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Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480

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Solvent assisted extraction of oil from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds

Payal R. Bhutada a , Ananda J. Jadhav b , Dipak V. Pinjari b, , Parag R. Nemade b ,
Ratnesh D. Jain b
Department of Oils, Oleochemicals and Surfactants, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, India
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present work reports the extraction of Moringa oil from the Moringao leifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds
Received 1 September 2015 using Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the various operating parameters such as temperature, solvent
Received in revised form ratio and solvent type on the extraction yield of the oil have been investigated. The extraction yield of
19 November 2015
the oil was varied with change in the operating temperatures (ranging from 80 to 110 C) as well as with
Accepted 4 December 2015
change in the solvents ratio (such as, chloroform:methanol (C:M) from 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1). The maximum
Available online 17 December 2015
extraction yield was obtained at C:M (3:1) ratio. The increase in the yield was also found with the increase
in the temperature. The fatty acid compositions of the Moringa oils extracted by the solvent extraction
Moringa oleifera Lam. seed
method have been analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). The change in the composition of the fatty
Moringa oil acid was seen with the change in the solvent media. Also, this extracted oil was analyzed by nuclear
Soxhlet extraction method magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis
(TGA) analysis. From TGA analysis it was found that, the oil degrade at temperature about 425450 C.
The oil was also analyzed with the physicochemical properties and the phytochemical tests to conrm
the presence of saponins, avonoids, steroids, terpenoids, phenols, and triterpenoids. It was found that
the solvent extraction is an effective method for the Moringa oil extraction.
2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction oleic acid (70%) and smells a pleasant peanut like fragrance. Ben
oil is more stable than canola oil, soybean oil, palm oil when
Moringa oleifera, known as Moringa, Drumstick, Malunggay is used in frying (Nguyen et al., 2011). Ben oil has been used in
an Indian tree grows in Asia, South America, Africa, the Caribbean the manufacturing of perfume, hair care products, as lubricants,
(Palafox et al., 2012). Moringa species is one of the most useful trees for edible purpose. Ben oil is considered equivalent to olive oil
in tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa. Moringa belongs to the in terms of fatty acid composition (Zhao and Zhang, 2013). The
Moringaceae family. Almost all parts of Moringa such as ower, oil has fantastic cosmetic value; it is used in body and hair care
fruits, leaves, roots are edible and have been consumed as vegetable products as a moisturizer and as skin conditioner (Mahmood
(Abd El Baky Hanaa and El-Baroty Gamal, 2013). The root extract et al., 2010). The oil consists of various sterols such as campes-
possesses antimicrobial activity (Busani et al., 2012). The extracts terol, stigmasterol, clerosterol, -sitosterol, 5 -avenasterol and less
from the owers are found to have the hepatoprotective effect quantity of 24-methylenecholesterol, campestanol, stigmastanol
(Upadhyay et al., 2015). The seeds have the edible oil known as and 28-isoavenasterol (Anwar et al., 2007). Another potential use
Ben oil. The seed cake is one of the best natural coagulants and can of Moringa oil is as a biodiesel feedstock, as an alternative source
be effectively utilized for treatment and purication of the highly of oil, Moringa seeds have been proposed as a potential source to
turbid water (Zhao and Zhang, 2013). complement the mentioned feedstock (Palafox et al., 2012).
M. oleifera seeds contain 1947 % oil commercially known as Moringa seeds and oil are used in the treatment of arthri-
Ben oil and are rich in palmitic, stearic, behenic and oleic acids tis, rheumatism, and hypertension (Aviara et al., 2015). Moringa
(Ojiako and Okeke, 2013). Ben oil is reported to have very high oil is very stable due to the presence of the high oleic acid
and so can be used for the frying application (Zhao and
Zhang, 2013). Moringa seed oil is non-drying oil and can be
used for lighting as it burns without dense smoke. Because of
Corresponding author. Fax: +91 22 33611020. the capacity of the edible oil to absorb and retain oral fra-
E-mail addresses:, grances, it is valuable in perfume manufacturing. It is also used
(D.V. Pinjari).
0926-6690/ 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
P.R. Bhutada et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480 75

