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- Guidelines for Specification of Turbulence at Inflow Boundaries
- ANSYS CFX-Solver Theory Guide
- lectures-on-computational-fluid-dynamics.pdf
- (7) cfx_thry
- On the implementation of the k − " turbulence model in incompressible flow solvers based on a finite element discretizationas
- Simulation of the acoustic loads generated in the intersection of a main steam line and its safety relief valve branch of a BWR plant under EPU
- Turbulence Summary 4
- Dynamic Torsional Behavior of Tall Building Under Wind Loads Using CFD Approach
- CFd training
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- Combining time domain analysis and CFD for Subsea lifts
- distillation column internals
- Karman Vortices
- Compressible DNS within PECOS
- Design Optimization of Cooling Component through CFD Analysis
- BPG-SRS-1.02
- introduction to CFD
- Minimising Uncertainly in VCE Modelling
- Fluent-Intro_16.0_L02_IntroCFD.pdf
- Thesis

You are on page 1of 35

Vendors

By Shawn Wasserman

Simulation Editor, ENGINEERING.com

Right CFD Model for the Right Turbulence Problem

meet God, Im going to ask him two questions: Why

relativity? And why turbulence? I really believe he

will have an answer for the first. [1]

the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) world is

more contested than turbulence models.

for the right job. As a result, its important to know if

the simulation tool you are purchasing has the

models you need for your applications. This eBook

aims to provide a good place to start.

Laser-induced, fluorescent false-color image of a

submerged turbulent jet. (Image courtesy of C.

Regardless, finding the right model will take trial and Fukushima and J. Westerweel, Technical University

error, and even some physical testing. Once you of Delft.)

have your model you will discover the power of CFD

to reduce development times and prototypes.

What to Expect in This eBook

This eBook will:

Define turbulence model families, their applications and limitations

List turbulence models offered from the list of companies below.

Note that other big names in CFD were asked to participate and either declined or failed to reply.

What to Expect in This eBook

Applications Models

Internal flows and electronic cooling Wall treatment models

Aerodynamics (transonic flows) RANS Models: Spalart-Allmaras (SA)

General purpose, external flows with complex

RANS Models: k-

geometry

General purpose, internal flows, jets, curvatures,

RANS Models: k-

separated flows

Cyclones, swirling and other complex flows RANS Models: Reynolds Stress Transport

Flows in between laminar and turbulent Transition modeling

Thermal fatigue, vibration, buoyant flows (ship

LES Models

design)

External aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, bulk or wall

DES, DDES, IDDES models

turbulence

Fundamental research and turbulence model

Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)

creation

Separation zones, aerospace, channel pipes Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS)

Wall Treatment Models

Specifications

Dimensionless wall distances (Y+) or length-velocities

(L-Vel) calculate turbulent viscosity from local fluid

velocities and the distance from the closest wall

Solves the flow everywhere

Very robust

Lowest computational cost

Applications

Internal flows

Particularly electronic cooling

Limitations

Typically has low accuracy

Wall Treatment Models

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

High Reynolds

Number (High Y+) X X X

Low Reynolds

Number (Low Y+) X X

All Y+ Hybrid

Treatment X X X

Length-Velocities

(L-Vel) X

RANS Models

Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes

(RANS) is a large family of turbulence

models

Stokes equations by adding viscosity

terms

Comparison of results for the turbulent fluid flow

differently for each model through a prism. One is an instantaneous look and

the other based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-

Stokes equations. (Image courtesy of Emilio

The common term is k, the kinetic Baglietto.)

fluctuations

RANS Models: Spalart-Allmaras

Specifications

One-equation turbulence model

No wall functions

New variable added to represent SA viscosity

Not memory-intensive

Stable with good convergence

Stanford notes that this is a good compromise for accuracy vs.

simplicity

Applications:

Aerodynamics flows

Transonic flows over airfoils

Limitations:

Solving shear flows, separated flow, decaying turbulence

RANS Models: Spalart-Allmaras

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Standard

formulation

(low-Reynolds X X X X X

number)

Rough-wall SA X

High Reynolds

number X X X

RANS Models: k-

Specifications

Based on k and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy,

Uses wall functions so buffer region flow isnt simulated

Very popular two-equation model

Reliable, good convergence and low memory requirements

Numerous variants improve certain limitations of the model

Stanford prefers realizable k-, Kato and Launder variations

Applications

General purpose: no separation, compressible/incompressible

Particularly external flow interactions with complex geometry

Limitations

Not accurate for no-slip walls, adverse pressure gradients, strong

curvature into flow, and jet flows. is difficult to solve.

RANS Models: k-

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Standard k- X X X X

Standard two-

layer k- X X

Standard k- low-

Reynolds number X X

Scalable Wall

Function k- X X X

Realizable k- X X X X X

Realizable two-

layer k- X X

RANS Models: k-

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

RNG two-layer

k- X

RNG k- X X X X X

Lien Cubic k- X X

V2F low-Reynolds

number X X

SSG Reynolds

stressed k- X X

RANS Models: k-

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Rough-wall k- X

LRR k- X X

Launder and

Sharma Rapid

Distortion Theory X

(RDT) k-

Gibson and

DafaAllas q-zeta

two-equation X

low-Reynolds

number

RANS Models: k-

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Bouyant k- X X

Multiphase

standard k-

X X

Multiphase

standard two- X X

layer k-

Multiphase X

Lahey k-

Multiphase X X

realizable k-

RANS Models: k-

Specifications

Based on k and the specific rate of dissipation of kinetic

energy,

used as it is easier to solve than

Uses wall functions, so buffer region flow isnt simulated

Similar memory requirements as k-

Stanford suggests that the STT variation of k- is

typically better than the standard

Applications

Similar to k- with improved accuracy for:

Internal flows, curvatures, separated flows and jets

Limitations

Hard to converge vs. k-, sensitive to initial conditions

RANS Models: k-

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Standard k- X X X X X

SST k- X X X X X X

SST Rough-wall X

Baseline (BSL)

k- X X

Rough Wall k- X X

Multiphase Sato

SST k- X X

RANS Models: Reynolds Stress Transport

Specifications

Attempts to directly model flow and terms in RANS equation

Based on six equations for turbulent stresses

Good physical representation of flow

Applications

Good for assessing new phenomena and complex flows

(cyclones and swirling)

Limitations

Computationally expensive, sensitive to initial conditions, lots

of modeling, needs high-quality mesh

RANS Models: Reynolds Stress Transport

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Linear

pressure strain X

Quadratic

pressure strain X

Linear pressure

strain two-layer X

Explicit Algebraic

Reynolds Stress X X

Model (EARSM)

Low Reynolds

X

EB-RSM

Transition Modeling

Specifications

Models how the flow transitions from laminar to turbulent

Transition isnt discontinuous

Dynamic process that is situationally dependant

temporally, spatially and spatio-temporal

Applications

Flows that move between laminar to turbulent

Limitations

Modeling and documenting boundary conditions making

acoustics and disturbance modeling difficult

Transition Modeling

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

User specified

turbulent X

suppression

Gamma ReTheta

transition model X X

SST + 1 equation

transition (SST- X

gamma)

Low Reynolds

Number k-kL k- X X

Transition Modeling

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Spalart-Allmaras

+ 1 equation

transition model X

(SA-gamma)

Spalart-Allmaras

+ 2 equation

transition model X

(SA-gamma-

Retheta)

LES Models

Specifications

Large-eddy simulation (LES) based on theory of self

similarity

Solves small eddies with a sub-grid-scale model and

large ones based on geometry calculation

Separates velocity field into resolved (large eddies)

and sub-grid parts (small eddies)

Applications

Thermal fatigue, vibration, buoyant flows (ship design)

Limitations

Difficulties in near-wall regions

LES Models

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Smagorinsky

sub-grid scale X X X X

Dynamic

Smagorinsky X X X

sub-grid scale

Differential SGS

Stress Equation X

One Equation

Eddy-Viscosity X

Dynamic One

Equation Eddy- X X

Viscosity

DES, DDES, IDDES Models

Specifications

Detached eddy simulation (DES) RANS near walls and

LES elsewhere, address LES near-wall issues

Delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES)

Avoid modeled-stress depletion and grid-induced

separation

Improve delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES)

Similar to DDES and solves log-layer mismatch

Applications

External aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, bulk or wall

turbulence

Limitations

Lots of programming

DES, DDES, IDDES Models

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

DES Spalart-

Allmaras X X X

Detached Eddy

DDES SST k-

Delayed X X X

Detached Eddy

DDES Spalart-

Allmaras Delayed X X X

Detached Eddy

Shielded

Detached Eddy

Simulation (SDES) X

DES, DDES, IDDES Models

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Stressed Blended

Eddy Simulation X

(SBES)

IDDES SST K-

Improved

Delayed X X X

Detached Eddy

Simulation

IDDES Spalart-

Allmaras

Improved

Delayed X X

Detached Eddy

Simulation

Other Models: Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)

Specifications

Navier Stokes equations solved numerically without

turbulence model

Turbulence spatial and temporal scales resolved in

mesh

Applications

Fundamental research and development of other

turbulence models for practical applications

Limitations

Exceptionally high computational cost, low Reynolds

numbers only, large-scale resolution

Other Models: Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS)

Specifications

Similar results as LES in unsteady flow regions

Similar results as RANS models in stable flow regions

Applications

Separation zones, aerospace, channel pipes

Limitations

Underlying turbulence model must be unsteady, cannot be

made unsteady with grid refinement

Other Models

Dassault

ESI Group /

Altair Autodesk COMSOL Systmes

Models ANSYS CFD Direct

AcuSolve CFD Multiphysics SIMULIA

OpenFOAM

ABAQUS/CFD

Direct Numerical

Simulation (DNS) X X

Scale Adaptive

Simulation (SAS) X

Glossary of CFD Terms

Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

L-Vel: length-velocities

References

References

1. Marshak, A. & Davis, A. (2006) 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres.

Berlin: Springer. pg. 76

2. http://cfd.direct/openfoam/features/turbulence-modelling/

3. http://www.3ds.com/fileadmin/PRODUCTS/SIMULIA/PDF/datasheets/simulia-

abaqus-cfd-datasheet.pdf

4. Altair correspondence with David Corson and Simone Bonino

5. COMSOL correspondence with Valerio Marra

6. https://www.comsol.com/blogs/which-turbulence-model-should-choose-cfd-

application/

7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yf2iVABc8cg

8. http://resource.ansys.com/staticassets/ANSYS/staticassets/resourcelibrary/bro

chure/ansys-cfx-tech-specs.pdf

9. Baglietto, E. (2016) Turbulence Modeling and the art of CFD. Presentation: STAR

Global Conference & MIT

10. https://www.comsol.com/blogs/which-turbulence-model-should-choose-cfd-

application/

11. https://web.stanford.edu/class/me469b/handouts/turbulence.pdf

12. http://www.cfd-online.com/

13. https://www.sharcnet.ca/

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