireshigherrates.Thetablebe
PotassiumPermanganate
lowexpressesthisrelationshipasafunctionoftank
Potassiumpermanganate(KMnO4)isastrongoxi diameter.Therearemanytypesoffiltermediabut
dizingagentusedinmanybleachingapplications.It allofthemshouldfollowtheflowrateguidelinesin
willoxidizemostorganiccompoundsandisoften Table6.
usedtooxidizeironfromtheferroustotheferric
formforferricprecipitationandfiltration. Table6:PressureFilterSizeChart

ReducingAgents Minimum
Tank Maximum Backwash
Reducingagents,likesodiummetabisulfite Diameter BedArea ServiceFlow Flow
(Na2S2O5),areaddedtoneutralizeoxidizingagents inch(mm) ft2(cm2 ) gpm(m3 /h) gpm(m3 /h)
suchaschlorineorozone.Inmembraneandion
8(203)0.35(325)1.7(0.4)2.8(0.6)
exchangesystems,reducingagentshelpprevent
thedegradationofmembranesorresinssensitive 10(254)0.55(511)2.7(0.6)4.4(1.0)
tooxidizingagents.Reducingagentsaremetered 13(330)0.92(855)4.6(1.0)7.4(1.7)
intosolutionandallowedenoughresidencetimefor
16(406)1.4(1301)7.0(1.6)11.2(2.5)
chemicalneutralization.Maintenanceofaresidual
continuestoeliminatetheoxidizingagent. 20(508)2.2(2044)10.9(2.5)17.6(4.0)
30(762)4.9(4552)24.5(5.6)39.2(8.9)

TankTypePressureFilters 42(1067)9.6(8918)48.0(10.9)76.8(17.4)

Thereareseveraltypesofsocalledpressurefilters NOTE:Minimumbackwashflowratesmaybehigherfor
available,eachperformingaspecializedtask.Asin somedensemediaorwarmerwater[over77F
gledescriptionoftheequipmentmechanicsissuffi (25C)].
cienttounderstandtheprincipal.
Someexamplesofpressurefiltersandtheirapplica
Atypicalfilterconsistsofatank,thefiltermedia,
tionsare:
andvalvesoracontrollertodirectthefilterthrough
itsvariouscyclestypicallyservice,backwashand
SandFilters
rinse.
Sandisonefiltrationmediumusedtoremovetur
Easilythemostcriticalaspectofpressurefilterper
bidity.Sandfilterscaneconomicallyprocesslarge
formanceistherelationshipofflowratestofilter
volumes,buthavetwolimitations.Thefinersand
bedareaandbeddepth.Thisrelationshipisthe
mediumislocatedontopofcoarsersupportmedia,
primarycauseoftroubleandpoorperformancein
whichcausesthefiltertoplugquicklyandrequires
filtersystems.Ifproblemsdevelop,themostcom
frequentbackwashing.Also,thecoarsenessofsand
monreasonisthatmanyfiltersareinaccurately
mediaallowssmallersuspendedsolidstopass,so
sizedforthejob.Thenominalflowrateintheser
secondaryfilterswithtightermediaareoftenre
vicecycledependsonbedareaavailableandgen
quired.
erallyshouldnotexceedanominalrateof5gallons
(18.8L)perminute(gpm)persquarefootofbedar

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Page20
MethodsofWaterPurification

NeutralizingFilters removeparticlesdownto5micronsandbelow,in
cludingsomeremovalofprotozoaandevenbacte
Neutralizingfiltersusuallyconsistofacalciumcar
ria.Themediummustbechangedfrequentlyand
bonate,calcitemedium(crushedmarble)toneutral
presentsawastedisposalproblem.Precoatfilters
izetheacidityinlowpHwater.
aremostpracticalforlimitedvolumeapplications
andarecommonforswimmingpools,beverage
OxidizingFilters
plants,andcertainindustrialapplications.
Oxidizingfiltersuseamediumtreatedwithoxides
ofmanganeseasasourceofoxygentooxidizea
numberofcontaminantsincludingiron,manganese
andhydrogensulfide.Theoxidizedcontaminants
formaprecipitatethatiscapturedbytheparticle
filtrationcapacityofthemedium.

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ActivatedCarbonFilters
Activatedcarbon(AC)issimilartoionexchange
resinindensityandporosity.Itadsorbsmanydis
solvedorganicsandeliminateschlorineorother Figure7:PreCoatFilter
halogensinwater.Itdoesnotremovesalts.ACfil
tersareoneoftheonlylowcostmethodsavailable
toremovelowmolecularweight(<100MW)organ CartridgeFilters
icsandchlorine.
Cartridgefilterswereonceconsideredonlyasa
ACfiltersmaybecomeabreedingsiteforbacteria pointofusewatertreatmentmethodforremoval
andpyrogenicmaterials.Thecarbonmustbesani oflargerparticles.However,breakthroughsinfilter
tizedorchangedperiodicallytoavoidbacterial design,suchasthecontrolleduseofblownmicrofi
growth,andwhenalladsorptionsitesareusedit berfilters(asopposedtowrappedfabricoryarn
mustbereactivatedbyacontrolledheatprocess. woundfilters),havetremendouslybroadenedcar
Thisisnoteasilyreactivatedinthefield.Thesus tridgefilterutilization.Cartridgefiltersfallintotwo
pendedsolidsaccumulatedinthebedfrommost categories:depthfiltersorsurfacefilters.
watersourcesrequirefrequentbackwashingofthe
filterunlessinstalledafterreverseosmosisorultra DepthCartridgeFilters
filtration.
Inadepthcartridgefilterthewaterflowsthrough
DualorMultiMediaFilters thethickwallofthefilterwheretheparticlesare
trappedthroughoutthecomplexopeningsinthe
Progressivelyfinerlayersoffiltermediatrapin medium.Thefiltermaybeconstructedofcotton,
creasinglysmallerparticles.Thearrangementofthe celluloseandsyntheticyarns,choppedfibersbound
media(coarseandlessdenseontopoffinerhigher byadhesives,orblownmicrofibersofpolymers
densityplaceddeeperinthebed)enablesthefilter suchaspolypropylene.
torunforlongerperiodsoftimebeforebackwash
ingisnecessary.Dualmediafiltersremovesus Themostimportantfactorindeterminingtheeffec
pendedsolidstoaslowas1020micronsinsize, tivenessofdepthfiltersisthedesignoftheporosity
butnodissolvedsolids.Thetoplayerisatypically throughoutthethickwall.Thebestdepthfiltersfor
coarseanthracitefollowedbyfinesand. manyapplicationshavelowerdensityontheout
sideandprogressivelyhigherdensitytowardthe
insidewall.Theeffectofthisgradeddensity(Fig
PreCoatFilters ure8)istotrapcoarserparticlestowardtheoutside
Precoatfiltersuseafilteraidmedium,usuallya ofthewallandthefinerparticlestowardtheinner
wall.Gradeddensityfiltershaveahigherdirt
diatomaceousearth(DE)slurrywhichisputona
holdingcapacityandlongereffectivefilterlifethan
coarsersupportmediumandused(Figure7)tore
moveverysmallparticulatematter.DEfilterscan depthfilterswithconstantdensityconstruction.

Page14 M1003ENMar09

Page21
MethodsofWaterPurification

surface.Themediaarepleatedtoincreaseusable
surfacearea.Pleatedfiltersareusuallynotcost
effectiveforwaterfiltration,whereparticlesgreater
thanonemicronquicklyplugthem.However,pleat
edmembranefiltersservewellassubmicronparti
cleorbacteriafiltersinthe0.1to1.0micronrange
andareoftenusedtopolishwaterafterdepthfilters
andothertreatmentstepsincriticalapplications.
Figure8:Depthvs.SurfaceMedia Pleatedfiltersareusuallydisposablebyincinera
tion,sincetheyareconstructedwithpolymericma
terials,includingthemembrane.Newercartridges
Disposalofspentcartridgesisanenvironmental alsoperformintheultrafiltrationrange:0.005to
concernhowever,somecartridgeshavethead 0.15micron.
vantageofbeingeasilyincinerated.

Depthcartridgefilters(Figure9)areusuallydispos
ableandcosteffective,andareavailableinthe
particleremovalsizerangeof0.5to100microns.
Generally,theyarenotanabsolutemethodoffil

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trationsinceasmallamountofparticleswithinthe
micronrangemaypassintothefiltrate.However,
thereareanincreasingnumberofdepthfiltersin
themarketplacethatfeaturenearabsolutereten
tionratings.

Figure10:PleatedFilters(SurfaceFiltration)

Ultrafiltration(UF)CartridgeFilters
UFmembranecartridges(Figure11)performmuch
finerfiltrationthandepthfiltersbutaremoreex
pensiveandrequirereplacementasthefilterbe
comesblinded,i.e.,coveredwithanimpervious
Figure9:MicrofiberDepthCartridgeFilters thincoatingofsolids.Typicallythesmallerthepore
themorequicklythisblindingoccurs.Toavoid
blindingofthepores,pointofuseultrafiltration
SurfaceFiltrationPleatedCartridgeFilters cartridgesarebuiltinaspiralwoundconfiguration
toallowcrossflowmodeoperationtohelpkeepthe
Pleatedcartridgefilters(Figure10)typicallyactas
surfacefilters.Flatsheetmedia,eithermembranes surfacecleanbyrinsingawaythesolids.
ornonwovenfabricmaterials,trapparticlesonthe

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Page22
MethodsofWaterPurification

Ionexchangesystemsareusedinseveralways.

WaterSoftening
Theionexchangewatersoftener(Figure13)isone
ofthemostcommontoolsofwatertreatment.Its
functionistoremovescaleformingcalciumand
magnesiumionsfromhardwater.Inmanycases
solubleiron(ferrous)canalsoberemovedwithsof
teners.Astandardwatersoftenerhasfourmajor
components:aresintank,resin,abrinetanktohold
sodiumchloride,andavalveorcontroller.

Figure11:Merlin*PointofUseSystem

Pointofuseultrafiltrationcartridgesareusedto
removecolloids,pyrogensandothermacromolecu
larcompoundsfromultrapurewater.

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IonExchangeSystems
Anionexchangesystemconsistsofatankcontain
ingsmallbeadsofsyntheticresin(Figure12).The
beadsaretreatedtoselectivelyadsorbeithercati
onsoranionsandrelease(exchange)counterions
basedontherelativeactivitycomparedtotheresin.
Thisprocessofionexchangewillcontinueuntilall
Figure13:DuplexWaterSofteningResinTanks
availableexchangesitesarefilled,atwhichpoint
theresinisexhaustedandmustberegeneratedby
suitablechemicals.
Thesoftenerresintankcontainsthetreatedionex
changeresinsmallbeadsofpolystyrene.Theresin
beadexchangesitesadsorbsodiumionsanddis
placemultivalentcationsduringregenerationwith
610%solutionofNaCl.Theresinhasagreateraf
finityformultivalentionssuchascalciumandmag
nesiumthanitdoesforsodium.Thus,whenhard
waterispassedthroughtheresintankinservice,
calciumandmagnesiumionsadheretotheresin,
releasingthesodiumionsuntilequilibriumis
reached.

Figure12:RepresentationofIonExchangeResinBead

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MethodsofWaterPurification

Whenmostofthesodiumionshavebeenreplaced Cationdeionizationresins(hydrogencycle)release
byhardnessions,theresinisexhaustedandmust hydrogen(H+ )inexchangeforcationssuchascalci
beregenerated.Regenerationisachievedbypass um,magnesiumandsodium.Aniondeionization
ingaconcentratedNaClsolutionthroughtheresin resins(hydroxidecycle)exchangehydroxide(OH)
tanks,replacingthehardnessionswithsodiumions. ionsforanionssuchaschloride,sulfateandbicar
Theresinsaffinityforthehardnessionsisover bonate.ThedisplacedH+andOHcombinetoform
comebytheconcentratedNaClsolution.There H2O.
generationprocesscanberepeatedindefinitely Resinshavelimitedcapacitiesandmustberegen
withoutdamagingtheresin. erateduponexhaustion.Thisoccurswhenequilib
Watersofteningisasimple,welldocumentedion riumbetweentheadsorbedionsisreached.Cation
exchangeprocess.Itsolvesaverycommonformof resinsareregeneratedbytreatmentwithacid
watercontamination:hardness.Regenerationwith whichreplenishestheadsorptionsiteswithH+ions.
sodiumchlorideisasimple,inexpensiveprocess Anionresinsareregeneratedwithabasewhichre
andcanbeautomatic,withnostrongchemicals plenishestheresinwith(OH)ions.Regeneration
required. cantakeplaceoffsitewithexhaustedresinex
changedwithdeionizers(Figure15)broughtinbya
Thelimitationsofwatersofteningbecomeapparent servicecompany.Regenerationcanalsobeac
whenhighqualitywaterisrequired.Softening complishedonsitebyinstallingregenerabledesign
merelyexchangesthehardnessionsfornormally deionizerequipmentandbyproperuseofthenec
lesstroublesomesodiumionswhicharestillun essarychemicals.
suitableformanyuses.

Deionization(DI)
Ionexchangedeionizersusesyntheticresins(Figure
14)similartothoseinwatersofteners.Typically
usedonwaterthathasbeenprefiltered,DIusesa
twostageprocesstoremovevirtuallyallionicma
terialinwater.Twotypesofsyntheticresinsare
used:onetoexchangepositivelychargedions(cat
ions)forH+andanothertoexchangenegatively
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chargedions(anions)forOH.

Figure15:ExchangeTankDeionizer

Figure14:IonExchangeResin

M1003ENMar09 Page17

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MethodsofWaterPurification

TwoBedandMixedBedDeionizers
Thetwobasicconfigurationsofdeionizersaretwo
bedandmixedbed.

Twobeddeionizers(Figure16)haveseparatetanks
ofcationandanionresins.Inmixedbeddeionizers
(Figure17)thetworesinsareblendedtogetherina
singletankorvessel.Generallymixedbedsystems
willproducehigherqualitywater,butwithalower
totalcapacitythantwobedsystems.

Figure17:MixedBedDeionizer

OrganicScavenging
Organicscavengers,ortraps,containstrongbase
Figure16:TwoBedDeionizer
anionresinsincemostnaturallyoccurringorganics
haveaslightlynegativecharge.Aftertheresinis

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Deionizationcanproduceextremelyhighquality loadedtheorganicscanbedisplacedbytheClan
waterintermsofdissolvedionsorminerals,upto ionduringregenerationwithhighconcentrationsof
themaximumpurityof18.3megohms/cmre sodiumchloridebrine.
sistance.However,itgenerallycannotremoveor
ganics,andcanbecomeabreedinggroundfor DistillationandPureSteamGenerators
bacteriaactuallydiminishingwaterqualityiforgan
icandmicrobialcontaminationarecritical. Distillation(Figure18)isthecollectionofcon
densedsteamproducedbyboilingwater.Mostcon
Failuretoregeneratetheresinatthepropertime taminantsdonotvaporizeand,therefore,donot
mayresultinsaltsremaininginthewateroreven
passtothecondensate(alsocalleddistillate).
worse,beingincreasedinconcentration.Evenpar
tiallyexhaustedresinbedscanincreaselevelsof
somecontaminantsduetovaryingselectivityfor
ions,andmayaddparticulatesandresinfinesto
thedeionizedwater.

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MethodsofWaterPurification

Cooling
Water

Vent

Condenser

HighPurity
Chamber

Condenser
Coils

Distillate
Reboiler
Evaporator
Baffle
InletD.I.
Feedwater

Float
Feeder

ToFeed

Thermosyphon
Figure19a:MultipleEffectWFIStill

CondensateOutlet

Cooler

Condensate SteamHeat
Feedback Supply
Purifier

Figure18:DistillationProcess/SingleEffectStill
Schematic

Withaproperlydesignedstill,removalofbothor
ganicandinorganiccontaminants,includingbiolog
icalimpuritiessuchaspyrogens,isattained.Since
distillationinvolvesaphasechange,whenproperly
carriedoutbyacorrectlydesignedandoperated
still,itremovesallimpuritiesdowntotherangeof
10partspertrillion(ppt),producingwaterofex
tremelyhighpurity.Closecontroloverboilingtem
peratureandboilingrate,aswellastheseparation
ofsteamfrompotentialcarryover,isrequiredfor
thepurestwater.

Distillationiscomparativelyenergyintensive.How

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ever,thedevelopmentofmultipleeffectdistilla
tion(Figure19a)hasdramaticallyreducedthe
energyconsumptionrequiredversussingleeffect
units(Figure19b).Highertemperaturesteamis
usedrepeatedly,losingsomeheatineachstage
(effect)butsubstantiallyreducingoverallenergy
use.

Figure19b:SingleEffectStill

M1003ENMar09 Page19

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MethodsofWaterPurification

Electrodialysis
Electrodialysis(ED)andelectrodialysisreversal
(EDR)(Figure20)employelectricalcurrentandspe
ciallypreparedmembraneswhicharesemiperme
abletoionsbasedontheircharge,electrical
current,andabilitytoreducetheioniccontentof
water.Twoflatsheetmembranes,onethatprefer
entiallypermeatescationsandtheother,anions,
arestackedalternatelywithflowchannelsbetween
them.Cathodeandanodeelectrodesareplacedon
eachsideofthealternatingstackofmembranesto
drawthecounterionsthroughthemembranes,
leavinglowerconcentrationsofionsinthefeedwa
ter.