for lubricating watches and machinery. The avor of oil is some-

what similar to that of the peanut oil (Ghazali and Abdulkarim,
2011). Moringa seed oil has been widely used for the production
of biodiesel due to the high quantity of oil (around 40%). According
to the literature (Mojur et al., 2014a,b; Rashid et al., 2008), this
oil has excellent quality and can be used as raw material for the
biodiesel production (Atabani et al., 2014; Fernandes et al., 2015).
The most conspicuous property of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera
oil is the high cetane numbers of above 60, which are among the
highest reported for a biodiesel fuel (Kafuku et al., 2010).
Since the Egyptian times, Moringa oil has been used in skin
preparations and ointments (Mahmood et al., 2010). Moringa oil
is considered as a great cosmetic emollient. The oxidative stability
of the Moringa oil is due to the low content of the polyunsaturated
fatty acids. The oxidative stability of the oil is higher than that of
other oils which are rich in oleic acid (Ayerza (h), 2012). Due to its
various advantages and tremendous value, Moringa oil nds wide
application in cosmetic industry.
The solvent extraction technique is the oldest technique used for
the extraction of the oil. The solvent extraction technique has the
ability to perform the extractions on a liquid or a solid sample with
the minimal effort. Solvent extraction using chloroform:methanol
(C:M (1:1)) has been reported by (Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002). In the
present study, the solvent Soxhlet extraction of Moringa oil using
C:M ratios at various temperatures are reported. The objective of
this study is to develop the extraction process for recovering max-
imum oil yield from the Moringa seeds. In this work, comparative Fig. 1. Schematic of extraction set-up.

effect of oil extraction procedure on the physic-chemical charac-

teristics of oil extracted from M. oleifera Lam. seeds is studied. The
extraction yield and the fatty acid composition of oil extracted using sample was once ltered through the lter paper and then the solu-
various solvent ratios at various temperatures will be compared. tion was collected and concentrated with the rotary evaporator to
acquire Moringa seed oil (Ramluckan et al., 2014; Tsaknis et al.,
2. Materials and methods

2.1. Samples and reagents

2.3. Yield determination

M. oleifera Lam. seed was purchased from local vendor Shamji

The extraction yield of the Moringa seed oil was calculated using
Amarshi & Sons, Herbal Departmental Stores, Mumbai. The Moringa
the following formula:
seed was cleaned to remove any foreign materials such as other
seeds, stones, etc. After cleaning the Moringa seed was soaked in M 
petroleum ether for 4 h to get rid of any other remained impurities. %Oil yield = 100 (1)
After this, the seeds were further dried and then were crushed into
powder in a mixer. The powered seed was sieved from three sieve where M1 is the mass of Moringa seed oil extracted from the sample
of different mesh sizes (20, 40, 60 m). The powder from the sieve (g) and M2 is the mass of total material processed (g) by Soxhlet
of 40 m mesh size was used further for extraction. The resulted standard extraction.
seed powder was kept in lock bags until use. The reagents chloro-
form, methanol, petroleum ether used in extraction were analytical
grade and were purchased from SAF Scientic Chemicals Pvt., Ltd. 2.4. Energy calculation
Mumbai. All reagents were used as received without further puri-
cation. The energy required for the extraction of the Moringa seed oil
was calculated using the following equations:
2.2. Solvent extraction I
Power = voltage current (2)
The crushed, pre-dried Moringa seed powder (10 g) was placed P
in the paper thimble. The thimble is then placed into a Soxhlet
glass sample tube and sample tube was transferred to the extrac- Net energydelivered (J) = power (W) time(s) (3)
tion chamber in the Soxhlet apparatus (Fig. 1). A 200 ml of the
extraction solvent (ratios of chloroform:methanol) was transferred Quantity of material processed = solvent + seed powder (4)
into the solvent cup and placed on the heating plates. The cooling
water supply to the condensers was opened to ensure contin- J  
uous recycling of the solvent. The extraction chamber is made Net energy delivered
Net energy supplied =
in such a way that when the solvent surrounding the sample g Quantity of material processed
exceeds a certain level then it ows and trickles back down to (5)
the boiling ask. This cycle is repeated till the complete oil gets
extracted from the solid material. After this, the ask containing the
76 P.R. Bhutada et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480

