You are on page 1of 10


For other uses, see Arduino (disambiguation). thesis project at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea
(IDII) in Ivrea, Italy. Massimo Banzi and Casey Reas,
who are known for work on the Processing language were
Arduino is a computer hardware and software company,
project, and user community that designs and manufac- supervisors for his thesis. The project goal was to create
low cost, simple tools for non-engineers to create digital
tures microcontroller kits for building digital devices and
interactive objects that can sense and control objects projects. The Wiring platform consisted of a hardware
PCB with an ATmega168 microcontroller, an IDE based
in the physical world. The projects products are dis-
tributed as open-source hardware and software, which are on Processing and library functions to easily program the
licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License microcontroller.[4]
(LGPL) or the GNU General Public License (GPL),[1] In 2005, Massimo Banzi, with David Mellis, an IDII
permitting the manufacture of Arduino boards and soft- student, and David Cuartielles, added support for the
ware distribution by anyone. Arduino boards are avail- cheaper ATmega8 microcontroller to Wiring. But instead
able commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it- of continuing the work on Wiring, they forked (or copied)
yourself kits. the Wiring source code and started running it as a sepa-
The projects board designs use a variety of microproces- rate project, called Arduino.
sors and controllers. These systems provide sets of digital The Arduinos initial core team consisted of Massimo
and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino,
to various expansion boards (shields) and other circuits. and David Mellis.[2]
The boards feature serial communications interfaces, in- Following the completion of the Wiring platform, lighter
cluding Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, for
and lower cost versions were distributed in the open-
loading programs from personal computers. The micro- source community.[5]
controllers are mainly programmed using a dialect of fea-
tures from the programming languages C and C++. In Adafruit Industries, a New York City supplier of Ar-
addition to using traditional compiler toolchains, the Ar- duino boards, parts, and assemblies, estimated in mid-
duino project provides an integrated development envi- 2011 that over 300,000 ocial Arduinos had been com-
ronment (IDE) based on the Processing language project. mercially produced, and in 2013 that 700,000 ocial
boards were in users hands.[7]
The Arduino project started in 2005 as a program for stu-
dents at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea,
Italy,[2] aiming to provide a low-cost and easy way for
novices and professionals to create devices that inter- 2 Hardware
act with their environment using sensors and actuators.
Common examples of such devices intended for beginner Arduino is open-source hardware. The hardware refer-
hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats, and motion ence designs are distributed under a Creative Commons
detectors. Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and are available on
the Arduino website. Layout and production les for
The name Arduino comes from a bar in Ivrea, where some
some versions of the hardware are also available. The
of the founders of the project used to meet. The bar was
source code for the IDE is released under the GNU Gen-
named after Arduin of Ivrea, who was the margrave of the
eral Public License, version 2.[8] Nevertheless an ocial
March of Ivrea and King of Italy from 1002 to 1014.[3]
Bill of Materials of Arduino boards has never been re-
leased by the sta of Arduino.
Although the hardware and software designs are freely
1 History available under copyleft licenses, the developers have re-
quested that the name Arduino be exclusive to the of-
The origin of the Arduino project started at the cial product and not be used for derived works without
Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy.[2] At that permission. The ocial policy document on use of the
time, the students used a BASIC Stamp microcontroller Arduino name emphasizes that the project is open to in-
at a cost of $100, a considerable expense for many stu- corporating work by others into the ocial product.[9]
dents. In 2004, Colombian student Hernando Barragn Several Arduino-compatible products commercially re-
created the development platform Wiring as a Masters leased have avoided the Arduino name by using -duino