Theefficiencyofelectrodialysisdependsontheion
icsolidsandfoulingpotentialfromorganicsand
particlesinthefeedwater,thetemperature,theflow
rate,systemsizeandrequiredelectricalcurrent.

Organicsandweaklychargedinorganicsarenot
removedbyED.Recentdevelopmentshaveim
Figure19c:PureSteamGenerator
provedtheefficiencyofEDbyreversingthepolarity
oftheelectrodesperiodically.ThisiscalledEDRand
hasreducedthescalingandfoulingproblems
Todaythemostsignificantuseofstillsisinlabora
commontoED.
toriesandthebiotechnologyandpharmaceutical
industriesbecauseoftheircriticalconcernforbio
Cathode()
logicalcontamination.Distillationisthemostac
ceptedtechnologyforaconsistentsupplyof

pyrogenfreewaterwithouttheuseofchemical
additives.Carefultemperaturemonitoringisre Na +
Na +
quiredtoensurepurityandavoidrecontamination Na +
ofthepurifiedwater. Na +
Na +
Membranetechnologiessuchasreverseosmosis Na +
(RO)andultrafiltration(UF)areincreasinglyusedas
Cl Cl Cl

Cl Cl Cl
pretreatmenttodistillationtoreducemaintenance
Cl
Cl Cl
Cl Cl
Cl Cl
causedbyscalingandorganiccontamination,and
Cl Cl ClClClCl Cl
Na + Cl Cl Cl
toincreasedistillatequality.InmostcasestheRO Na +
systemremovesmostorganics,bacteriaandpyro Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Na+ Na+ Na+

Na +
gens,andthemajorityofthesalts.Thestillactsasa Na+
backupsystemforabsolutemicrobeandothercon Na + Na +
taminantremovalinassuringconsistentUSPWFI
quality(pharmaceutical)water(seeSection5.4). + + + + +
Somecombinationsofthetechnologiesareunique Anode(+)
enoughtoearnpatentprotection.
Figure20:ElectrodialysisReversal(EDR)System

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MethodsofWaterPurification

Electrodeionization(EDI) IonexchangeresinsinsidetheEDIstackremove
cationandanionimpuritiesfromthefeedwater,
Electrodeionization(EDI)buildsontheionex whichistypicallythepermeateofareverseosmosis
changedeionizertechnologyandusesthesame system.Anelectriccurrentflowsthroughthestack
principalsaselectrodialysis.EDIisanelectrochem
tocontinuouslyregeneratetheionexchangeresin.
icalprocessthatinvolvesionexchangeresinand
electricitytocontinuouslypurifywater. Watertobepurified,calledtheDilutewater,flows
throughtheDilutechambers.Thesechamberscon
taincationandanionexchangeresin,similartothat
foundinconventionalmixedbedortwobeddeion
izers.Theionexchageresinremovestheimpurities
fromthewater,creatinghighqualitywater,typical
lypolishingROpermeatewaterdowntolessthan
0.06microS/cm.

ADCvoltageisappliedacrossallthechambersin
theEDIstackbyplacingacathodeatoneendand
ananodeattheother.Thecathodeattractsthe
cationsintheionexchangeresin,whiletheanode
attractstheanions.Ionmigrationoccursasthe
ionsintheresintravelalongtheresinandthrough
theionexchangemembranes,intotheConcentrate
chamberstowardstheirrespectiveelectrodes:ani
onsalonganionresinandthroughtheanion
selectivemembranesintotheConcentratecham
berstowardstheanode,cationsalongcationresin
throughcationselectivemembranestowardsthe
cathode.

M1003ENMar09 Page21

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MethodsofWaterPurification

TheappliedDCcurrentalsodrivesawatersplitting OnceintheConcentratechamber,thecationscon
reaction,whichproduceshydroniumionsandhy tinuetheirmigrationtowardsthecathode.Thecat
droxylions.Theseionsaretheactiveingredientsin ionstravelacrosstheConcentratechamberand
acidandcausticusedinionexchangeresinregen eventuallyencountertheanionmembrane.The
eration,andcontinuouslyregeneratetheionex anionmembranedoesnotallowthecationstopass
changeresinintheEDIstacksothatitwill through,trappingthecationsintheConcentrate
continuouslyremoveimpuritiesfromthefeedwa chamber.Thesameprocessoccurswiththeanions
ter.Thesaltsdisplacedfromresinbeadsmigrateto intheoppositedirection.Thetrappedionsarethen
ionexchangesitesonotherbeadsandfinallytoion flushedoutoftheEDIstackthroughtheConcen
exchangesitesinthemembranesastheionscon tratebleed.
tinuetheirmigrationtowardstheConcentrate TheConcentratebleedisasmallportion(typically
chamber. lessthan10%)ofthefeedstreamfromtheRO,and
OnceionsareintheConcentratechambers,they canfloweithercocurrentwithorcountercurrent
areunabletoreturntotheDilutechambers.The totheDilutestream.
Concentratechambersareboundedbyacation TodaythemajorityofEDIisinstalledinmicroelec
membraneandananionmembrane,andarefilled tronics,powerandpharmaceuticalapplications,
withapatentpendingresinconfiguration.Cations wherehighpurityorultrapurewaterisrequired.
entertheConcentratechamberbypassingthrough
thecationmembrane.

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MethodsofWaterPurification

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CrossflowFiltrationSystems Dependingonthesizeoftheporesengineeredinto
(ReverseOsmosisandSimilarProcesses) themembrane,crossflowfiltersareeffectiveinthe
classesofseparationknownasreverseosmosis,
Reverseosmosis,inventedin1959,isthenewest nanofiltration,ultrafiltrationandthemorerecent
majormethodofwaterpurificationandoneofthe microfiltration.TheFiltrationSpectrum(Figure22)
typesofcrossflowmembranefiltration.Itisapro showstherelationshipamongtheporesizesand
cesswhichremovesbothdissolvedorganicsand contaminantsremovedduringeachprocess.
saltsusingamechanismdifferentfromionex
Crossflowmembranefiltrationallowscontinuous
changeoractivatedcarbon.Thepressurizedfeed
removalofcontaminantswhichinnormalflow
waterflowsacrossamembrane,withaportionof
filtrationwouldblind(coverup)orplugthemem
thefeedpermeatingthemembrane.Thebalanceof
braneporesveryrapidly.Thusthecrossflowmode
thefeedsweepsparalleltothesurfaceofthemem
ofoperationisessentialtotheseprocesses.
branetoexitthesystemwithoutbeingfiltered.The
filteredstreamisthepermeatebecauseithas
permeatedthemembrane.Thesecondstreamis
theconcentratebecauseitcarriesofftheconcen
tratedcontaminantsrejectedbythemembrane
(Figure21).Becausethefeedandconcentrateflow
paralleltothemembraneinsteadofperpendicular
toit,theprocessiscalledcrossflowfiltration(or,
erroneously,tangentialflow).

Figure21:CrossflowFiltration

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MethodsofWaterPurification

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Figure22:FiltrationSpectrum

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MethodsofWaterPurification

ReverseOsmosis(RO) Nanofiltration(NF)
Reverseosmosis(RO)wasthefirstcrossflowmem Nanofiltration(NF)equipmentremovesorganic
braneseparationprocesstobewidelycommercial compoundsinthe250to1000molecularweight
ized.ROremovesmostorganiccompoundsandup range,alsorejectingsomesalts(typicallydivalent),
to99%ofallions(Figure23).AselectionofRO andpassingmorewateratlowerdrivingpressures
membranesisavailabletoaddressvaryingwater thanRO(Figure24).NFeconomicallysoftenswater
conditionsandrequirements. withoutthepollutionofregeneratedsystemsand
providesuniquefractionationcapabilitiessuchas

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organicsdesalting.

Figure23:ReverseOsmosis

Figure24:Nanofiltration
ROcanmeetmostwaterstandardswithasingle
passsystemandthehigheststandardswithadou
blepasssystem.Thisprocessachievesrejections Ultrafiltration(UF)
of99.9+%ofviruses,bacteriaandpyrogens.Pres
Ultrafiltration(UF)issimilartoROandNF,butis
sureintherangeof50to1000psig(3.4to69bar)is
definedasacrossflowprocessthatdoesnotreject
thedrivingforceoftheROpurificationprocess.Itis
ions(Figure25).UFrejectssolutesabove1000dal
muchmoreenergyefficientcomparedtophase
tons(molecularweight).Becauseofthelargerpore
changeprocesses(distillation)andmoreefficient
sizeinthemembrane,UFrequiresamuchlower
thanthestrongchemicalsrequiredforionex
differentialoperatingpressure:10to100psig(0.7to
changeregeneration.
6.9bar).UFremoveslargerorganics,colloids,bac
teria,andpyrogenswhileallowingmostionsand
smallorganicssuchassucrosetopermeatethe
porousstructure.

Figure25:Ultrafiltration

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MethodsofWaterPurification

Microfiltration(MF) vantageisenhancedselfcleaningduetoturbu
lentflowatthemembranesurface.Thisfeature
Microfiltration(MF)membranesareabsolutefilters
dramaticallyreducesfouling,therebyenhancing
typicallyratedinthe0.1to3.0micronrange.
performanceandmembranelife.Spiralwoundde
Availableinpolymer,metalandceramicmembrane
signsalsoofferthegreatestselectionofmembrane
discsorpleatedcartridgefilters,MFisnowalso
material,allowinguserstotailorasystemdesign
availableincrossflowconfigurations(Figure26).
tosuittheirpurificationrequirements.
Operatingdifferentialpressuresof5to25psig(0.3
to1.7bar)aretypical.

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Figure27:SpiralWoundMembraneElement
(Sepralator)

HollowFineFiberElements
Figure26:Microfiltration
Hollowfinefiberelements(Figure28)consistofhol
lowfiberseachroughlythesizeofahumanhair.
CrossflowMFsubstantiallyreducesthefrequencyof Thousandsoffibersarecloselybundledineach
filtermediareplacementrequiredcomparedto housing.Thepressurizedfeedflowsslowlyoverthe
normalflowMFbecauseofthecontinuousself outsideofthefibersandpurewaterpermeatesto
cleaningfeature.CrossflowMFsystemstypically thecenter.Thenthewateriscollectedoutofpotted
haveahighercapitalcostthanMFcartridgefilter tubesheet.
systemshowever,operatingcostsaresubstantially
lower.

MembraneConfigurations
Crossflowmembranesaremanufacturedintovari
ousconfigurationstubular,hollowfiber,flatsheet
orspiralwound.Duetorelativeefficiencyand
economy,spiralwoundmembraneelements(called
sepralators)arebyfarthemostpopularforcross
flowwaterpurification. Figure29HollowFineFiberPermeator(Membrane
Element)
Sepralators(SpiralWoundMembrane
Elements)
Intheearly1970shollowfinefiberwaterpurifica
Sepralatorshavegainedthegreatestacceptancein tionsystemsgainedpopularitybecauseoftheir
themarket.Theyarethemostrugged,leakfree highproductivityresultingfromveryhighmem
andpressureresistantconfiguration.Thespiralde branesurfaceareas.Themajordisadvantageof
signallowsforoptimummembranesurfacearea thiselementistheamountofprefiltrationrequired
andfluiddynamicstoproduceahighpermeate tokeepthetightlypackedmembranesurfacefree
flowforthesizeofequipmentrequired.Sepralators ofseverefoulingduetothelaminarflowintheel
areavailablewithRO,NF,UF,andMFmembranes. ement.
Sepralators(Figure27)arequiteeasytomaintain
witharoutinecleaningprogram.Amajorad

Page26 M1003ENMar09

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MethodsofWaterPurification

HollowFatFiberElements Inmanycases,thesystemneedstobecleanedbe
foreitisdisinfected.Cleaninghelpstoremovebac
Hollowfatfiberelements(Figure29)areonlyused
terialfilmanddirtthatcanmaskbacteriaand
inUFandMFduetoburststrengthlimitations.The
virusesintheequipment.Thefilmwouldallowonly
pressurizedfeedflowisontheinsideofthefiber
andwaterpermeatestotheoutsideofthefiber.The thesurfacebacteriatobekilled,andthebacteria
fibersarepottedateachendinahousing.Their wouldquicklyreestablishthemselves.
selfsupportingnaturelimitsmaximumfeedflows.
70psid(4.8bar)isthepressurelimitthroughele Chemical
mentsconstructedwiththesesmallfibers.
OxidizingBiocides
Chlorine

Byfarthemostcommonlyusedbiocidebecauseof
itslowcostandhigheffectiveness,chlorineiswell
understood,acceptedandreadilyavailable.Chlo
rineismosteffectivebelowpH7.Themajordisad
vantageissafetyofhandling,particularlyforlarge
systemswhichusechlorinegas.

Chlorineisdosedcontinuallytomaintainresiduals
of0.2to2ppm.Periodicsanitationshocktreat
Figure29:HollowFatFiberElement
mentsareaccomplishedwith100200ppmcon

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centrationsfor30minutes.Caremustbetakento
DisinfectionControlofMicrobes ensurethatmaterialsofconstructionincluding
membranes,filtersandotheritemsarecompatible
Controlofmicroorganismpopulationsisessentialin andwillnotbedamaged.
maintainingtheperformanceofanywatersystem.
ChlorineGas
Anexampleisinultrapurewatersystemsinwhich
bacterialfoulingisaleadingcauseofcontamina Chlorinegasisthemostcosteffectiveformofchlo
tion,andcarefullymonitoredbacterialcontrolisa rineadditionforsystemsover200gpm(757Lpm).A
necessity. specialroomforchlorinestorageandinjectionis
requiredalongwithsubstantialsafetyprocedures.
Biologicalcontrolofawatersystemisaccom
plishedbymaintainingacontinuousbiocideresidu Forsmallersystems,chlorineisusedinformsin
althroughoutthesystem,orbysanitizingthe cludingsodiumhypochlorite(NaOCl)andcalcium
systemonaregularbasis.Acontinuousbiocidere hypochloritedihydrate[Ca(OCL)22H2O)]liquids.Both
sidualispreferablebecauseitkeepsbacterial areavailableatvaryingconcentrations.
growthincheckandpreventsbiofilms.However, Chloramines
insomehighpuritywatersystemsthisisnotpossi
Chloraminesareproducedbyreactingchlorinewith
ble,soregularsanitizationsareneeded.Ineither
case,oneofthemosteffectivecontrolmeasuresis ammonia.Chloraminesaremuchmorestablecom
tokeepthesystemrunningcontinuously,sincebac paredtochlorineandareusedinsomemunicipali
teriareproducemorequicklyduringshutdown.If tiestoensurearesidualwillbeavailableattheend
ofthedistributionsystem.Thedisadvantageover
thisisnotpossible,a15to30minuteflushevery
fourhoursishelpful. chlorineisthelongercontacttimerequiredbychlo
raminesfordisinfection.
Twoimportantconsiderationswhenusingabiocide
ChlorineDioxide
areconcentrationandcontacttime.Thehigherthe
concentration,theshorterthecontacttimeneeded Chlorinedioxide(ClO2)isaneffectiveformofchlo
foreffectivedisinfection.Otherfactorswhichaffect rinebutbecauseitismoreexpensive,itsuseislim
biocideactivityarepH,temperature,waterhard ited.ItismoreeffectiveathighpHandmore
ness,establishmentofabiofilmandgeneralclean compatiblewithsomemembranesthanchlorine.
linessofequipment. Anotheradvantageisstabilityinstorageatconcen

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MethodsofWaterPurification

trationsusedforsmallersystems.Itcandegrade
aromaticcompoundssuchashumicandfolicacids
fromsurfacewatersources.Itissomewhatcorro
siveandmustbehandledwithcare.
Ozone
Ozoneistwiceaspowerfulanoxidantaschlorine.
Ozone(O3)ismanufacturedonsitebydischarging
anelectriccurrentthroughair(Figure30).Theoxy
gen(O2)intheairformsO3whichishighlyreactive
andunstable.Ozonedoesnotaddanyioniccon
taminationbecauseitdegradestoO2.Ozonemust
bedosedintowateronacontinuousbasisbecause
ithasaveryshorthalflife(approximately20
minutesatambienttemperatures)insolution.In
certainapplicationsallozonemustberemovedpri
ortoenduse.Thismaybeachievedbyexposingthe
ozonatedwatertoultravioletlightwhichbreaks
downtheozonetooxygen.
HydrogenPeroxide
Aneffectivedisinfectant,hydrogenperoxide(H2O2)
doesnotaddcontaminantionstowaterbecauseit
degradesintoH2OandO2.Thisisanadvantagein
criticalsystemssuchasmicroelectronicswhere
lowlevelioniccontaminationisaconcern.Hydro
genperoxidecanalsobeusedonmembranesthat
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allyrequireshighconcentrationstobeeffectiveand
mustbecatalyzedbyironorcopper,whicharenot
presentinultrapurewatersystems.Withoutacata
lyst,uptoa10%(byvolume)solutionmaybere
quired,whichislesspractical.
Bromine
Figure30:OzoneGenerator
Asahalogen,bromine(Br2)issimilartochlorinein
itsactionsalthoughthecostofbromineisgreater.
Bromineisusedonalimitedbasis,mostoftenfor PeraceticAcid
thedisinfectionofindoorswimmingpoolsandspas. Arelativelynewdisinfectant,peraceticacid
Itmaintainsaresidualinwarmwaterbetterthan (CH3COOOH)existsinequilibriumwithhydrogen
chlorine,butdegradesrapidlyinsunlightfromthe peroxideandisusedmainlyindialysisequipment
ultravioletpartofthespectrum. disinfectionasareplacementforformaldehyde.Itis
Iodine claimedtohaveeffectivenesssimilartoformalde
Commonlyusedbycampersandthemilitaryfor hyde,butwithoutthehandlingdifficulties.Also,itis
microbialtreatmentforpotablewaterinthefield, compatiblewithsomemembraneswhicharenot
iodine(I2)isnotrecommendedonacontinuousba chlorinetolerant,andisasmallenoughmolecule
sisforpotablewaterbecauseofitspotentialillef topassthroughthemembraneanddisinfectthe
fectsonhumanthyroidmetabolism.Itcanbeused downstreamside.Itbreaksdowntononhazardous
atlowconcentrations(0.2ppm)tocontrolbacteria aceticacidandwater.Itsdisadvantagesarehigh
inROwaterstoragesystemshowever,itisapprox cost,toxicityinconcentrateddoses,instability,lack
imatelythreetimesmoreexpensivethanchlorine ofhistoricaleffectiveness,andcompatibilitywith
andwillstainathigherconcentrations. materialsofconstruction.