3. Characterization of extracted oil shows the details experimental process for determination of sec-
ondary metabolites (Ajibade et al., 2013).
3.1. Physico-chemical characteristics of extracted oil
3.3. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of Moringa oil
3.1.1. Determination of specic gravity and density
Specic gravity bottle (100 ml) was cleaned and dried in oven. The thermo gram of extracted Moringa oil was recorded using
The weight of the empty gravity bottle was obtained as W1 , the aluminum pan between temperature range 30500 C and under
weight of the gravity bottle with the water was taken as W2 , and inert atmosphere of N2 at a ow rate of 50 ml/min (Shimadzu,
the weight of the bottle with the oil was taken W3 . The specic Japan).
gravity and the relative density of the oil are calculated using the
formula below (Olushola, 2013): 3.4. Gas chromatographic analysis of Moringa oil
 Weight of oil (W3 W1 )

Specic gravity = Fatty acid composition of the Moringa seed oil extracted by
Weight of equal volume of water (W2 W1 )
Soxhlet was determined using GC after derivatization to fatty acid
methyl esters (FAME). The preparation of the FAME was done by
standard IUPAC method. About 1 g of extracted oil was mixed with
 Weight of oil  0.1 g sodium methoxide and 10 ml of methanol and then the mix-
Density( )= (7) ture was reuxed in water bath at 8090 C for about 1 h. The
ml Volume of oil
mixture was cooled and taken in separating funnel with the addi-
tion of hexane followed by water washing. Finally, some sodium
3.1.2. Determination of saponication value
sulphate was added to remove any traces of water in the FAME.
2 g of extracted oil weighted and taken in conical ask and
FAME separation and identication were carried out on a Shimadzu
approximately 25 ml 0.5 N alcoholic solution of potassium hydrox-
gas chromatograph model GC-1000, equipped with BPX70 (70%
ide (KOH) was added. The mixture was then gently boiled under
cyanopropyl polysilphenylene-siloxane) highly polar capillary col-
reux on the water bath for 1 h. After this the titration of the hot
umn and ame ionized detector. The amount of the sample injected
mixture was done by 0.5 N HCl, using phenolphthalein indicator.
was 1.0 l. Nitrogen ow rate of 4.0 ml/min was used as the car-
The end point of the titration was faint pink (Adejumo et al., 2013).
rier gas and a split injector was used with a split ratio of 50:1. The
  injector and detector temperatures were set at 270 C and 280 C
28.05 respectively. The oven temperature was programmed as follow:
Saponication value = (Blank-sample)
Weight of oil sample the initial temperature was 180 C which was maintained for 4 min
(8) from 180 C to 190 C at 2 C/min, from 190 C to 270 C at 3 C/min
hold for 6 min, and then to a nal temperature 320 C hold for
another 6 min. Fatty acid methyl esters were quantied as per-
centages of the total methyl ester peak areas (Bezerra and Filho,
3.1.3. Determination of free fatty acid 2014).
Acid value is expressed as % free fatty acid calculated as oleic
acid. 1 g of oil was weighted accurately and taken in the conical 3.5. FTIR analysis of Moringa oil
ask. About 20 ml of neutral alcohol was added with few drops of
phenolphthalein and shaken vigorously. The solution was titrated FTIR analysis was used to reveal the functional groups present
with 0.5 M alkali solution with constant shaking until pink color in the extracted oil. The FTIR spectra of extracted oil samples was
remains constant. The acid value and the free fatty acid content recorded using FTIR spectrophotometer (Shimadzu 8400s, Japan)
were calculated as follows: (Adejumo et al., 2013) using ATR sampling technique by recording 45 scan in % transmit-
 0.5 56.1 Burette reading  tance mode in the range of 4000500 cm1 .
Acid value = (9)
Weight of oil sample
 Acid value  3.6. NMR analysis of Moringa oil
Free fatty acid = (10)
2 In addition to the GC analysis, 1 H NMR was employed to study
and compare the molecular structure of the Moringa seed oil
3.1.4. Determination of iodine value extracted using the solvent extraction technique. 1 H NMR of the
About 0.3 g of oil was taken in dry ask. Then 10 ml of car- extracted Moringa oil was analyzed using Agilent 400 MHz. The oil
bon tetrachloride solution was added followed by 25 ml of WiJs sample was dissolved in the deuterated chloroform and the spectra
solution and was kept in the dark place for 30 min. Then 10% KI were recorded (Almoselhy et al., 2014).
solution was added in 20 ml to the mixture and was shaken. After
that, 100 ml of distilled water was and was shaken vigorously. Then 4. Results and discussion
starch indicator was added to it and dark blue color was obtained.
The mixture was titrated with 0.1 N sodium thiosulphate till blue 4.1. Effect of temperature
to colorless point was obtained (Olushola, 2013). The iodine value
was calculated as follows: As shown in the Table 2, the yield of the Moringa seed oil changes

with the increasing temperature in the solvent extraction. When
Iodine value = (Blank-sample) N (11)
Weight of sample temperature increases (gradually) from 70 C to 100 C, the extrac-
tion yield was increases by about 10% for C:M (2:1) solvent ratio
3.2. Phytochemical screening and by about 10% for C:M (3:1) solvent ratio. Fig. 2(A) shows the
effect of temperature on the extraction yield of Moringa oil for
The phytochemical screenings were carried out to conrm the the solvent ratio of C:M (2:1). As the temperature increases from
presence or the absence of the secondary metabolitestannins, 70 C to 100 C extraction of oil was increased due to the increase
saponins, avonoids, phenols, terpenoids, and steroids. Table 1 of solubility and diffusivity which improves the mass transfer.
P.R. Bhutada et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480 77

Table 1
Detailed description of experimental procedure for conrmation of presence of secondary metabolites.

Metabolites Experimental procedure

Tannins 0.5 g of the moringa oil was mixed with 20 ml water. The mixture was boiled and ltered. Then few drops of 0.1% ferric
chloride were added. The development of the brownish green or blueblack color conrms the presence of tannins.
Saponins 2 g of moringa oil was mixed and boiled with 20 ml of the water and then ltered. 10 ml of this ltrate was further
mixed with 5 ml of distilled water and was shaken vigorously for stable persistent froth. The formation of the froth
conrms the presence of the saponins.
Flavonoids The known quantity of the oil was taken with the ammonia solution and the concentrated sulfuric acid was added and
was allowed to develop the color. Development of yellow color indicated the presence of the avonoids.
Steroids 0.5 g of the moringa oil was mixed with the 2 ml of acetic anhydride with further addition of concentrated sulfuric
acid and was allowed to develop color. The color change from violet to blue or green color conrms the presence of
the steroids.
Phenols 1 g of the oil was mixed with 20 ml water with the further addition of the ferric chloride. The appearance of the blue
color indicated the presence of the phenol.
Terpenoids 5 g of the oil was mixed with 2 ml of the chloroform. Further 3 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added to form
the layer. Development of the reddish brown color at interface indicates presence of the terpenoids.

Table 2
Comparison of extraction results with % yield and energy supplied.

Exp. Run Solvent Temp. ( C) Time (min.) Avg.% yield Std. Dev. Net energy supplied (kJ/g)

E1 C:M (1:1) 80 180 17.8 5.37 11.83

E2 C:M (2:1) 70 240 28.8 1.13 16.91
E3 C:M (2:1) 80 120 31.0 2.83 7.885
E4 C:M (2:1) 100 90 38.0 4.24 6.34
E5 C:M (2:1) 110 90 34.4 0.57 6.34
E6 C:M (3:1) 80 60 31.5 6.36 4.532
E7 C:M (3:1) 100 69 41.0 0.04 5.211
E8 C:M (4:1) 80 120 37.0 1.41 9.403
E9 C:M (4:1) 100 120 36.0 1.41 9.49
E10 Methanol 80 210 11.8 1.1 20.7
E11 Chloroform 80 60 24.2 4.53 3.247
E12* Petroleum ether 80 360 28.6 1.41 38.96
E13 C:M (1:1) 80 360 21.1 0.57 23.66
E14 Petroleum ether 100 120 0.0 0.00 15.5
E15 C:PE:M(75:5:20) 80 150 26.6 2.26 11.7
Raw powder was rst extracted in E12 experimental run and the spent powder was used in next E13 experimental run for extraction with C:M.

Fig. 2. (A) Effect of temperature on extraction yield for C:M (2:1); (B) effect of solvent typeon the extraction yield of moringa oil; (C) effect of solvent ratio on the extraction
yield of the Moringa oil.
78 P.R. Bhutada et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480

Table 3 nicantly higher than that of the reported values and it will vary as
Physicochemical characteristics of extracted moringa oil.
per the geographical locations where Moringa plants are grown.
Constituents Obtained FAO/WHO standard