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MethodsofWaterPurification

NonoxidizingBiocides UltravioletLight(UV)
Formaldehyde(HCHO) Treatmentwithultravioletlightisapopularformof
Formaldehydehasbeenacommonlyuseddisin disinfectionduetoeaseofuse.Waterisexposedat
fectantbecauseofitsstability,effectivenessagainst acontrolledratetoultravioletlightwaves.Thelight
awiderangeofbacteria,andlowcorrosiveness.As deactivatesDNAleadingtobacterialreduction.
asporicide,formaldehydecanbeclassedasasteri Withproperdesignandmaintenance,UVsystems
lizingagent.Itisbeingphasedoutofgeneraluse aresimpleandreliableforahighreductioninbac
duetostringentgovernmentregulationsonhuman teria(99+%),andarecompatiblewithchemically
exposurelimits. sensitivemembraneandDIsystemswhichareof
tenincompatiblewithchemicals.
Alowconcentrationsolution,typically0.5%,isused
asastorageagentforROandUFmembranes,ion UVisusedtoreducemicrobialloadingtomem
exchangeresins,andstorageanddistributionsys branesystemsandtomaintainlowbacterialcounts
tems.Inhigherconcentrations,typicallya4%solu inhighpuritywaterstorageandrecirculationsys
tion,formaldehydeisusedasashocktreatmentto tems.Ifozonehasbeenaddedtowater,UViseffec
sanitizedialysisandotherhospitalwaterbased tiveindestroyingozoneresidualspriortoenduse.
systems.Todate,acompletesubstituteforformal UVwillincreasetheconductivityofwaterwhenor
dehydehasnotbeenfound. ganicsareinthesolutionduetothebreakdownof
theorganicsandformationofweakorganicacid.
QuaternaryAmmonium
ThedisadvantageofUVlightislackofanactivere
Quaternaryammoniumcompoundsaremost
sidual,anditiseffectiveonlyifthereisdirectUV
commonlyusedassanitizingagentsinpharmaceu
lightcontactwiththemicrobes.Carefulsystemde
tical,foodandmedicalfacilities.Thesecompounds
signandoperationisrequiredtoensurebacterial
arestable,noncorrosive,nonirritatingandactive
reduction.Inadequatelightmayonlydamagebac
againstawidevarietyofmicroorganisms.Surface
teria,whichcanrecover.Thewatermustbefreeof
activityisanadvantagewhencleaningisdesirable.
suspendedsolidsthatcanshadowbacteriafrom
However,quarternaryammoniumcompoundsmay adequateUVcontact.
causefoamingproblemsinmechanicaloperations
PointofUseMicrofiltration
andformfilmsrequiringlongrinsetimes.Quarter
naryammoniumcompoundsarenotcompatible Mostbacteriahavephysicaldiametersinexcessof
withsomepolymericmembranes. 0.2micron.Thus,a0.2micronorsmallerratedfilter
AnionicSurfactants willmechanicallyremovebacteriacontinuously
fromaflowingsystem.Pointofusemicrofiltration

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Anionicsurfactantshavealimitedbiocidalactivity iscommonlyusedinpharmaceutical,medical,and
againstthekindsofbacteria(gramnegative)com microelectronicsapplicationsasassuranceagainst
monlyfoundinpurewatersystems. bacterialcontamination.Tobeusedasasterilizing
filter,filtersmustbeabsoluterated(i.e.,complete
PhysicalTreatments retentionofparticlesequaltoorlargerthanthefil
termicronrating).Forpharmaceuticalandmedical
Heat
applicationsthesefiltersmustundergovalidation
Heatisaclassicformofbacterialcontrolandis bymeansofarigorousbacteriachallengetest.In
veryeffectivewhensystemsareproperlydesigned dividualfiltersmustbeintegritytestedwhenin
andinstalled.Temperaturesof80C(176F)are placeinthesystemtoensurethatthefilteris
commonlyusedinpharmaceuticalfacilitiesfor properlysealedanddefectfree.Thegreatestad
storageandrecirculationofUSPpurifiedwaterand vantageofmicrofiltrationisthatneitherchemicals
WFI.Heattreatmentabove80C(176F)isalso norheatisrequired.Filtersmustbechangedona
usedtocontrolmicroorganismsinactivatedcarbon regularbasistopreventthepossibilityofgrow
systems. throughorpressurebreakthrough.

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

Section5
ExamplesofHighPurity
WaterTreatmentSystems
Eachwaterpurificationsituationisdifferent.Feed Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare
watercompositionvariesaswidelyaspurification dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
requirements.However,somegeneralhardware andotherobjectives.

configurationsaredescribedherewhichhaveprov Figure31:HomeRO
enbothefficientandcosteffectiveforcommon
applications.
Feedwater:25gpghardness800ppmTDS
Feedwaterand/orproductwaterspecificationsmay 65F(18C)
varysubstantiallyfromthosedescribedhere,possi
blyrequiringadditionaloralternativetreatment
PreTreatment
methods.Awatertreatmentprofessionalshouldbe
consultedbeforedesigninganewwatertreatment WaterSoftener(24hoursofoperationbetween
systemormodifyinganexistingsystem. regenerations)
ActivatedCarbon(24hoursofoperationbe
tweenbackwashcycles)
5.1PotableWater
ResidentialWaterPurificationSystem ReverseOsmosisUnit

Withthegrowingawarenessofwaterqualitycon PermeateCapacity:41gph(155Lph)at77F(25C)
cernsamongthegeneralpublic,manyhomeowners at30psig(2.1bar)backpressure
areinstallingunderthesinkorpointofentrywater
purificationsystemstoaugmentmunicipaltreat StorageandDistribution
mentand/ortheirhomewatersoftenerorironfilter. PressurizedStorageSystem
Themostcompletesystemwouldusereverseos
mosistoreduceTDSbyapproximately90%,acti OptionstoConsider
vatedcarbontoadsorbsmallmolecularweight pHTestKit
organicsandchlorine,andfinalsubmicronfiltration
ChlorineTestKit
toremovecarbonfines,otherparticlesandbacteria
whichmaygrowinthecarbonfilter. PortableConductivityMeter

MostmunicipalwatersuppliesinNorthAmerica
meetorexceedtheWorldHealthOrganization
(WHO)standardforpotablewater.However,several
possibleareasofconcernexist,suchasTHMs,hy

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drocarboncompounds,andheavymetals.Withinthe
residence,contaminationfromleadsolderinthe
pipesmayalsobeaconcern.Productwater:upto1
gpm(3.8Lpm)ondemandremovalof90%oflead,
aluminum,andhydrocarboncompounds(Figure31).
Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare
dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
5.2CommercialScalePurified andotherobjectives.

WaterTreatmentSystem Figure32:CommercialWaterSystemwith
PressurizedStorage
Specifications:40gph(151Lph)requirement
pressurizedstoragedesiredwatertobeused
forrinsingglassware

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

ChemicalFeedSystemsforSodiumMetabisul
5.3WaterforPharmaceuticalUse
fiteandSodiumHydroxideAddition
Theprevailingwaterstandardsforpharmaceutical
usearesetforthbytheUnitedStatesPharmaco ReverseOsmosisUnits
poeia(USP).
PermeateCapacity:1200gpm(4800Lpm)and
TheUSPspecificationsrequirethatWaterforInjec 75%recovery
tion(WFI)beproducedonlybydistillationorre SecondPassRO
verseosmosis.PurifiedWatermaybepurifiedby
PermeateCapacity:900Lpmand70to75%
distillation,reverseosmosis,ionexchange,orbya
recovery
suitablemethod.

Thereisacleardistinctionbetweenpurifiedwaterand PostTreatment
WaterForInjection.WFImustalsomeetabacterial
StorageTankwith0.2micronAirFilter
endotoxin(pyrogen)specification.USPpurifiedwater
hasanumberofpharmaceuticalandcosmeticwater StainlessSteelDistributionPumpSystem
applications,includinghighervolumeusessuchas StorageTank
containerrinsing.WFIisusedforthepreparationof PressureReliefValve
parenteral(injectable)solutions.SeeAppendixforUSP
PurifiedWaterandWFIqualitystandards.
OptionstoConsider
CleanInPlaceSystem
USPPurifiedWaterSystem PortableConductivityMeter
PreTreatment pHTestKit
ChemicalFeedSystemforChlorineInjection ChlorineTestKit
DualMediaFilter OzonationSystemwithUVDestructforSanitiza
WaterSoftener tionofDistributionLoop

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Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsaredependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.
Figure33:USPPurifiedWaterSystem

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

USPWaterforInjection(WFI)System 5.4BoilerFeedandPower
Specifications:30gph(114Lph)designedto
GeneratorWater
meetspecifications
Therequirementsforwaterqualityvarygreatlywith
Feedwater:12.1gpghardness250ppmTDS
thetypeofboilersystem.Boilerwatertreatment
65F(18C)
constitutesascienceinitselfandanyattemptatan
indepthdiscussionwouldgobeyondtheintentions
PreTreatment
ofthispublication.However,somebasicapproach
ChemicalFeedSystemforChlorineInjection estomechanicaltreatment,ratherthanchemical
DualMediaFilter treatment,canbeoutlined.
WaterSoftener(24houroperationofsoftener Theprimaryconcernsarerelatedtoscalepreven
betweenregenerations)orchemicalfeedforre tion,corrosionprotection,andblowdowncontrol.
ducingpH

Table7:BoilerWaterIssues
ReverseOsmosisUnit
PermeateCapacity:42gph(159Lph)at77F Problem Cause Remedy
(25C)
Scale Water Watersoftener,reverse
Buildup hardness,silica osmosis,electrodeionizationor
ActivatedCarbonFilter
ionexchange

DistillationUnit CorrosionChlorides, Reverseosmosis,electro


HighVelocitySingleEffectStill oxygen deionizationorionexchange,
vacuumdegasifier
OptionstoConsider TOC Watersupply Reverseosmosis,activated
CleanInPlaceforRO organics carbon

PortableConductivityMeter Frequent HighTDS Reverseosmosis,electro


pHTestKit Blowdown deionizationorionexchange

ChlorineTestKit Althoughthisdescriptionmaybesimplistic,many
AutomaticStillControl commonproblemsrelatedtoboilerfeedcanbe
ResistivityMeter solvedbycontrollingwaterhardness,alkalinity,sili
caandtotalsolids.Thesimplestmethodtocontrol
mostoftheseproblemsisreverseosmosis.The
technologyisstraightforwardandcanreduce
blowdownfrequencybyafactorupto10.

HighPressureSteamGeneration
200gpm(757Lpm)requirement
Feedwater:500ppmTDS77F(25C)

PreTreatment
ChemicalFeedSystemforAdditionofChlorine
DualMediaSedimentFilter
Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare ChemicalFeedSystemforpHBuffering
dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.

Figure34:USPWaterforInjection(WFI)System

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

ReverseOsmosisUnit 5.5PotableWater/BoilerFeed/
PermeateCapacity:200gpm(757Lpm)at77F
(25C)
Humidification/GeneralRinse
Specifications:12gpm(45Lpm)somestorage
StorageandDistribution requireddesignedtomeetgeneralwaterre
quirementsfortheseandsimilarapplications
StorageTankwith0.2micronAirFilter
Feedwater:800ppmTDS77F(25C)
FloatSwitch
StainlessSteelDistributionPumpSystem
PreTreatment
PostTreatment ChemicalFeedSystemforAdditionofChlorine
TwoBedIonExchange,CationResin DualMediaSedimentFilter
ForcedDraftDegasifier ChemicalFeedSystemforpHBuffering
TwoBedIonExchange,AnionResin
Electrodeionization ReverseOsmosisUnit
MixedBedIonExchange PermeateCapacity:720gph(2725Lph)at77F
(25C)
OptionstoConsider
pHControllerIndicator StorageandDistribution
CleanInPlaceSystem StorageTankwith0.2micronAirFilter
PortableConductivityMeter FloatSwitch
pHTestKit StainlessSteelDistributionPumpSystem
ChlorineTestKit AccumulatorTank
ChemicalFeedSystemforChlorineInjection
SecondPassRO OptionstoConsider
pHControllerIndicator
CleanInPlaceSystem
PortableConductivityMeter
pHTestKit
ChlorineTestKit
ChemicalFeedSystemforChlorineInjection
UVLightonPermeateLine

Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare
dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.

Figure35:TreatmentSystemforHighPressureSteam
Generation

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Page40
ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

PreTreatment
ChemicalFeedSystemforChlorineInjection
DualMediaSedimentFilter
ChemicalFeedSystemforpHBuffering
HeatExchangerforPreheatingFeedH2O

ReverseOsmosis
PermeateRate2216gph(8388Lph)at77F
(25C)

VacuumDegasifier
Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare
dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired, ReverseOsmosisUnit
andotherobjectives.
PermeateRate:1662gph(6291Lph)at77F
Figure36:IndustrialBoilerFeed/Humidification
(25C)
System

Ozonator
1lb/day(0.45kg/day)
5.6WaterforElectronics
Theprocessofmanufacturingsemiconductorsre StorageandDistribution
quiressomeofthehighestqualityultrapurewater
StorageTankusingaNitrogenBlanket
attainable,andingreatquantities.Themostim
portantreferencestandardsarethoseoftheAmer FloatSwitch
icanSocietyforTestingandMaterials(ASTM)and TransferPump
SemiconductorEquipmentandMaterialsInterna
tional(SEMI).SeeAppendixforwaterstandards. PostTreatment
Achievingthishighqualityrequirestheuseofvirtu Electrodeionization
allyallthetechnologyavailabletothewatertreat PrimaryMixedBedIonExchange
mentspecialist.Chlorination,filtration,softening,
PolishingMixedBedIonExchange
carbonfiltration,reverseosmosis,electrodeioniza
tionorionexchangedeionization,ultrafiltration, MixedBedIonExchangePolisher
microfiltration,ozonation,vacuumdegasification, PostDI0.2micronFilterandHousing
andultravioletsterilizationareallcommonlyusedin Ozonation
theproductionofultrapurewater.Inadditiontothe
treatmenttechnologies,thedesignandoperationof
OptionstoConsider
thestorageanddistributionsystemsarealsoex
tremelycritical. CleanInPlaceSystem
PortableConductivityMeter

UltrapureWater(18megohm) UltravioletSterilizer

Specifications:30gpm(114Lpm)intermittent PointofUseFilterandHousing
somestoragerequired VacuumDegasifier
Feedwater:12gpghardness400ppmTDS OR
51F(11C)
UltrapureWaterPolishing(Ultrafiltration)

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

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Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsaredependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.

Figure37:ElectronicsGradeWaterSystem

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

5.7WaterforLaboratoryUse PostTreatment
PressurizedStorageSystem
Thestandardsforreagentgradelaboratorywa
teraresetbyASTMandtheCollegeofAmerican HighPurityWaterLoop
Pathologists(CAP).SeeAppendixforwaterstand Capacity:1gpm(4Lpm)
ards. SuggestedCartridges:

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Productionoflaboratorygradewaterusuallyin
volvessomecombinationofreverseosmosis,de ActivatedCarbon(1each)
MixedBedResin(2each)
ionization,anddistillation,whichcanbecategorized
asfollows: 0.2micronFinalFilter

Type MethodstoObtain

ASTMI RODI0.2micronMF
StillDI0.2micronMF

CAPI ROStillorRODI

ASTMII ROStillorDIStill

ASTMIII StillorROorDI(orcombination)
0.45micronMF
Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare
CAPII StillorDI dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.
CAPIII StillorROorDI(orcombination)
Figure38:PointOfUseSystem(ASTMTypeI)
ASTMIVStillorROorDI(orcombination)

Thesuggestedmethodsarerelativeandwill 5.8WaterforBeverage
changedependinguponfeedwaterquality,quantity
andflowrequired,plusdistributionconsiderations. Manufacturing
SeeAppendixforreagentgradewaterquality Muchattentionhasbeenfocusedrecentlyonthe
standards. qualityofwaterusedforbeverageproduction.The
termbeveragehereincludessoftdrinks,reconsti
ReagentGradeWaterforLaboratoryUse tutedjuicesandbottledwater.Whilerecognized
specificationsarelacking,concernsincludebacte
Specifications:10gph(38Lph)requirement
ria,sodium,alkalinity,waterhardnessandtotaldis
Systemdesignedforgeneraluselaboratory solvedsolids.Theseproblemsareincreasingas
gradewater localwatersuppliesvaryanddeteriorate,andcon
Feedwater:250ppmTDS10gpghardness sumersbecomemoresophisticatedintheirtaste
77F(25C) requirements.Also,theFoodandDrugAdministra
tion(FDA)hasdevelopedstandardsforsodiumla
PreTreatment beling.

WaterSoftener(24hoursofoperationbetween Becausetheparametersareoftensetbytheuser
regenerations) industryasopposedtoaregulatoryagency,the
followingideassuggestapproachestoeachindus
ReverseOsmosisUnit try.
PermeateCapacity:13gph(49Lph)at77F
(25C)

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

BottledWater DualMediaSedimentFilter
ChemicalFeedSystemforpHBuffering
PrimaryConcerns:bacteriaandyeasttotalsolids
content.
ReverseOsmosisUnit
Thebottledwaterindustrymustproduceaproduct
PermeateCapacity:50gpm(189Lpm)at77F
withintheguidelinesofcertaindefinitions.Apartial
(25C)
listincludesdistilledwater,purewater,spring
waterandmineralwater.Carefullydefinethere
StorageandDistribution
quirementandobtainadefinitionofthedesired
productwaterquality. StorageTankwith0.2micronAirFilter
FloatSwitch
TreatmentMethods:Inallcases,bacterialcontrolis
critical. StainlessSteelDistributionPumpSystem

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Disinfectionusingchlorinationorozonationisusu
PostTreatment
allyrequired.Wheretasteorchemicalsareacon
sideration,disinfectionbyozoneispreferred.The ActivatedCarbonFilter,SteamSterilizable
totalsolidscontentisusuallymosteconomically PostCarbonCartridgeFilter,5micron
controlledbyreverseosmosis.Thelabelonthebot SubmicronCartridgeFilter,0.2micron
tleshoulddefinethemethodofproduction.

OptionstoConsider
SoftDrinks pHControllerIndicator
PrimaryConcerns:bacteriaandyeast,sodium,alka CleanInPlaceSystem
linity,chlorine. PortableConductivityMeter
Forasoftdrinktobelabeledlowsodiumorsodi pHTestKit
umfree,theproductmustmeettheFDAsguide
ChlorineTestKit
lines.Usuallythisrequiresaformof
ChemicalFeedSystemforChlorineInjection
demineralization.Onceagain,reverseosmosisis
oftenthemethodofchoiceduetoeaseofoperation
andeconomics.

Juices
PrimaryConcern:bacteriaandyeast.

Becausereverseosmosisremovesmorethan99%
ofbacteriafromhighvolumesofwater,itisa
commontreatmentmethodforjuicewater.Ozone
sanitationisalsoaneffectivemethod.Chemical
disinfectionmethodssuchaschlorinemayimpact
thetasteofthebeverage.

BeverageWaterRequirements
Specifications:50gpm(189Lpm)somestorage
requireddesignedtomeetlowsodiumre
quirementsforsoftdrinks
Feedwater:800ppmTDS,77F(25C) Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsare
dependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.
PreTreatment
Figure39:BeverageWaterTreatmentSystem
ChemicalFeedSystemforAdditionofChlorine

M1003ENMar09 Page37

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ExamplesofHighPurityWaterTreatmentSystems

BottledWaterRequirements StorageandDistribution
Specifications:40gpm(151Lpm)somestorage ContactTower
requireddesignedtomeetlowsodiumwater OzoneDestructUnit
requirementsforbottledwater
StainlessSteelDistributionPumpSystem
Feedwater:650ppmTDS77F(25C)
OptionstoConsider
PreTreatment
pHControllerIndicator
ChemicalFeedSystemforAdditionofChlorine
CleanInPlaceSystem
DualMediaSedimentFilter
PortableConductivityMeter
ChemicalFeedSystemforpHBuffering
pHTestKit

ReverseOsmosisUnitorNanofiltrationUnit ChlorineTestKit

PermeateCapacity:40gpm(151Lpm)at77F StorageTank
(25C) Deionizer
Still
OzoneUnit
TransferPump

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Capacity:1lb/day(19gr/hr)

Typicalsystemusedtomeetstandards.Othermodificationsaredependentuponconcentrationoffeed,qualityofwaterrequired,
andotherobjectives.

Figure40:BottledWaterTreatmentSystem

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Page45
WaterPurificationintothe21stCentury

Section6
WaterPurificationintothe
21stCentury
Fourtrendsareoccurringthroughouttheworld
whichindicateincreasedapplicationsforwaterpu
rificationinthe21stcentury.Thefirstisdeterioration
ofwatersuppliesfromincreaseduseanddisposal
ofchemicals.Secondisthedevelopmentofincreas
inglysensitiveinstrumentscapableofdetectingwa
tercontaminantsinthepartsperbillionandeven
partspertrillionrange.Thirdisthegrowingsophis
ticationofthegeneralpublicsknowledgeofwater
qualityandtheregulatingauthoritiesresponsein
mandatinghighstandards.Fourthisthedevelop
mentofneworrefinedhightechnologyproducts
andbiotechnologyproductswhichrequireul
trapurewateraspartoftheirmanufacture.Water
treatmenttechniqueswillrequireevengreaterso
phisticationinyearsahead.

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Page46

AppendixA

Section7
Appendices
AppendixA:U.S.NationalDrinkingWaterRegulations(asofFebruary
1996)
Table1:SummaryofU.S.PrimaryDrinkingWaterRegulations(asofFebruary1996)

Current Proposed
Contaminant Unit MCL Status MCL2 MCLG1
PRIMARYREGULATIONS,INORGANICS
Antimony mg/L 0.006 Final 0.01/0.005 0.005
Arsenic mg/L 0.05 Interim
Asbestos(>10m) 7milfibers/L Final 7milfibers/L
Barium mg/L 2.0 Final 2.0
Beryllium mg/L 0.004 Final Zero
Cadmium mg/L 0.005 Final 0.005
Chromium(total) mg/L 0.1 Final 0.1
Copper mg/L 1.3 Final 1.3
Cyanide(Free) mg/L 0.2 Final 0.2
Fluoride mg/L 4.0 Final 4.0
Lead mg/L 0.015 Final Zero
Mercury mg/L 0.002 Final 0.002
Nickel mg/L 0.1 Final 0.1
Nitrate(asN) mg/L 10.0 Final 10.0
Nitrite(asN) mg/L 1.0 Final N/A

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TotalNitrateandNitrite(asN) mg/L 10.0 Final 10.0
Selenium mg/L 0.05 Final 0.05
Sulfate mg/L Proposed 500 500
Thallium mg/L 0.002 Final 0.0005
MICROBIALS
TotalColiforms3 Zero Zero
(presence/absence)
GiardiaLamblia Treatment Zero
technique
HeterotrophicBacteria Treatment N/A
(StandardPlateCount) technique
Legionella Treatment Zero
technique
Turbidity btu 0.5to1.0 N/A
Viruses Treatment Zero
technique
E.Coli Zero Zero
FecalColiforms Zero Zero

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Page47

AppendixA

Current Proposed
Contaminant Unit MCL Status MCL2 MCLG1
Cryptosporidium ProposedTreatment Zero
technique4
VOLATILEORGANICCHEMICALS
Benzene mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
CarbonTetrachloride mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
paraDichlorobenzene mg/L 0.075 Final 0.075
1,2Dichloroethane mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
1,1Dichloroethylene mg/L 0.007 Final 0.007
1,1,1Trichloroethane mg/L 0.2 Final 0.2
Trichloroethylene mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
VinylChloride mg/L 0.002 Final Zero
cis1,2Dichloroethylene mg/L 0.07 Final 0.07
1,2Dichloropropane mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
Ethylbenzene mg/L 0.7 Final 0.7
Monochlorobenzene mg/L 0.1 Final 0.1
Dichlorobenzene mg/L 0.6 Final 0.6
Styrene mg/L 0.1 Final 0.1
Tetrachloroethylene mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
Toluene mg/L 1.0 Final 1.0
trans1,2Dichloroethylene mg/L 0.1 Final 0.1
Xylenes(Total) mg/L 10.0 Final 10.0
PESTICIDES,HERBICIDES,PCBs
Alachlor(Lasso) mg/L 0.002 Final Zero
Aldicarb(Temik) mg/L Delayed 0.003 0.001
AldicarbSulfone mg/L Delayed 0.002 0.001
AldicarbSulfoxide mg/L Delayed 0.004 0.001
Atrazine mg/L 0.003 Final 0.003
Carbofuran mg/L 0.04 Final 0.04
Chlordane mg/L 0.002 Final Zero

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Dalapon mg/L 0.2 Final 0.2
Dibromochloropropane(DBCP) mg/L 0.0002 Final Zero
Dinoseb mg/L 0.007 Final 0.007
Diquat mg/L 0.02 Final 0.02
2,4D mg/L 0.07 Final 0.07
Endothall mg/L 0.1 Final 0.1
Endrin mg/L 0.002 Final 0.002
EthyleneDibromide(EDB) mg/L 0.00005 Final Zero
Glyphosate mg/L 0.7 Final 0.7
Heptachlor mg/L 0.0004 Final Zero
HeptachlorEpoxide mg/L 0.0002 Final Zero
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene mg/L 0.05 Final 0.05
Lindane mg/L 0.0002 Final 0.0002

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AppendixA

Current Proposed
Contaminant Unit MCL Status MCL2 MCLG1
Methoxychlor mg/L 0.04 Final 0.04
Oxamyl(Vydate) mg/L 0.2 Final 0.2
Pentachlorophenol mg/L 0.001 Final Zero
Pichloram mg/L 0.5 Final 0.5
Polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCBs) mg/L 0.0003 Final Zero
Simazine mg/L 0.004 Final 0.004
Toxaphene mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
2,4,5TP(Silvex) mg/L 0.05 Final 0.05
DRINKINGWATER,TREATMENTCHEMICALS
Acrylamide(0.05%dosed)at1mg/L Treatment Final Zero
technique
Epichlorohydrin(0.01%dosedat2mg/L)Treatment Final Zero
technique
ORGANICS
Benzo(a)pyrene mg/L 0.0002 Final Zero
Dichloromethane(MethyleneChloride) mg/L 0.005 Final Zero
Di(2ethylhexyl)adipate mg/L 0.4 Final 0.5
Di(2ethylhexyl)phthalate mg/L 0.006 Final Zero
Hexachlorobenzene mg/L 0.001 Final Zero
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene(HEX) mg/L 0.05 Final 0.05
1,2,4Trichlorobenzene mg/L 0.07 Final 0.07
1,1,2Trichlorethane mg/L 0.005 Final 0.003
2,3,7,8TCDD(Dioxin) mg/L 3x10 8 Final Zero
DISINFECTANTBYPRODUCTS
Bromodichloromethane mg/L Proposed N/A Zero
Bromoform mg/L Proposed N/A Zero
ChloralHydrate mg/L ProposedTreatment 0.04
Technique
Chloroform mg/L Proposed N/A Zero
Dibromochloromethane mg/L Proposed N/A 0.06
DichloroaceticAcid mg/L Proposed N/A Zero
HaloaceticAcids(Sumof5,HAA5) mg/L Proposed 0.060 0.030
(Stage1) (Stage2)
TrichloroaceticAcid mg/L N/A 0.3
Trihalomethanes(Sumof4,TotalTHMs) mg/L 0.10 Interim N/A

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mg/L Proposed 0.080 N/A
(Stage1)
mg/L Proposed 0.040 N/A
(Stage2)
Bromate mg/L Proposed 0.010 Zero
Chlorite mg/L Proposed 1.0 0.08

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AppendixA

Current Proposed
Contaminant Unit MCL Status MCL2 MCLG1
DISINFECTANTS(MAXIMUMRESIDUALLEVELS)
Chlorine mg/L Proposed4(asCl2) 4(asCl2 )
Chloramines mg/L Proposed4(asCl2) 4(asCl2 )
ChlorineDioxide mg/L Proposed0.8(asClO2 )0.3(asClO2 )
RADIONUCLIDES
GrossBetaandPhotonEmitters 4mrem/year Interim4mrem/year Zero
AdjustedGrossAlphaEmitters pCi/L 15 Interim 15 Zero
Radium226 pCi/L Proposed 20 Zero
Radium228 pCi/L Proposed 20 Zero
Radium226Radium228+ pCi/L 5 Interim
Radon pCi/L Proposed 300 Zero
Uranium g/L Proposed 20 Zero

Notes:
1Maximumcontaminantlevelgoal(MCLG)isanonenforceablegoalatwhichnoknownadversehealtheffectsoccur.
2Maximumcontaminantlevel(MCL)isafederallyenforceablestandard.
3Revisedregulationswillbebasedonpresence/absenceconceptratherthananestimateofcoliformdensity:effective
December1990.
4 TreatmentTechnique(TT)requirementsestablishedinlieuofMCLs:effectivebeginningDecember1990MCLfinal
forsurfacewatersonly.

Table2:USNonEnforceableSecondaryRegulationsSecondaryMaximumContaminantLevels(SMCLs*)

Contaminant SMCLs Contaminant SMCLs

aluminum 0.05mg/L manganese 0.05mg/L


chloride 250mg/L odor 3thresholdodornumber
color 15colorunits pH 6.58.5
copper 1mg/L silver
corrositivity noncorrosive sulfate 250mg/L
fluoride 2mg/L totaldissolvedsolids(TDS) 500mg/L
foamingagents 0.5mg/L zinc 5mg/L
iron 0.3mg/L

*SMCLsarefederal,nonenforceablerecommendationswhichestablishlimitsfordrinkingwaterconstituentsthatmay
affecttheaestheticqualityofthewater,andthepublicsacceptanceofitassafe(e.g.,tasteandodor).

Theselevelsrepresentreasonablegoalsfordrinkingwaterquality.Thestatesmayestablishhigherorlowerlevels,
whichmaybeappropriatedependinguponlocalconditionssuchaslackofalternatesourcewatersorothercompelling
factors,ifpublichealthandwelfareisnotadverselyaffected.

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AppendixB

AppendixB:ElectronicGradeWater
Fourtypesofelectronicgradewateraredescribedinthe1990GuidebyASTM.

Table3:ASTMD19StandardGuideforElectronicGradeWaterD512790(1990)

TypeEI TypeEII TypeEIII TypeEIV


Resistivity,megohmcm 18 17.5 12 0.5
minimum (95%oftime) (90%oftime)
nolessthan17 nolessthan16
SiO2(totalmaximum,g/L) 5 10 50 1000
ParticlecountpermL 1 3 10 100
Particlesizelimit,micron 0.1 0.5 1.0 10
Viablebacteria,maximum 1/1000mL 10/1000mL 10/mL 100/mL
Totalorganiccarbonmaximum,g/L 25 50 300 1000
Endotoxins1 ,EU/mL 0.03 0.25 N/A N/A
Coppermaximum,g/L 1 1 2 500
Chloridemaximum,g/L 1 1 10 1000
Nickel,mg/L 0.1 1 2 500
Nitratemaximum,mg/L 1 1 5 500
Phosphatemaximum,mg/L 1 1 5 500
Potassiummaximum,g/L 2 2 5 500
Sodiummaximum,g/L 0.5 1 5 1000
Sulfatemaximum,mg/L 1 1 5 500
Zincmaximum,g/L 0.5 1 5 500

Note1 Substancesorbyproductsusuallyproducedbygramnegativemicroorganismswhichgiveapositivetest
forpyrogens.
TypeEIElectronicGradeWater.Thiswaterwillbeclassifiedasmicroelectronicwatertobeusedintheproduction
ofdeviceshavinglinewidthsbelow1.0micrometer.Itisintendedthatthisbethewaterofultimatepracti
calpurityproducedinlargevolumesandforthemostcriticaluses.
TypeEIIElectronicGradeWater.Thiswatermaybeclassifiedasmicroelectronicwatertobeusedintheproduction
ofdeviceshavingdimensionsbelow5.0micrometers.Thiswatershouldbeadequateforproducingmost
highvolumeproductswhichhavedimensionsabove1.0micrometerandbelow5.0micrometers.
TypeEIIIElectronicsGradeWater.Thisgradeofwatermaybeclassifiedasmacroelectronicwatertobeusedinthe
productionofdeviceshavingdimensionslargerthan5.0micrometers.Thisgrademaybeusedtoproduce
largercomponentsandsomesmallcomponentsnotaffectedbytraceamountsofimpurities.
TypeEIVElectronicsGradeWater.ElectronicsGradeWatermaybeclassifiedaselectroplatingwaterfornoncritical
useandothergeneralapplicationswherethewaterisinconstantcontactwiththeatmospherebecauseof
tankstorage.