Density (gm/cm3 ) 0.24 0.009 4.5. Phytochemical analysis of extracted Moringa oil
Specic gravity 0.98 0.006 0.9
Acid value (mg KOH/gm) 26.22 1.210 4 The test for the presence of the avonoids, saponins, phenol,
Free fatty acid (mg KOH/gm) 13.11 0.615 5.77.28 tannins, and terpenoids were done and found to be positive. These
Saponication value (mg KOH/gm) 172.16 0.945 181.4
chemical constituents are known for many therapeutic values and
Iodine value 75.06 0.943 80106
various applications will be determined on the basis constituents
present in the oil. The avonoid test showed the presence of yellow
color, the froth formation was seen in the saponins test, reddish
However, when temperature exceed beyond the 100 C the yield
brown color indicated the presence of the terpenoids, and phenols
decreases. The possible reason behind this nature may be the reduc-
test gave the light red color. Grey color was seen in the tannins test
tion and breakdown of antioxidant molecule at high temperature.
and red color for the steroid test. The avonoids are reported to have
Another possibility may be the decomposition of active ingredi-
the antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant properties (Emmanuel
ents presents in the oil (Hossain et al., 2009). Also, from Table 2 it
et al., 2014).
is clear that, as the temperature increase, the yield of the Moringa
oil increases and the energy supplied per unit of extracted oil was
4.6. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of extracted Moringa oil
decreases. The highest extraction yield of oil (41%) was obtained
at the solvent ratio of 3:1 (C:M) and temperature of 100 C with
Fig. 3(A) shows the GC chromatogram of extracted oil which
expense of energy requirement of 5.211 kJ/g of oil.
conrms the presence of the various fatty acids such as palmitic,
stearic, arachidic and behenic acids and the main unsaturated
4.2. Effect of solvent type fatty acid is oleic acid (70.5%), with small amounts of palmitoleic,
linolenic, and eicosenoic acids (Table 4). Since, the extracted oil
The solvents used for the extraction in this work, were both polar contained a substantial amount of behenic acid (4.9%), it can be
(methanol) and non-polar (chloroform, petroleum ether). Polarity used as a natural source of behenic acid, which has been used as an
is dened as the relative ability of the molecule to engage in the oil structuring and solidifying agent in margarine, shortening, and
strong interactions with the other polar molecules. Polarity rep- foods containing semi-solid and solid fats, eliminating the need to
resents the ability of the molecule to enter into interactions of hydrogenate the oil (Abdulkarim et al., 2005). The high percentage
all kinds. Relative polarity is the sum of all possible interactions of oleic acid in the oil makes it desirable in terms of nutrition and
(Hossain et al., 2009). It was found that, as the polarity of the solvent high stability cooking and frying oil. High oleic-acid vegetable oils
decreases, the extraction yield oil increases as shown in Fig. 2(B). such as high-oleic corn, sunower and canola have been found to
The yield for the methanol is low as compared to the yield for the have enough oxidative stability to be used in demanding applica-
chloroform and petroleum ether as shown in Table 2. Polar solvents tions such as frying (Petukhov et al., 1999; Warner and Knowlton,
are highly capable of extracting the nonfat material such as antiox- 1997). In addition high-oleic oils have low saturated fatty acid lev-
idants, tocopherol, pigments, etc., non polar solvents along with els. Therefore high-oleic oils can be viewed as a healthy alternative
the non-fatty matter also extract the oil present in the seeds. The to partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.
oil extracted using only methanol was red in color whereas the oil
extracted using the chloroform and the petroleum ether was yel- 4.7. FTIR analysis of extracted Moringa oil
low in color. The red color of the oil may be due to the presence of
the pigments and the tocopherol present in the Moringa seed. FTIR analysis as shown in Fig. 3(B) clearly shows one peak
of ester functional group (C O stretch) at 1773 and peak at
1162 shows ether linkage and broad peak of 3414 (O H stretch)
4.3. Effect of solvent ratio
and 750 peaks of ortho-substituents. The peak in the region
35003200 cm1 indicates the presence of the alcohol or phenol
The extraction of the Moringa oil was performed using the sol-
(O H stretch). The elongated U shape around this region shows
vent mixture of chloroform and methanol in various ratios. The
the presence of the alcohol group. This functional group appears
comparison of the extraction of Moringa oil with respect to various
predominantly in the protein and fatty acid structures present
solvent ratios is shown in Fig. 2(C). The solvent mixture contains
in Moringa seeds. Due to the high content of protein present in
both the polar (methanol) and the nonpolar (chloroform) solvent.
seeds there is also a contribution in this region from the N H
The ratio of the nonpolar solvent was changed and the difference
stretching of amide groups. The peaks at 2920 cm1 and 2852 cm1
in the extraction yield of the oil was noted. With the increase in
are assigned to symmetrical and asymmetrical stretching of the
the nonpolar solvent from 1:1 to 3:1 the yield in the extraction of
C H of CH2 group present in fatty acids. One peak in the region
the oil also increases. However, when the ratio of nonpolar solvent
17601665 cm1 shows the presence of the ester functional group.
in the mixture was increased further then the yield was depressed.
The peak in the region 30002700 cm1 shows the presence of the
This is because, nonpolar solvent may be unable to extract the toco-
carboxylic acid. The peak in the region of 15001450 cm1 shows
pherols, pigments, antioxidants and the other substances present
the presence of the benzene (C C) (Arajo et al., 2010).
in the oil.
4.8. NMR analysis of extracted Moringa oil
4.4. Physico-chemical analysis of extracted Moringa oil
It was observed from the 1 H NMR analysis Fig. 3(C), there were
The physicochemical properties such as density, specic grav- no signals for hydroperoxides (primary oxidation products) and
ity, acid value, saponication value, iodine value, were analyzed aldehydes (main secondary oxidation products), indicating that no
and are tabulated in Table 3. The specic gravity, iodine value and oxidative degradation was taking place. The presence of these oxi-
saponication value of the extracted oil matches with the reported dation products in the ranges 8.098.19 ppm for hydroperoxides
values (Table 3). The acid value and free fatty acid content was sig- proton, and 9.309.90 ppm for aldehydes, indicates oxidation of
P.R. Bhutada et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480 79