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AppendixB

Table4:SemiconductorEquipmentandMaterialsInternational(SEMI)SuggestedGuidelinesforPureWaterfor
SemiconductorProcessing(1989)

Thistablesummarizesthesuggestedguidelinesforpurewaterutilizedinsemiconductorprocessing.Thistableshould
notbepresentedorbeinterpretedwithoutconsideringtheinformationofSections15.
TestParameter Attainable Acceptable Alert Critical
Residue,ppm 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.5
TotalOrganicCarbon(TOC),ppm 0.020 0.050 0.100 0.400
Particulates,counts/liter 500 1000 2500 5000
Bacteria,counts/100mL 0 6 10 50
DissolvedSilica(SiO2)ppb 3 5 10 40
Resistivity,megohm/cm 18.3 17.9 17.5 17
Cations,ppb
Aluminum(Al) 0.2 2.0 5.0 *
Ammonium(NH4) 0.3 0.3 0.5 *
Chromium(Cr) 0.02 0.1 0.5 *
Copper(Cu) 0.002 0.1 0.5 *
Iron(Fe) 0.02 0.1 0.2 *
Manganese(Mn) 0.05 0.5 1.0 *
Potassium(K) 0.1 0.3 1.0 4.0
Sodium(Na) 0.05 0.2 1.0 5.0
Zinc(Zn) 0.02 0.1 0.5 *
Anions,ppb
Bromide(Br) 0.1 0.1 0.3 *
Chlorine(Cl) 0.05 0.2 0.8 *
Nitrite(NO2) 0.05 0.1 0.3 *
Nitrate(NO3) 0.1 0.1 0.5 *
Phosphate(PO4) 0.2 0.2 0.3 *
Sulfate(SO4) 0.05 0.3 1.0 *

*Valuesnotassignableatthistime
Inusingtheseguidelines,itshouldberecognizedthatsomevaluesmaydependonthetestingmethodandthe
calibrationtechniques.Consequently,theprogressionandinterrelationofvaluesmaybemoremeaningfulthanthe
absolutevalues.

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AppendixC

AppendixC:ReagentGradeWater
NationalCommitteeforClinicalLaboratoryStandards(NCCLS)(1991)
ReagentWaterSpecifications
Characteristics TypeI TypeII TypeIII
BacterialContent(colonyforming (1) 10 103 N/A
unitspermLmaximum)
pH NS NS 5.08.0
Resistivity(megohms/cm)@25C 0 1.0 0.1
Silicate(mg/LSiO2 Maximum) 0.05 0.1 1.0
ParticulateMatter(2) (2) 0.22mFilter NS NS
Organics (2) ActivatedCarbon NS NS
(1) PreferablyTypeIwatershouldbebacteriafree.
(2) Thesespecificationsareprocessspecificationsandarenotmeasuredbytheenduser.NSisnotspecified.

Table5:CollegeofAmericanPathologists(CAP)WaterStandards(1991)note:NCCLSreplacedCAPin1996

I II III
SpecificationsforConductance(microSiemens/cm) 0.1 0.5 10
SpecificationsResistance 10 2.0 0.1
[megohm/cm,25C(77F)] 10.0 2.0 0.1
Silica(mg/L) 0.05 0.1 1.0
HeavyMetals(mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.01
PotassiumPermanganateReduction(minutes) 60 60 60
Sodium(mg/L) 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hardness negative negative negative
Ammonia 0.1 0.1 0.1
MicrobiologicalContent(CFU/mL) 10 103
pH[25C(77F)] 5.0
CO2(mg/L) 3 3 3

Table6:ASTMD1193Specifications(1991)

I II III IV
Conductivitymaximum[microSiemens/cm25C(77F)] 0.056 1.0 0.25 5.0
MaximumResistivity[megohm/cm25C(77F)] 18.0 1.0 4.0 0.2
pH 5.08.0
TotalSilica(g/L) 3 3 500 nolimit
TOC(ppb) 100 50 200 nolimit
Sodium(ppb) 1 5 10 50
Chloride(ppb) 1 5 10 50
EndotoxinUnits(EU) <0.03 0.25 N/A
MaximumHeterotrophic A B C
BacteriaCount 10/1000mL 10/100mL100/10mL
Thesespecificationscoverrequirementsforwatersuitableforuseinchemicalanalysisandphysicaltesting.
Thechoiceofthevariousgradesmaybedesignatedbythemethodorbytheinvestigator.
N/A=notapplicable

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AppendixD

AppendixD:USP23WFIandPurifiedWaterStandards
USP23watermonographs(effective15November96) LabelingWherepackaged,labelittoindicatethe
methodofpreparation.

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WaterforInjection
WaterforInjection(WFI)iswaterpurifiedbydistillationor pH<791>between5.0and7.0determinedpotenti
byreverseosmosis.Itcontainsnoaddedsubstance. ometricallyinasolutionpreparedbytheadditionof0.30
mLofsaturatedpotassiumchloridesolutionto100mLof
Note:WFIisintendedforuseassolventfortheprepara
testspecimen.
tionofparenteralsolutions(i.e.,pharmaceutical
solutionsinjectedintothebody).Whereusedfor OxidizableSubstancesTo100mLadd10mLof2N
thepreparationofparenteralsolutionssubjectto sulfuricacid,andheattoboiling.Add0.1mLof0.1Npo
finalsterilization,usesuitablemeanstominimize tassiumpermanganate,andboilfor10minutes.Thepink
microbialgrowth,orfirstrendertheWFIsterile colordoesnotcompletelydisappear,orusetestfortotal
andthereafterprotectitfrommicrobialcontami organiccarbon.
nation.Forparenteralsolutionsthatareprepared
USP23requiresincomingfeedwatertomeetUSEPANa
underasepticconditionsandarenotsterilizedby
tionalDrinkingWaterRegulations.
appropriatefiltrationorinthefinalcontainer,first
rendertheWFIsterileandthereafter,protectit USPPurifiedWater WFI
frommicrobialcontamination. pH 5.07.0 5.07.0

PackagingandStorageWherepackaged,preservein ConductivitySpecifications:refertocharts
tightcontainers.Wherepackaged,maybestoredata TOC 500ppb 500ppb**
temperaturebeloworabovetherangeinwhichmicrobi Bacteria 100CFU/mL* 10CFU/100mL*
algrowthoccurs. Endotoxins 0.25EU/mL

ReferenceStandard(RS)USPEndotoxinReference *Guidelineonly
Standard. **oroxidizablesubstancestest

BacterialEndotoxinsWhentestedasdirectedunder
Stage1TemperatureandConductivityRequirements
BacterialEndotoxinsTest(85),itcontainsnotmorethan
(fornontemperaturecompensated
0.25USPEndotoxinUnitpermL.
conductivitymeasurementsonly)
OtherRequirementsWFImeetstherequirementsof
C F ConductivityRequirement
thetestsunderPurifiedWater.
Temperature Temperature (S/cm)*
0 32 0.6
PurifiedWater 5 41 0.8
PurifiedWateriswaterobtainedbydistillation,ion 10 50 0.9
exchangetreatment,reverseosmosis,orothersuitable
15 59 1.0
process.Itispreparedfromwatercomplyingwiththe
20 68 1.1
regulationsofthefederalEnvironmentalProtection
25 77 1.3
Agency(EPA)withrespecttodrinkingwater.Itcontains
noaddedsubstance. 30 86 1.4
35 95 1.5
Note:PurifiedWaterisintendedforuseasaningredient
40 104 1.7
inthepreparationofcompendialdosageforms.
Whereusedforsteriledosageformsotherthanfor 45 113 1.8
parenteraladministration,processthearticleto 50 122 1.9
meettherequirementsunderSterilityTests(71),or 55 131 2.1
firstrenderthePurifiedWatersterileandthereaf 60 140 2.2
terprotectitfrommicrobialcontamination.Donot 65 149 2.4
usePurifiedWaterinpreparationsintendedfor 70 158 2.5
parenteraladministration.Forsuchpurposesuse 75 167 2.7
WFI,BacteriostaticWFI,orSterileWFI. 80 176 2.7
PackagingandStorageWherepackaged,preservein 85 185 2.7
tightcontainers. 90 194 2.7
95 203 2.9
100 212 3.1

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AppendixD

*S/cm(microSiemenspercentimeter)=mho/cm=reciprocal rangeof5.0to7.0,thewaterdoesnotmeetthere
ofmegohmcm. quirementsofthetestforconductivity.

Stage3pHandConductivityRequirements(forat
USP23(continued) mosphereandtemperatureequilibratedsamplesonly)

pH (S/cm)*
Stage1
1.Determinethetemperatureofthewaterandthe 5.0 4.7
conductivityofthewaterusinganontemperature 5.1 4.1
compensatedconductivityreading.Themeasure 5.2 3.6
mentmaybeperformedinasuitablecontaineroras
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anonlinemeasurement. 5.3
5.4 3.3
3.0
2.UsingtheStage1TemperatureandConductivity 5.5 2.8
Requirementstable,findthetemperaturevaluethat
5.6 2.6
isnotgreaterthanthemeasuredtemperature.The
5.7 2.5
correspondingconductivityvalueisthelimitatthat
temperature. 5.8 2.4
5.9 2.4
3..Ifthemeasuredconductivityisnotgreaterthanthe
tablevalue,thewatermeetstherequirementsofthe 6.0 2.4
testforconductivity.Iftheconductivityishigherthan 6.1 2.4
thetablevalue,proceedwithStage2. 6.2 2.4
6.3 2.3
Stage2
6.4 2.3
4.Transferasufficientamountofwater(100mLor
6.5 2.2
more)toasuitablecontainer,andstirthetestspec
6.6 2.1
imen.Adjustthetemperature,ifnecessary,and,
whilemaintainingitat25C(77KF)1C,beginvig 6.7 2.7
orouslyagitatingthetestspecimenwhileperiodically 6.8 3.1
observingtheconductivity.Whenthechangein 6.9 3.8
conductivity(duetouptakeofatmosphericcarbon 7.0 4.6
dioxide)islessthananetof0.1S/cmperfive
minutes,notetheconductivity. *S/cm(microSiemenspercentimeter)=mho/cm=
reciprocalofmegohmcm
5.Iftheconductivityisnotgreaterthan2.1S/cm,the
watermeetstherequirementsofthetestforcon
ductivity.Iftheconductivityisgreaterthan2.1
S/cm,proceedwithStage3.

Stage3
6.Performthistestwithinapproximately5minutesof
theconductivitydeterminationinStep5,whilemain
tainingthesampletemperatureat25C(77F)
1C.Addasaturatedpotassiumchloridesolutionto
thesamewatersample(0.3mLper100mLofthe
testspecimen),anddeterminethepH,tothenearest
0.1pHunit,asdirectedunderpH<791>.
7.ReferringtotheStage3pHandConductivityRe
quirementstable,determinetheconductivitylimitat
themeasuredpHvalue.Ifthemeasuredconductivity
inStep4isnotgreaterthantheconductivityre
quirementsforthepHdeterminedinStep6,thewa
termeetstherequirementsofthetestfor
conductivity.Ifeitherthemeasuredconductvityis
greaterthanthisvalueorthepHisoutsideofthe

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AppendixE

AppendixE:MetricConversionsVolume(metricandU.S.liquid
measures)
From/To cm3 liter m3 in3 ft3 yd3 floz gal bbl(oil)bbl(liq)

cm3 1 0.001 1x1060.061023.53x1051.31x1050.033812.64x1046.29x1058.39x106

liter 1000 1 0.001 61.02 0.035320.00131 33.81 0.2642 0.006290.00839

m3 1x106 1000 1 6.10x104 35.31 1.308 3.38x104 264.2 6.290 8.386

in 3 16.39 0.016391.64x105 1 5.79x1042.14x1050.5541 0.004331.03x1041.37x104

ft3 2.83x104 28.32 0.02832 1728 1 0.03704 957.5 7.481 0.1781 0.2375

yd 3 7.65x105 764.5 0.76464.67x104 27 1 2.59x104 202.0 4.809 6.412

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floz 29.57 0.029572.96x1051.805 0.001043.87x105 1 0.007811.86x1042.48x104

flpt 473.2 0.47324.73x10428.88 0.016716.19x104 16 0.1250 0.002980.00397

flqt 946.4 0.94639.46x10457.75 0.033420.00124 32 0.2500 0.005950.00794

gal 3785 3.785 0.00379 231.0 0.1337 0.00495 128 1 0.023810.03175

bbl(oil)1.59x105 159.0 0.1590 9702 5.615 0.2079 5376 42 1 1.333

bbl(liq)1.19x105 119.2 0.1192 7276 4.211 0.1560 4032 31.5 0.7500 1

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AppendixF

AppendixF:SiltDensityIndex(SDI)
TheAmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials(ASTM) endofthisperiod,thetimerequiredtocollectasecond
CommitteeonWaterhasrecommendedtheSiltDensity 500mLsample(tf)ismeasured.Foraccuratemeasure
Index(SDI)testormicroporousmembranepluggage ments,tfshouldbenomorethanfourtimesthevalueof
testasamethodofindicatingthequantityofparticulate ti.Ifhigherthanthis,theelapsedtime(T)betweenread
matterinawatersupply.Thismethodisbasedonde ingsshouldbereduced.Changesintheproceduresuch
terminingtherateofpluggagewhenwaterispassed assampleamountsandtimesmaybeconsideredfor
througha0.45micronmembranefilterataconstant veryhighSDIvalues.TheSiltDensityIndexiscalculated
appliedpressure.TheSDIisanondimensionalnumber asfollows:
calculatedfromtherateofpluggage.Severalreverse ti
osmosiscompaniesuseSDIasameansofcorrelating 1 100
themaximumlevelofsuspendedsolidsallowableinthe tf
SDI =
feedwatertotheirsystemsinordertomaintainmem T
braneperformancewarranties.Somecompaniesrequire
Attheendofthetest,themembranefiltershouldbe
dailymeasurementandreportingofSDI.Manyspecifica
savedforfuturereferenceorforanalysisofthedeposit
tionsandwarrantiesforspiralwoundelementshave
todeterminewhatmaterialhascausedfouling.Itshould
calledforSDIvaluesoflessthanfour.
beevidentonthe0.45micronfilterthatflowhaspassed
throughtheentirefiltersurfaceareathismaybeaprob
Recommendations lematlowflowrates.

1.Reverseosmosiswaterpurificationsystemsshould Thereareseverallimitationswhichaffecttheabilityto

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use5microncartridgefiltersinordertoreducethe correlatethistestdirectlytofoulingandperformanceof
SDIlevelofthefeedwater.Ifothercartridgesizesare areverseosmosissystem:
used,theSDIbeforeandafterthefiltershouldbe 1.Inthisapparatus,allflowgoesthroughthemem
measured. branefilter,leavingasadepositallsuspendedsolids
2.FeedwaterSDIlevelsoflessthan10arerecom greaterthan0.45microns.Inreverseosmosis,there
mendedforwaterpurificationsystemstominimize isaparallelflowacrossthemembranesurfaceto
membranefoulingandextendrequiredcleaningin helpcarryawaysuspendedsolids.
tervalstotwoweeksorlonger.Ifwaterwithhigher 2.Theporesizeforthemembraneusedinthistestis
SDIlevelsisused,morefrequentcleaningshouldbe 0.45micronswhiletheporesizeislessthan0.002
anticipated. micronsforareverseosmosismembrane.
3.WhereSDIlevelsfollowingcartridgefiltersaregreat 3.Thistestdoesnottakeintoaccounttheeffectof
erthan1015,orwherefrequencyofcartridgefilter concentrationinareverseosmosissystem.Foulingis
changeoutsistoohigh,backwashablefiltersoroth sometimescausedbyconcentrationandprecipita
ersuitablepretreatmentshouldbeusedtoreduce tionduringprocessingratherthanbysuspendedsol
theloadingonthecartridgefilters. idspresentinthefeedwater.

Despitetheselimitationstheredoesappeartobeagen
ProcedureandDiscussion eralcorrelationbetweenSDIvalueandfouling.GEhas
beenevaluatingthistestmoreextensively,andwillre
Theresultsandconclusionsreportedabovearebasedon portadditionalresultsandconclusionsasthisinfor
testingconductedoverthelast15years.Thetestequip
mationbecomesavailable.
mentconsistsofaballvalve,apressureregulatorand
pressuregaugefollowedbyafilterholderwhichaccepts
a47mmdiameterfilterdisc.Thewatersupplytobe
testedisconnectedtothisapparatusandthepressure
regulatorisadjustedtoprovideaconstantpressureof30
psig(2.1bar)atthefilterholder.A0.45micronfilterdisc
isplacedintheholderandsealedwithan0ring.The
inletvalveisopenedandthetimetocollecta500mL
sample(ti)ismeasuredassoonasthereisaconstant
flowfromthefilterholder.Flowthroughthefilteriscon
tinuedforanelapsedtime(T)ofupto15minutes.Atthe

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AppendixG

TableB:TemperatureindegreesFahrenheit
AppendixG
UNITS
LangelierStabilityIndexes(LSI)
0 2 4 6 8
CaCO3SaturationIndex(LangelierIndex)(Basedonthe
30 2.60 2.57 2.54 2.51
LangelierFormula:LarsonBuswell:ResidueTempera
tureAdjustments:ArrangedbyNordell) 40 2.48 2.45 2.43 2.40 2.37

1.pHs=(9.30+A+B)(C+D) 50 2.34 2.31 2.28 2.25 2.22


(Note:ValuesofA,B,C&Dareobtainedfromtables 60 2.20 2.17 2.14 2.11 2.09
A,B,C&D) 70 2.06 2.04 2.03 2.00 1.97
2.SaturationIndex=pHpHs 80 1.95 1.92 1.90 1.88 1.86
Ifindexis0,waterisinchemicalbalance. 90 1.84 1.82 1.80 1.78 1.76
TENS
Ifindexisaplusquantity,scaleformingtendencies 100 1.74 1.72 1.71 1.69 1.67
areindicated.
110 1.65 1.64 1.62 1.60 1.58
Ifindexisaminusquantity,corrosivetendenciesare
120 1.57 1.55 1.53 1.61 1.50
indicated.
130 1.48 1.46 1.44 1.43 1.41
Example:Tofindthesaturationindexat124Fofwater
140 1.40 1.38 1.37 1.35 1.34
whichhasthefollowingcharacteristics:Totalsolids400
ppm:calciumhardnessasCaCO3 240ppmalkalinityas 150 1.32 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.27
CaCO3 196ppmandpHof7.2.Then: 160 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.21
Totalsolids400ppm=0.16(fromtableA) 170 1.19 1.18 1.17 1.16
Temperature24F.=1.53(fromtableB)
CalciumhardnessasCaCO3240ppm=1.98(from
lowertableC)
AlkalinityasCaCO3 196ppm=2.29(fromuppertable
D)

Substituting:pHs=(9.30+0.16+1.53)(1.98+2.29)=

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6.72(or6.7)

SaturationIndex=7.26.7=+0.5

TableA:TotalSolidsinppm

50.07
75.08
100.10
150.11
200.13
300.14
400.16
600.18
800.19
1000.20
2000.23
3000.25
4000.26
5000.27
6000.28

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AppendixG

TableC:CalciumhardnessexpressedasppmCaCO3 TableD:AlkalinityexpressedasppmCaCO3
(For3to209ppmCaCO3useuppertable) (For1to209ppmCaCO3useuppertable)
(For210to990ppmCaCO3uselowertable) (For210to990ppmCaCO3uselowertable)

UNITS UNITS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0.080.200.300.380.450.510.56 0 0.000.300.480.600.700.780.850.900.95
100.600.640.680.720.750.780.810.830.860.88 101.001.041.081.111.151.181.201.231.261.29
200.900.920.940.960.981.001.021.031.051.06 201.301.321.341.361.381.401.421.431.451.46
301.081.091.111.121.131.151.161.171.181.19 301.481.491.511.521.531.541.561.571.581.59
401.201.211.231.241.251.261.261.271.281.29 401.601.611.621.631.641.651.661.671.681.69
501.301.311.321.331.341.341.351.361.371.37 501.701.711.721.721.731.741.751.761.761.77
601.381.391.391.401.411.421.421.431.431.44 601.781.791.791.801.811.811.821.831.831.84
701.451.451.461.471.471.481.481.491.491.50 701.851.851.861.861.871.881.881.891.891.90
801.511.511.521.521.531.531.541.541.551.55 801.901.911.911.921.921.931.931.941.941.95
901.561.561.571.571.581.581.581.591.591.60 901.951.961.961.971.971.981.981.991.992.00
TENS TENS
1001.601.611.611.611.621.621.631.631.641.64 1002.002.002.012.012.022.022.032.032.032.04
1101.641.651.651.661.661.661.671.671.671.68 1102.042.052.052.052.062.062.062.072.072.08
1201.681.681.691.691.701.701.701.711.711.71 1202.082.082.092.092.092.102.102.102.112.11
1301.721.721.721.731.731.731.741.741.741.75 1302.112.122.122.122.132.132.132.142.142.14
1401.751.751.751.761.761.761.771.771.771.78 1402.152.152.152.162.162.162.162.172.172.17
1501.781.781.781.791.791.791.801.801.801.80 1502.182.182.182.182.192.192.192.202.202.20
1601.811.811.811.811.821.821.821.821.831.83 1602.202.212.212.212.212.222.222.232.232.23
1701.831.841.841.841.841.851.851.851.851.85 1702.232.232.232.242.242.242.242.252.252.25
1801.861.861.861.861.871.871.871.871.881.88 1802.262.262.262.262.262.272.272.272.272.28
1901.881.881.891.891.891.891.891.901.901.90 1902.282.282.282.292.292.292.292.292.302.30
2001.901.911.911.911.911.911.921.921.921.92 2002.302.302.302.312.312.312.312.322.322.32

TENS TENS
0102030405060708090 0102030405060708090
200 1.921.941.961.982.002.022.032.052.06 200 2.322.342.362.382.402.422.432.452.46
3002.082.092.112.122.132.152.162.172.182.19 3002.482.492.512.522.532.542.562.572.582.59
4002.202.212.232.242.252.262.262.272.282.29 4002.602.612.622.632.642.652.662.672.682.69
5002.302.312.322.332.342.342.352.362.372.37 5002.702.712.722.722.732.742.752.762.762.77
6002.382.392.392.402.412.422.422.432.432.44 6002.782.792.792.802.812.812.822.832.832.84
HUNDREDS HUNDREDS
7002.452.452.462.472.472.482.482.492.492.50 7002.852.852.862.862.872.882.882.892.892.90

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8002.512.512.522.522.532.532.542.542.552.55 8002.902.912.912.922.922.932.932.942.942.95
9002.562.562.572.572.582.582.582.592.592.60 9002.952.962.962.972.972.982.982.992.993.00

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AppendixG

RyznarStabilityIndex NEED:Totalsolids,calciumhardness,alkalinity,tempera
tureandpH
TheRyznarIndexisamethodofquantifyingthescale
formingorcorrosiveeffectofwater.Itisbaseduponthe DIRECTIONS:
pHofthewaterandthewaterspHofsaturation.ThepH 1.ExtendlinefromTstoCaandmarkonT1.
ofsaturation,pHs.isthatpHatwhichawatercannot 2.ExtendlinefromAlkalinetotlineandmarkT2.
holdadditionalcalciuminsolution.TheRyznarIndex
3.ConnecttransferlineT1andT2atthemarks.
equationis:R1=2pHspH.RyznarIndexvaluesabove6
areprogressivelycorrosivevaluesbelow6areprogres 4.ReadvalueonpHsscaleandextendlinefromthis
sivelyscaleforming. valuetothepHascale.ReadvaluesonLandR.
5.LangelierIndex:positivescaleforming
NomographforDeterminingLangelierorRyznar
Indexes RyznarStabilityIndex:below6.5scaling
above6.5corrosive

NomographsimultaneouslydeterminesLangelierSaturationIndexandRyznarStabilityIndexwhentotalsolids,
calciumhardness,alkalinity,temperature,andpHofwaterareknown.

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AppendixH

AppendixH
EffectofBicarbonateAlkalinityandCO2onpH

EffectofMineralAcidityonpH

Note:pHvaluewillalsodependontemperatureofwa
ter.Chartaboveisbasedontemperatureof20to
25C.Aswatertemperaturedecreases,thepH
valueforanygivencombinationofalkalinityforms
willincreaseslightlyabovethevalueindicatedon
thechart.Forexample,at5C,actualpHwillbe
about0.2unitshigherin8.5to9.0pHrangeabout
EffectofCarbonateandBicarbonateAlkalinityonpH
0.3unitshigherin9.0to10.0pHrangeandabove
pH10actualpHwillbe0.4to0.6pHunitshigher
thanindicatedbychart.

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AppendixI

AppendixI:SieveMeshConversionTable
ScreenEquivalents

U.S.Standard TylerStandard BritishStandard

Opening Meshesper Opening Meshesper Opening


SieveNo. mm Inches Inch mm Inches Inch mm Inches
12 1.68 0.0661 10 1.65 0.065 10 1.68 0.0660
14 1.41 0.0555 12 1.40 0.055 12 1.40 0.0553

16 1.19 0.0469 14 1.17 0.046 14 1.20 0.0474


18 1.00 0.0394 16 0.991 0.039 16 1.00 0.0395
20 0.84 0.0331 20 0.833 0.0328 18 0.853 0.0336
25 0.71 0.0280 24 0.701 0.0276 22 0.699 0.0275
30 0.59 0.0232 28 0.589 0.0232 25 0.599 0.0236
35 0.50 0.0197 32 0.495 0.0195 30 0.500 0.0197
40 0.42 0.0165 35 0.417 0.0164 36 0.422 0.0166
45 0.35 0.0138 42 0.351 0.0138 44 0.353 0.0139
50 0.297 0.0117 48 0.295 0.0116 52 0.295 0.0116
60 0.250 0.0098 60 0.246 0.0097 60 0.251 0.0099
70 0.210 0.0083 65 0.208 0.0082 72 0.211 0.0083
80 0.177 0.0070 80 0.175 0.0069 85 0.178 0.007
100 0.149 0.0059 100 0.147 0.0058 100 0.152 0.006
200 0.074 0.0029 200 0.074 0.0029 200 0.076 0.003
325 0.044 0.0017 325 0.043 0.0017 240 0.066 0.0026

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Glossary

Section8GlossaryofWaterPurificationTerms
ThisGlossaryisnotmeanttobeallencompassing adsorption:Theprocessbywhichmolecules,col
butinsteadcontainstermsusedinthedifferent loids,orparticlesadheretothesurfacesbyphysical
formsofpurificationandseparationfamiliartoGE actionbutwithoutchemicalreaction.
Water&ProcessTechnologies.
aeration:Theprocessofaddingairtoawatersup
AAMI:AssociationfortheAdvancementofMedical plyforthepurposeofoxidizingormixing.
Instrumentationsetsthestandardsforkidneydi
aerosols:Liquiddropletsorsolidparticlesdispersed
alysisgradewater.
inairorgases,offineenoughparticlesize(0.01to
absolute:Whenreferringtofiltersisusedinrefer 100m)toremainsodispersedforaperiodoftime.
encetothemicronratingofcartridgeordiscfilters, Generallyremovedbycoalescingfilters.
indicatingthatallparticleslargerthanaspecified
agglomerate:Theprocessofbringingtogether
sizewillbetrappedwithinoronthefilterandwill
smallerdivisionsintoalargermass.
notpassthrough.
alkalinity:Capacityforneutralizingacid,usually
absorb:Theprocessbywhichaliquidpenetrates
duetopresenceofbicarbonateorcarbonateions.
thesolidstructureoftheabsorbentsfibersorparti
Hydroxide,borate,silicate,orphosphateionsmay
cles,whichthenswellinsizetoaccommodatethe
contributetoalkalinityintreatedwaters.
liquid.
angstrom:Aunitoflengthequaling1010meters,
absorption:Theprocessoftakingupasubstance
104microns,108centimeters,and4x109inches.
intothephysicalstructureofaliquidorsolidby
Thesymbolis.
physicalorchemicalaction,butwithoutchemical
reaction. anion:Negativelychargedioninasolution.

ACFM:ACFMmeansactualcubicfeetperminute.In antimicrobial:Anadditive,material,fluidorchemi
airandgasstreamstheACFMistheactualflow. calthatinhibitsandkillsthegrowthofmicro
Whencorrectedforpressureandtemperature, organismsoncontact.
ACFMcanbecorrelatedtoSCFM(standardcubic
aquifer:Natural,undergroundporousformation
feetperminute).
wheremineralbearingwaterflowsorisstored.
acidrain:RainfallbelowthenaturalpHrange, Sourceofwellwater.
causedbycontactwithatmosphericpollutants
ASAIO:AmericanSocietyforArtificialInternalOr
suchasnitricandsulfuricoxidesandcarbonmon
gans.
oxide.
asbestos:Afibroussilicatematerial,chieflycalcium
activatedcarbon:Granulatedactivatedcarbon
magnesiumsilicateanoncombustible,noncon
usedtoremovetastes,odor,chlorine,chloramines,
ducting,andchemicalresistantmaterialaknown
andsomeorganicsfromwater.
lungcarcinogen.
activatedclay:Anadsorbentclaythatremoves
ASMEcode:Usedinrelationtofiltervessels.
color,odor,freefattyacids,etc.,fromoilsandtal
ASME=AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,
lows.
BoilerandPressureVessels.SectionsVIIIandXap
admix:Mediumthatisaddeddirectlyintothebatch plytopressurevessels.
tankofprecoattocreateapermeablefiltercake.
ASTM:AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials
Usuallyusedinplaceofbodyfeed.
setsthestandardsforlaboratoryandelectronics
adsorb:Theactofselectivelyattractingandholding water.
agas,vapor,liquid,chemicalorcolloidontothesur
atmosphere:Aunitmeasurementofpressure.The
faceofasolid.
airpressureatsealevel:14.7psi.(1atm=14.7psi).

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Page63

Glossary

backwash:Reversalofasolutionsflowthrougha bodyfeed:Theprecoatmediumthatiscontinu
filtrationsystem.Oftenusedasacleansingmecha ouslyaddedtothefilterwhileitisonstream.Its
nisminsandanddualmediafilters. purposeistocreateapermeablefiltercake.
bacteria:Anyofaclassofmicroscopicsinglecelled bottledwater:Commercialproductssoldincon
organismsreproducingbyfissionorbyspores. tainersaspurewaterfordrinkinganddomesticuse.
Characterizedbyround,rodlikespiralorfilamen
bridging:Theactofparticlesforminganarchover
tousbodies,oftenaggregatedintocoloniesormo
theopeningsonaseptum.Alsofiltercakesthat
bilebymeansofflagella.Widelydispersedinsoil,
havegrowntoasizewheretheyactuallytouch
water,organicmatter,andthebodiesofplantsand
eachotherinthefilter.
animals.Eitherautotrophic(selfsustaining,self
generative),saprophytic(derivesnutritionfrom bubble:Thedifferentialgaspressurethatwhenap
nonlivingorganicmaterialalreadypresentinthe pliedtoafilterelementsubmergedinthetestfluid
environment),orparasitic(derivingnutritionfrom causesthefirststeadyemissionofgas(air)fromthe
anotherlivingorganism).Oftensymbioticinman, filterelementbeingtested.Thisisameansofverify
butsometimespathogenic. ingthemicrometerratingofthetestelement.

bactericide:Agentcapableofdestroyingbacteria. burst:Theabilityofthefiltermediumtoresistdis
ruptionbypressureappliedinthedirectionofnor
bacteriostat:Substancethatinhibitsbacterial
malflow.
growthandmetabolismbutdoesnotnecessarilykill
thecell. cake:Theaccumulationofsolidsonthemedium,on
thesurfaceoftheprecoatorontheseptum.
baffle:Aplateordeflectortoprovideflowdistribu
tioninafilterhousing.Primaryfunctionsaretopro cakespace:Thevolumetricspaceavailableinafil
videuniformflowandtopreventerosionofpre tertosupporttheformationofacake.
coatorbedandsettingofbodyfeed.
candleturbidimeter:Adeviceprincipallyusedto
bar:Designationofpressureunits.1bar=psi measurehighturbiditywaterwithresultsexpressed
14.5. inJacksonTurbidityUnits(JTU)orFormazineTur
bidityUnits(FTU).TheJTUismeasuredwithlight
betarating(b)ofacartridgeorelement:Thefiltra
scattering.
tionratio(b)isthenumberofparticlessizexmand
largerinthefeeddividedbythenumberofparticles CAP:CollegeofAmericanPathologists,whichhas
inthefiltrate. setwaterpurificationstandardsforlaboratoryuse.

binders:Inreferencetocartridgefilters,chemicals CAPD:Continuousambulatoryperitonealdialysis
usedtoholdorbindshortfiberstogetherinafil
carbonatehardness:Thehardnesscausedbycar
ter.
bonatesandbicarbonatesofcalciumandmagne
blindspots:Anyplaceonafilterseptumwhereliq siuminwater.Theamountofhardnessequivalent
uidcannotflowthroughduetoblindingorplugging. tothealkalinityformedanddepositedwhenwater
isboiled.Inboilers,carbonatehardnessisreadily
blinding:Indepthandsurfacefiltration,abuildupof
removedbyblowdown.
particulatesonorwithinthefilter,preventingfluid
flowthroughthefilteratnormalpressures. carcinogenicmaterials:Asubstanceoragentpro
ducingorincitingcancer.
blowdown:Inreferencetoboilertechnology,the
purgefromthesystemofasmallportionofconcen cartridgefilter:Afilterdevice,usuallydisposable,
tratedboilerwaterinordertomaintainthelevelof filteringintherangeof0.1micronto100microns,
dissolvedandsuspendedsolidsinthesystembelow andusually2inchesto4inches(51to102mm)in
themaximum. diameterand6inchesto60inches(152to1524
mm)inlength.
BOD:(BiochemicalOxygenDemand)ameasureof
theamountofoxygenrequiredforthebiochemical cation:Positivelychargedioninasolution.
degradationoforganicmaterialinawatersample.