Fig. 3. (A) Gas chromatic analysis of Moringa oil; (B) FTIR Spectra of Moringa oil; (C) 1 H NMR spectra of oil extracted by solvent extraction; (D) TGA analysis of Moringa oil.

Table 4
Relative percent composition of fatty acid in Moringa oleifera seed oil.

Fatty acids Determined values Reported values

Abdulkarim et al. (2005) Sunga and Whitby (1995) Dahot and Memon (1985) Ferrao and Ferrao (1970)

(C16:1) 2.2 2.2 1.1

(C18:0) 7.7 7.6 8.3 8.3 4.3
(C18:1) 73.5 67.9 67.7 67.3 76.5
(C20:0) 4.6 4 4.7 2.7 2.7
(C20:1) 2.9 1.5 2.3
(C22:0) 4.9 6.2 7.4 5.6 4.6
(C24:0) 1 6.2 0.4 3.2 1.1

these edible oils (Alonso-Salces et al., 2011). The presence of sterol (I). The CH2 O between tetrahydropyran ring ( O ) and ester group
(-sitosterol) in extracted oil could be deduced from the signal shows peak at 5.3 (J) (more downeld because of electronegative
0.84 ppm due to methylic protons in position C18 of the steroidal group on both sides). The solvent (deuterated chloroform) shows
skeleton (Almoselhy et al., 2014). The peak in the region 0.840.85 peak at 7.3 (K).
(A) is the methyl proton, splitted into triplets. The acyl group in
the region 1.121.16 (B) has been splitted into multiplets. Other 4.9. TGA analysis of extracted Moringa oil
aliphatic protons are splitted in the region of 1.572.29 (CE). The
alcoholic OH shows triplet at 3.433.44 (F) (downeld shifting of The thermo-gravimetric analysis of the extracted Moringa oil
protons of OH due to electro negativity of oxygen). Esteric proton was carried out to characterize the decomposition stages and
shows peak at 3.62 (G). Glyceryl group shows peak at 4.084.13 thermal stability of the Moringa oil as shown in Fig. 3(D). This
(H). The CH2 O of tetrahydropyran ring shows peak at 4.254.28 thermo gravimetric curve veries the sample heterogeneity, since
80 P.R. Bhutada et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 82 (2016) 7480

the intermediates formed are a mixture of several components. palm and coconut biodieseldiesel blending on their physico-chemical
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10%, associated with water desorption. In the second step remain- Sci. Technol. 52, 44994506.
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introduced for oil production in four ecosystems of South America. Ind. Crops
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The third stage shows the remaining 40% mass loss occurs from chromatography of free steroids in unsaponiable matter of vegetable oils. J.
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Busani, Moyo, Patrick Julius, Masika, Muchenje, V., 2012. Antimicrobial activity of
components, which probably includes fatty acids, for example oleic Moringa oleifera (Lam.) root extract. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11, 27972802.
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