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Glossary

causticsoda:Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH),commonly coalescing:Theseparationofmixturesofimmisci

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knownaslye.Acommonlyusedchemicalinwater blefluids(suchasoilandwater)withdifferentspe
treatment. cificgravities.Canoccurwhenevertwoormore
dropletscollideandremainincontactandthenbe
cellulose:Afibrousmaterialofvegetableorigin
comelargerbypassingthroughacoalescer.The
usedasafiltermedium.
enlargeddropsthenseparateoutofsolutionmore
CFM:Cubicfeetperminute rapidly.
chelatingagent:Amolecule,usuallyorganic,which COD:ChemicalOxygenDemandameasureofthe
issolubleinwaterandundergoesreactionswith oxygenrequiredtooxidizechemicalscontainedina
metalionstoholdtheminsolution.Anumberof sample.
naturallyoccurringorganicmaterialsinwaterhave
colloid:Asubstanceofveryfineparticlesize,typi
chelatingability,suchashumicacidandlignin.Due
callybetween0.1and0.001micronsindiameter
totheirchelatingabilities,some
suspendedinliquidordispersedingas.Typically
organicmaterialsinterferewithwatersoftening removableonlybyreverseosmosis,distillation,or
processes. ultrafiltration.
chemicalsolutionfeeder:Apumpusedtometer compaction:Incrossflowfiltration,theresultofap
chemicalssuchasacid,chlorineorpolyphosphate pliedpressurecompressingareverseosmosisor
intoafeedwatersupply. ultrafiltrationmembranewhichmayresultinade
clineinflux.
chloramine:Acompoundconsistingofchlorineand
ammoniagaswhichretainsitsbactericidalqualities compound:Chemicalbondingorunionofseparate
foralongertimethandoesfreechlorine. elements,ingredients,orparts.
chlorination:Theadditionofsmallamountsoffree compressibility:Degreeofphysicalchangeinvol
chlorine,usually0.2to2.0ppm,torenderwater umewhensubjecttopressure.
bacteriostaticinawatersupply.
concentrate:Incrossflowfiltration,theportionofa
chlorine:Chemicalusedforitsqualitiesasa feedstreamwhichdoesnotpermeatethemedium
bleaching,oxidizingordisinfectingagentinwater butretainsandisincreasedintheamountofions,
purification. organics,andsuspendedparticleswhicharereject
edbythemedium.
clarity:Theclearnessofaliquidasmeasuredbya
varietyofmethods. concentration:Theamountofmaterialcontained
inaunitvolumeoffluidtheprocessofincreasing
cloth:Atypeofwovenfilterseptummadefrom
thedissolvedmaterialperunitvolume.
naturalorsyntheticyarns.
concentrationpolarization:Incrossflowfiltration,
coagulant:Chemicaladdedinwaterand
theformationofamoreconcentratedgradientof
wastewaterapplicationstocausetheformationof
rejectedmaterialnearthesurfaceofthemembrane
flocsthatadsorb,entrap,orotherwisebringto
causingeitherincreasedresistancetosolvent
gethersuspendedmatterdefinedascolloidal.
transport,oranincreaseinlocalosmoticpressure,
Compoundsofironandaluminumaregenerally
andpossiblyachangeinrejectioncharacteristicsof
usedtoformflocstoallowremovalofturbidity,
themembrane.
bacteria,color,andotherfinelydividedmatterfrom
waterandwastewater. condensate:Waterobtainedthroughevaporation
andsubsequentcondensation.Normallythewater
resultingfromcondensingplantsteamoriginally
generatedinaboiler.Watercondensedinawater
stilloperationisusuallycalleddistillate.

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Glossary

conductivity:Thepropertyofasubstances(inthis deionization(DI):Processutilizingspecially
case,water)abilitytotransmitelectricity.Thein manufacturedionexchangeresinswhichremove
verseofresistivity.Measuredbyaconductivityme ionizedsaltsfromwater.Cantheoreticallyremove
ter,anddescribedinmicroSiemens/cm. 100%ofsalts.Deionizationtypicallydoesnotre
moveorganics,virusorbacteria,exceptthrough
contacttime:Thelengthoftimeanabsorbantor
accidentaltrappingintheresinandspecially
adsorbantisincontactwithaliquidpriortobeing
madestrongbaseanionresinswhichwillremove
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removedbythefilterortotheoccuranceofa gramnegativebacteria.
chemicalchange.
DeltaP:Acommonlyusedtermdenotingthepres
contaminant:Asourceofcontamination,animpu
suredropacrossafilter.
rity.AnysubstanceinwaterotherthanH2O.
demineralization:Theprocessofremovingminer
convoluting:Theaccordionpleatingoffiltermedia
alsfromwater,usuallythroughdeionization,re
toobtainalargeeffectivefiltrationareainamini
verseosmosis,ordistillation.
mumvolume.
detergent:Acleansingagentanyofnumerous
crossflowmembranefiltration:Aseparationofthe
syntheticwatersolubleorliquidorganicprepara
componentsofafluidbysemipermeablemem
tionsthatarechemicallydifferentfromsoapsbut
branesthroughtheapplicationofpressureand
resemblethemintheabilitytoemulsifyoilsand
parallelflowtothemembranesurface.Includesthe holddirtinsuspension.
processesofreverseosmosis,ultrafiltration,nanofil
differentialpressure:Thedifferenceinpressure
tration,andmicrofiltration.
betweentheupstreamanddownstreamsidesofa
crypto:AnabbreviationforCryptosporidium,apar filter.Itcanalsobethedifferenceinpressurebe
asitefoundinwatersometimesfoundindrinking tweentwopointsinasystemorofacomponentin
water,municipalwatersystemsandprivatewells.It suchsystem.
isdetrimentaltothedigestivesystem,causesdiar
dirtcapacity:Theweightofaspecifiedartificial
rhea,crampsandinseverecasesevendeath.
contaminantwhichmustbeaddedtotheinfluentto
cycle:Thelengthoftimeafilterisonstreambe produceagivendifferentialpressureacrossafilter
forecleaningisneeded.Frequentlymeanttoin atspecifiedconditions.Usedasanindicationofthe
cludecleaningtimeaswell. relativeservicelife.
dalton:Aunitofmass1/12themassofCarbon12. disinfectant:Afluidorgasusedtodisinfectfilters,
NamedafterJohnDalton(17661844),founderof demineralized(DI)watersystems,pipe,pipelines,
atomictheoryandthefirsttheoristsinceDemocri systems,vessels,etc.
tus(Greek,5thcenturyBC)todescribematterin
disinfection:Theprocessofkillingpathogenicor
termsofsmallparticles.
ganismsinawatersupplyordistributionsystemby
DE:ThecommonlyusedabbreviationforDiatoma meansofheat,chemicals,orUVlight.
ceousEarth.DiatomaceousEarthisthefossilized
disposable:Qualitydescribingafilterwhichisin
skeletonsofminute,prehistoricaquaticplants.In
tendedtobediscardedandreplacedaftereach
solubleinwater.
servicecycle.
decarbonation:TheprocessofremovingCO2from
dissolvedsolids:Theresidualmaterialremaining
water,typicallyusingcontacttowersorairscrub
fromafilteredsourceafterevaporatingthesolution
bers.
toadrystate.
degasification:Theprocessofremovingdissolved
distillate:Theproductwaterfromdistillation
gassesfromwater,typicallyusingvacuumorheat.
formedbycondensingvapors.

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Glossary

distillation:Theprocessofcondensingsteamfrom EndotoxinUnits(EDU):Unitofmeasurementfor
boilingwateronacoolsurface.Mostcontaminants pyrogenlevels.
donotvaporizeandthereforedonotpasstothe
EPA:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(USA)an
distillate.Removesnearly100%ofallimpurities.
organizationthathassetthepotablewaterstand
DoctorBlade(knife):Asharp,hardbladethatcuts ards.
thecakeoffthesurfaceofafilter.Usuallyfoundon
evaporation:Processinwhichwaterpassesfroma
arotaryvacuumprecoatormetaledgetypefilter.
liquidtoavaporstate.
EDI:Seeelectrodeionization.
exhaustion:Inwatersofteningorionexchange,the
effectivearea:Thetotalareaofthemediumex pointwheretheresincannolongerexchangeaddi
posedtoflowinafilterelement. tionalionsofthetypetheprocesswasdesignedfor.

efficiency:Theability,expressedasapercent,ofa FDA:U.S.FoodandDrugAdministration.
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filtertoremoveaspecifiedartificialcontaminantat
feed/feedwater:Theinputsolutiontoatreat
agivencontaminantconcentrationunderspecified
ment/purificationsystem,includingtherawwater
testconditions.
supplypriortoanytreatment.
effluent:Theoutputstreamexitingatreatmentsys
filteraid:Anymaterialthatassistsintheseparation
tem.
ofsolidsfromliquids.Usuallyusedondifficultfilter
electrodeionization:Electrodeionizationremoves applications.
residualionizedorionizablespeciesfromwaterus
filtercake:Theaccumulatedparticlesonafilter
ingelectricallyactiveionexchangemediaandan
surface,usuallyfromaslurrymixture,toenhance
electricpotentialtodriveiontransport.Ionex
thefilteringcharacteristicsofafiltermedium.
changeresinsinthedilutingchamberofanEDI
stackremovecationandanionimpuritiesfromthe filtermedium:Thepermeablematerialthatsepa
feedwater.Anelectriccurrentflowsthroughthe ratesparticlesfromafluidpassingthroughit.
stacktoremovetheimpuritiesformtheionex
filtersystem:Thecombinationofafilterandasso
changeresinsandtocontinuouslyregenerate
ciatedhardwarerequiredforthefiltrationprocess.
them.EDIisafinaldemineralizationstepthatis
typicallyfedreverseosmosis(orequalquality)wa filtrate:Anyliquidthathaspassedthroughthefilter
tertoconsistentlyproducehighqualitywaterwith medium.Sometimeserroneouslycalledeffluent.
outtheperiodicshutdownandregeneration Alsoknownastheclarifiedeffluentfromafilter.
requiredbyconventionalionexchangeequipment. filtration:Theprocessbywhichsolidparticlesare
Itisoftenthelaststepinthewatertreatmenttrain, separatedfromaliquidbypassingtheliquid
althoughadditionalfinalpurificationequipment throughapermeablematerial.Also,thephysicalor
mayfollow.
mechanicalprocessofseparatinginsolubleparticu
electrodialysis:Dialysisthatisconductedwiththe latematterfromafluid,suchasairorliquid,by
aidofanelectromotiveforceappliedtoelectrodes passingthefluidthroughafiltermediumthatwill
adjacenttobothsidesofthemembrane. notlettheparticulatesthrough.

element:Anystructuralmemberinafilteronwhich filtrationrate:Thevolumeofliquidthatpasses
theseptumissupported.Mayberound,rectangular throughagivenareainaspecifiedtime.Usually
orcylindrical. expressedasgallonspersquarefootperminute(or
hour).
endcap:Aportedorclosedcoverfortheendofa
cartridge,pipeorhousing. floc:Coagulatedgroupingsofformerlysuspended
particleswhichthensettlebygravity.
endotoxin:Aheatresistantpyrogen,specificallya
lipopolysaccharidefoundinthecellwallsofviable flocculant:Chemical(s)which,whenaddedtowa
andnonviablebacteria. ter,causesupendedparticlestocoagulateinto
largergroupings(flocs)whichthensettlebygravity.

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Glossary

flocculation:Theprocessofagglomeratingparti groundwater:Waterconfinedinpermeablesand
clesintolargergroupingscalledflocs,whichthen layersorcavitiesbetweenrockorclay.Allsubsur
settlebygravity. facewater.
flowfatigueresistance:Theabilityofafilterele hardness:Theconcentrationofcalciumandmag
menttoresiststructuralfailureduetoflexing nesiumsaltsinwater.
causedbydifferentialpressures.
head:Anendclosureforthefiltercaseorbowl
fluidcompatibility:Thesuitabilityoffiltrationmedi whichcontainsoneormoreports.Alsothemeas
umandsealmaterialsforservicewiththefluidin urementofpressureinacolumnofwaterex
volved. pressedinfeetofliquiddepthx0.433=poundsper
squareinch.
flux:Incrossflowfiltration,theunitmembrane
throughput,usuallyexpressedinvolumeperunit heavymetals:Metalshavingahighdensityorspe
timeperarea,suchasgallonsperdayperft2orli cificgravityofapproximately5.0orhigher.Theel
tersperhourperm2. ementalweightisalsohigh.Agenerictermusedto
describecontaminantssuchascadmium,lead,and
fouling:Incrossflowfiltration,thereductionofflux
mercury.Inlowconcentrationsmostaretoxicto
thatisattributedtoabuildupofsolidsonthesur
humans.
faceofthemembrane.

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frazier:Atesttomeasuretheairpermeabilityof heel:Theliquidleftinthefilterattheendofacycle.
AlsotheprecoatleftonanR.V.P.F.(RotaryVacuum
filterseptums.UsuallyexpressedinCFMofairata
PrecoatFilter)attheendofitscycle.
DeltaPof1/2inchWC(watercolumn).
hemodialysis:Theprocessofpurifyingakidneypa
FTU:FormazineTurbidityUnitsameasureoftur
tientsbloodbymeansofdialysismembranes.
bidity,byanephelometer.
hemolysis:Rupturingofredbloodcellssometimes
FullersEarth:Asorptiveclay,alsocalledAttapul
occurringduringhemodialysis.Maybecausedby
gusClay(Attapulgite),Bentonite(Montmorillonite)
thepresenceofchloraminesinthedialysiswater
andKaolin(Kaolinite).Generallyusedforfiltration,
supply.
acidremoval,bleaching,decolorizing,clarifying
agents,filteraids,flooradsorbents,animallitter, HighEfficiencyParticulateAbsolute(HEPA):Afilter
pesticidecarriers,componentsornoncarbonpa whichremovesfromair99.97%ormoremonodis
pers,catalysts,andrefiningaids.Alsoremovalof persedioctylphthalate(DOP)particleshavinga
surfactantsfromgasoline,kerosene,dieselandjet meanparticlediameterof0.3m.Commonuse:
fuels.NottobeconfusedwithDE. HEPAfilterhighefficiencyparticulateairfilter.

gauge:Thicknessofsteelsheetorwirediameter. highpuritywater:Highlytreatedwaterwithatten
Thelowerthegauge,thethickerthesteelorlarger tiontomicrobiologicalreductionoreliminationthe
thewirediameter.Alsoadeviceformeasuring termcommonlyusedinthepharmaceuticalindus
thicknesses,pressures,temperatures,etc. try.
Giardiacyst:Aparasitefoundinwater.Verydetri housing:Aportedchamberwithclosure,whichdi
mentaltothedigestivesystem,causingdiarrhea, rectstheflowoffluidthroughthefilterelement.
crampsandinseverecasesdeath.
humicacid:Awatersolubleorganiccompound
glassing:Aformforsilicascalingathightempera composedofdecayedvegetablematterwhichis
tures,usuallyinhighpressureboilersorstills. leachedintoawatersourcebyrunoff.Presentin
mostsurfacewaters.Higherconcentrationscause
gpd:Gallonsperday
abrownishtint.Difficulttoremoveexceptbyultra
grainspergallon(gpg):Aunitofconcentration filtrationorreverseosmosis.
equalto17.1milligramsperliter(17.1ppm).

GRAS:MaterialsGenerallyRegardedAsSafe,as
listedbytheFDA.

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Glossary

hydrocarbon:Anorganiccompoundcontaining leaf:Anyflatfilterelementthatholdsorsupports
onlycarbonandhydrogenandoftenoccurringin thefilterseptum.
petroleum,naturalgas,coal,andbitumens.Most
LSI:LangelierSaturationIndexanexpressionofa
successfullyremovedfromwaterbycoalescingfor
calculationthatallowsthepredictionofcalcium
largevolumesorbyusingactivatedcarbonfor
carbonateprecipitationataspecificcondition,
smallvolumes..
temperature,pH,TDS,hardness,andalkalinity.
hydrogensulfide:Atoxicgas(H2S)thatisdetecta
LTypefilter:Afilterassemblyinwhichtheinletand
blebyastrongrotteneggodor.Acommonby
outletportsareat90degreestoeachother.
productofanaerobicbacteria.
manifold:Asetofportsthatcometogethertoform
hydrologiccycle:Thenaturalcycleofwaterasit
acommonport.
passesthroughtheenvironmentbyevaporation,
condensation,precipitation,andretentioninthe meanfiltrationrating:Ameasurementoftheav
oceansoronland. eragesizeoftheporesofthefiltermedium.

hydrophilic:Wateraccepting. media:Thematerialthatperformstheactualsepa
rationofsolidsfromliquids.Sometimeserroneously
hydrophobic:Waterrejecting.
usedtomeanseptum.
influent:Thefluidenteringthefilter.
mediamigration:Releaseoffiltrationmediaparti
injection:Inwatertreatment,theintroductionofa clesintotheeffluentofthefilter.
chemicalormediumintotheprocesswaterforthe
medicaldevicemanufacturer:Amanufacturer
purposeofalteringitschemistryorfilteringspecific
that,accordingtotheFDA,hasspecificmanufac
compounds.
turingandrecordkeepingwhichallowsthemanu
inlinefilter:Afilterassemblyinwhichtheinlet, facturertobecertifiedasamedicaldevice

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outletandfilterelementaxesareinastraightline. manufacturer.Thepurposeistoassurephysicians
andpatientsthatstrictcontrolshavebeenused
insideoutflow:Fluidflowthroughafilterelement
andthatcomponenttraceabilityisassured.
outwardfromandperpendiculartoitslongitudinal
axis.Thisisnotthenormaldirectionofflowformost medium:Theporousmaterialthatperformsthe
filterelements(Seeoutsideinflow). actualprocessoffiltration.Thepluralofthiswordis
media.
ion:Anatomormoleculewhichhaslostorgained
oneormoreelectrons,therebyacquiringanetelec membrane(polymeric):Highlyengineeredpolymer
triccharge. filmcontainingcontrolleddistributionofpores.
Membranesserveasabarrierpermittingthepas
ionexchange:Aprocessinwhichionsarepreferen
sageofmaterialsonlyuptoacertainsize,shape,or
tiallybasedonequilibrium,adsorbedfromasolu
character.Membranesareusedastheseparation
tionforequivalentlychargedionsattachedtosmall
mechanisminreverseosmosis,electrodialysis,ul
solidstructurescalledresin.
trafiltration,nanofiltration,andmicrofiltration,as
JTU:JacksonTurbidityUnitsturbiditytestunitsof discfiltersinlaboratories,andaspleatedfinalfilter
measurementregisteredonacandleturbidimeter. cartridges,particularlyinpharmaceuticalandelec
tronicapplications.
LAL:LimulusAmoebocyteLysateareagentused
inthedetectionofendotoxin,thepyrogenofgreat mesh:Numberofstrandsinalinearinchofwoven
estconcerntothepharmaceuticalindustry.TheLAL filterfabric,usuallywire.Itisalsousedasaseptum.
reagentismadefromthebloodofthehorseshoe
mg/L:Milligramsofanelementperliterofwater
crab,Limuluspolyphemus.
approximatelyequaltoppm.
laminarflow:Aflowinwhichrapidrandomfluctua
microfiltration(MF):Filtrationdesignedtoremove
tionsareabsent,nonturbulent.
particlesandbacteriaintherangeof0.1to3mi
cronsindiameter.

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Glossary

micron:Ametricunitofmeasurementequivalentto nominal:Withregardtothemicronratingofcar
106meters,104centimeters.Symbolis. tridgefilters,referstoanapproximatesizeparticle,
thevastmajorityofwhichwillnotpassthroughthe
mixedbed:Anionexchangetankconsistingof
filter.Asmallamountofparticlesthissizeorlarger
bothcationandanionresinmixedtogether.Pro
maypassthroughthefilter.
videsthemostcompletedeionizationofwater,up
nominalrating:Anarbitrarymicrometervalueindi
to18.3megohm/cmresistivity.Commonlyusedto
catedbyvariousfiltermanufacturers.
polishwateralreadytreatedbytwobedionex
changetanksorreverseosmosis. noncarbonatehardness:Hardnesscausedbychlo
rides,sulfates,andnitratesofcalciumandmagne
module:Amembraneelementcombinedwiththe
sium.Evaporationofwaterscontainingtheseions
membraneelementhousing.
makesthewaterhighlycorrosive.
molecularweight(MW):Thesumoftheatomic
nonwoven:Afilterclothorpaperthatisformedof
weightsoftheconstituentswhichmakeupamole
syntheticfibersthatarerandomlyorientedinthe
cule.Oftenusedtoindicatesizewhenreferringto
media.Usuallyheldtogetherbyabinder.
ultrafiltrationofsaccharidecompounds(Seedal
ton). normalflow:Theflowoftheentirefeedwater
streaminasingledirectiondirectlythroughthefil
molecule:Thesmallestphysicalunitofacompound
termedium.Theflowisgenerallynormal,orper
orchemical,composedofoneormoreatoms,that
pendicular,tothemedium.
retainsthepropertiesofthatsubstance.
NTU:NephelometricTurbidityUnitstheresultof
multipasstest:ThetestusedtodeterminetheBe
passingalightbeamthroughawatersamplewith
taratioofanelement.Adestructivetest.
anephelometertoquantifylowturbiditywater.The
multifilament:Anumberofcontinuousfiber NTUismeasuredbylightscattering..
strandsthataretwistedtogethertoformayarn
onstream:Describeswhenafiltersystemispro
usedinweavingfiltercloths.
ducingafilteredproductwhileinoperation.
multipleeffectevaporation:Seriesoperationen
osmosis:Thespontaneousflowofwaterfromaless
ergyeconomizersystemwhereheatfromthe
concentratedsolutiontoamoreconcentratedsolu
steamgenerated(evaporatedliquid)inthefirst
tionthroughasemipermeablemembraneuntilen
stageisusedtoevaporateadditionalliquidinthe

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secondstage(byreducingsystempressure),andso ergyequilibriumisachieved.
on,upto10ormoreeffects. osmoticpressure:Ameasurementofthepotential
energydifferencebetweensolutionsoneitherside
nanofiltration(NF):Acrossflowmembranesepara
ofasemipermeablemembrane.Afactorindesign
tionprocesswhichremovesparticlesinthe250to
ingreverseosmosisequipment.Theappliedpres
1000molecularweightrange,selectedsaltsand
suremustfirstovercometheosmoticpressure
mostorganicssometimesreferredtoasasoften
inherentinthechemicalsolutioninordertoget
ingmembraneprocess.
goodpurificationandflux.
NCCLS:NationalCommitteeforClinicalLaboratory
outsideinflow:Fluidflowisthroughafilterele
Standardsacommitteethathaspromulgatedpu
mentperpendiculartoandtowardtheaxisofthe
rifiedwaterstandards(SeeAppendix).
elementonmostfilterstoday.Exceptionisthecoa
nephelometer:Adeviceusedtomeasuremainly lescingelementwhichalwaysflowsfrominsideto
lowturbiditywaterwithresultsexpressedin outsidetoremovetheaccumulatedwaterfromthe
NephelometricTurbidityUnits(NTU). fuelstream.
oxidation:Processbywhichelectronsarelosttoan
oxidizingagentinordertoincreaseamoleculeor
ioninpositivevalence.

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Glossary

oxidizingfilters:Filtersthatuseacatalyticmedium precipitate:Aninsolubleproductthatisinthesolu
suchasmanganousoxidetooxidizeironandman tionorliquidmixture.
ganeseandthenfiltertheimpuritiesfromthewater
precipitation:Theprocessofproducinganinsolu
aftertheyhavebeenoxidized.
blereactionproductfromachemicalreaction,usu
ozonator:Adevicewhichgeneratesozonebypass allyacrystallinecompoundthatgrowsinsizetobe
ingahighvoltagecurrentthroughachambercon settleable.
tainingairoroxygen.Usedasadisinfectionsystem.
precursors:Compoundssuchashumicacidwhich
ozone(03):Anunstable,highlyreactivestateofthe mayleadtothecreationofothercompounds,such
oxygenformedbypassingairoroxygenthrougha asTHM.
highvoltageelectricchargeorstronglightsource.
psi:Poundspersquareinch(pressure).
Anexcellentoxidizingagentandbactericide.
psid:Poundspersquareinchdifferential.
particlefiltration(PF):Filtrationratedintherange
of1to75microns.Typicallyhandledbycartridge psig:Poundspersquareinchgauge.
filters.
pyrogen:Anysubstancecapableofproducinga
particulate:Minute,separatepiecesofmatter. feverinmammals.Oftenanorganicsubstance
shedbybacteriaduringcellgrowth.Chemicallyand
permeable:Allowingsomematerialtopass
physicallystable,pyrogensarenotnecessarilyde
through.
stroyedbyconditionsthatkillbacteria.
permeate:Thatportionofthefeedstreamwhich
reagentgradewater(ASTM):Waterthatmeetsthe
passesthroughamembrane,leavingbehinda
standardsforreagentusepromulgatedbyAmeri
moreconcentratedstream.
canSocietyforTestingandMaterials.FourASTM
permeator:Ahollowfinefibermembraneelement reagentgrades,IthroughIV,havebeenestablished
itselfconsistingofthousandsofhollowfibers. dependinguponintendeduse.SeeAppendixfor
specificqualityrequirements).
pH:Anexpressionofhydrogenionconcentration
specifically,thenegativelogarithmofthehydrogen recirculation:a)Incrossflowmembranesystems,
ionconcentration.Therangeisfrom0to14,with7 therecyclingofaportionofthestreamtomaintain
asneutral,0tolessthan7asacidic,and7to14as adesirableflow.b)Inwatersystemdesign,the
alkaline(basic). continuousoperationofthetransferpumptokeep
waterflowingthroughthesystemabovetheuse
phase:Astateofmatter,eithersolid,gaseous,or
rate,toreducethehazardofbacterialgrowth.A
liquid.
portionofthewatercontinuouslygoesbacktothe
polymer:Achemicalcompoundwithmanyrepeat breaktank.
ingstructuralunits
regeneration:Thedisplacementfromtheionex
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producedbyunitingmanyprimaryunitscalled changeresinoftheionsremovedfromtheprocess
monomers. waterorwastestream.
pore:Anopeninginamembraneorfiltermatrix. rejection:Incrossflowmembranesystems,thepro
cessofretainingatthemembranecontaminants
porous:Theabilityofcertainsubstancestopass
thatarelargerthanthemembranesporesizesor
fluidsduetoanopenphysicalstructure.
arerepelledbyanelectricalcharge.Inamembrane
ppb:Partsperbillion,commonlyconsideredequiva system,expressedasapercentofthetotalpres
lenttomicrogramsperliter(g/L). enceofthosecontaminants.
ppm:Partspermillion,commonlyconsidered resins(ionexchange):Speciallymanufacturedpol
equivalenttomilligramsperliter(mg/L). ymerbeadsusedintheionexchangeprocessto
ppt:Partspertrillion,commonlyconsideredequiva removedissolvedsaltsfromwater.
lenttonanogramsperliter(ng/L).

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Glossary

resistivity:Thepropertyofasubstance(inthiscase, sparger:Adevicetointroducecompressedairor
water)toresisttheflowofelectricitythemeasure gasintoaliquidtoagitateitortodissolvetheairor
mentofthatresistance.Theinverseofconductivity. gasinthisliquid.Spargersaremadeofporousce
Measuredbyaresistivitymonitoranddescribedin ramicorstainlesssteelinvariousgrades(porosities)
megohmcm. toprovideaspecificsizedbubble.
reverseosmosis(RO):Theseparationofonecom strainer:Acoarsefilterelement(poresizeover40
ponentofasolutionfromanothercomponentby m)alsoaunitthatscreensoutlargeparticles,
flowingthefeedstreamunderpressureacrossa normallyonthesuctionsideofapump.
semipermeablemembrane.ROconcentratesion
suspendedsolids(SS):Solidorganicandinorganic
izedsalts,colloids,andorganicsdownto150mo
particlesthatareheldinsuspensioninasolution.
lecularweightintheconcentratestreamand
providesapurifiedstreamofwater.Mayalsobe TDS:TotalDissolvedSolidsSeedissolvedsolids.
calledhyperfiltration.
THM:TrihalogenatedMethaneCompoundInitiat
saturation:Thepointatwhichasolutioncontains edbycontactbetweenfreechlorineandcertain
enoughofadissolvedsolid,liquid,orgassothatno organicstoformmaterialssimilartocertainorganic
morewilldissolveintothesolutionatagiventem solvents.Consideredacarcinogen.
peratureandpressure.
TOC:TotalOrganicCarbonTheamountofcarbon
scaling:Thebuildupofprecipitatedsaltsonsuch boundinorganiccompoundsinawatersampleas
surfacesaspipes,tanksandboilercondensate determinedbyastandardlaboratorytest.TheCO2
tubes. ismeasuredwhenawatersampleisatomizedina
combustionchamber.
scavenger:Afilter,orelementinthebottomofa
filter,thatrecoverstheliquidheelthatremainsin traceability:Inmedicalandpharmaceuticaldevice
thefiltertankattheendofacycle. manufacturing,thestringentrecordkeepingonthe
useandoriginofcomponentmaterials.
screen:Atermcommonlyusedforseptum.Alsoa
wiremeshscreenusedtoscreenoutlargesized transpires:Theprocessofaplantgivingoffwater
particlesthatwouldclogafiltercartridge.Usually directlytotheair.
installedonthesuctionsideofapump.
TS:TotalSolidsThesumoftotaldissolvedsolids
SDI:SiltDensityIndextestusedtomeasurethe andtotalsuspendedsolids.
levelofsuspendedsolidsinfeedwaterforareverse
TSS:TotalSuspendedSolidsTheresidualmatter
osmosissystem.
whichcanberemovedfromasolutionbyfiltration.
SEMI:SemiconductorEquipmentandMaterialsIn
turbidity:Asuspensionoffineparticlesinwater
ternationalhassettheelectronicsgradepurified
thatcausecloudinessandwillnotreadilysettledue
waterstandards.
tosmallparticlesize.
semipermeable:Inmembranes,amembrane
turbidityunits:Measurementoftherelativeability
whichallowsasolventsuchaswatertopass
ofasolutiontoallowalightbeamtopassthrough
through,whilerejectingcertaindissolvedorcolloi
it.
dalsubstances.
twobed:Apairingofcationandanionionex
sepralator:Aspiralwoundmembraneelementin
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crossflowmembranesystems.Modularandre changetanks,typicallyoperatinginseries.Best
usedforthedeionizationofrelativelyhighvolumes
placeable.
ofwater.Capableofproductwaterresistivityofup
septum:Abindingwallormembrane. to4megohm/cm.

sideseal:Thelongitudinalseamofthefiltermedi
uminapleatedfilterelement.
solutes:Matterdissolvedinasolvent.

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Glossary

ultrafiltration(UF):Separationofonecomponent washfilter:Afilterinwhichalargerunfilteredpor
ofasolutionfromanothercomponentbymeansof tionofthefluidflowingparalleltothefilterelement
pressureandflowexertedonasemipermeable axisisutilizedtocontinuouslycleantheinfluentsur
membrane,withmembraneporesizesranging facewhichfiltersthelesserflow.
from10to0.2micron.Typicallyrejectsorganics
WFI:WaterForInjectionhighpuritywaterintend
over1000MWwhilepassingionsandsmallorgan
edforuseasasolventforthepreparationofparen
ics.
teral(injectable)solutions.Mustmeetspecifications
ultrapurewater:Highlytreatedwaterofhighresis aslistedintheUSP.
tivityandnoorganicsusuallyusedinthesemicon
WHO:WorldHealthOrganizationpartoftheUnit
ductorandpharmaceuticalindustries.
edNationswhichhassetthestandardsforpotable
ultraviolet(UV):Radiationhavingawavelength water.
shorterthanvisiblelightbutnolongerthanXrays.
Ultravioletlightwithawavelengthof254nmis
usedtokillbacteriaanddestroyozone.
unloading:Thereleaseofcontaminantthatwas
originallycapturedbythefiltermedium.

USP:UnitedStatesPharmacopoeiawhichpublishes
standardsforthepharmaceuticalindustry,includ
ingthoseforwaterquality.Wasestablishedbythe
USCongressin1884tocontroldrugmakeup.
validation:Inthepharmaceuticalindustry,the
mandatingofspecifictestingandrecordkeeping
procedurestoensurecompliancenotonlywitha
specificqualitybutwithaspecificmeanstoachieve
thatquality.
vaporize:Toconvertaliquidintoavapor.

velocity:Freeairpassingthroughafilterpaneland
measuredinfeetperminute(fpm).Itisdetermined
bythevolumeofair/min(ft3/m)dividedbythearea
ofthepanel(ft2).Itisexpressedinthiscaseas
ft/mindividedbyfeetperminute(fpm).

virus:Anyofalargegroupofsubmicroscopicinfec
tiveagentscapableofgrowthandmultiplication
onlyinlivingcellsofahost.
viscosity:Thatpropertyoffluidsbywhichtheyoffer
resistancetoflow.Measuredinpoise,kinematicvis
cosity,centistokes,sayboltuniversalseconds(SUS),
secondssaybolt,degreeEngleranddegreeBarbey,
GardnerHolt,etc.

VOC:Volatileorganiccompoundsyntheticorganic
compoundswhicheasilyvolatilize.Manyaresus
pectedcarcinogens.

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voids:Theopeningsorporesinafiltermedium.

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