added. A handful of other processors have also been used

by Arduino compatible devices. Most boards include a
5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or
ceramic resonator in some variants), although some de-
signs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with
the onboard voltage regulator due to specic form-factor
restrictions. An Arduinos microcontroller is also pre-
programmed with a boot loader that simplies uploading
of programs to the on-chip ash memory, compared with
other devices that typically need an external chip pro-
grammer. This makes using an Arduino more straight-
forward by allowing the use of an ordinary computer as
the programmer. Currently, optiboot bootloader is the
default bootloader installed on Arduino UNO.[12]
At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino integrated
development environment, all boards are programmed
over a serial connection. Its implementation varies with
the hardware version. Some serial Arduino boards con-
Arduino-compatible R3 UNO board made in China with no Ar- tain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232
duino logo, but with identical markings, including "Made in Italy" logic levels and transistortransistor logic (TTL) level
text signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via
Universal Serial Bus (USB), implemented using USB-
name variants.[10] to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some
boards, such as later-model Uno boards, substitute the
FTDI chip with a separate AVR chip containing USB-
to-serial rmware, which is reprogrammable via its own
ICSP header. Other variants, such as the Arduino Mini
and the unocial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-
serial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods,
when used with traditional microcontroller tools instead
of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR in-system program-
ming (ISP) programming is used.

An early Arduino board[11] with an RS-232 serial interface (up-

per left) and an Atmel ATmega8 microcontroller chip (black,
lower right); the 14 digital I/O pins are at the top, the 6 ana-
log input pins at the lower right, and the power connector at the
lower left.

An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-, 16- or 32-bit

AVR microcontroller (although since 2015 other mak-
ers microcontrollers have been used) with complemen-
tary components that facilitate programming and incor- An ocial Arduino Uno R2 with descriptions of the I/O locations
poration into other circuits. An important aspect of
the Arduino is its standard connectors, which let users The Arduino board exposes most of the microcon-
connect the CPU board to a variety of interchangeable trollers I/O pins for use by other circuits. The Diec-
add-on modules termed shields. Some shields communi- imila,[lower-alpha 1] Duemilanove,[lower-alpha 2] and current
cate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, Uno[lower-alpha 3] provide 14 digital I/O pins, six of which
but many shields are individually addressable via an IC can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six ana-
serial busso many shields can be stacked and used in log inputs, which can also be used as six digital I/O
parallel. Before 2015, Ocial Arduinos had used the pins. These pins are on the top of the board, via female
Atmel megaAVR series of chips, specically the AT- 0.1-inch (2.54 mm) headers. Several plug-in applica-
mega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and tion shields are also commercially available. The Arduino
ATmega2560. In 2015, units by other producers were Nano, and Arduino-compatible Bare Bones Board[13] and
2.1 Ocial boards 3

Boarduino[14] boards may provide male header pins on

the underside of the board that can plug into solderless
Many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards
exist. Some are functionally equivalent to an Arduino and
can be used interchangeably. Many enhance the basic Ar-
duino by adding output drivers, often for use in school- Arduino Uno SMD R3 [22]
level education, to simplify making buggies and small
robots. Others are electrically equivalent but change
the form factor, sometimes retaining compatibility with
shields, sometimes not. Some variants use dierent pro-
cessors, of varying compatibility.

2.1 Ocial boards Arduino Leonardo [23]

Further information: List of Arduino boards and com-

patible systems

The original Arduino hardware was produced by the Ital-

ian company Smart Projects.[15] Some Arduino-branded
boards have been designed by the American companies
SparkFun Electronics and Adafruit Industries.[16] As of
2016, 17 versions of the Arduino hardware have been
commercially produced. Arduino Pro [24]
(No USB)

Arduino RS232 [17]

(thru-hole parts)

Arduino Mega [25]

Arduino Diecimila [18]

Arduino Nano [26]

(DIP-30 footprint)
Arduino Duemilanove [19]
(rev 2009b)

Arduino LilyPad 00 [27]

Arduino Uno R2 [20][21]
(rev 2007) (No USB)

Arduino Robot [28] Dragino Lora Shield allows

the user to send data and reach extremely long
ranges at low data-rates.

Arduino Esplora [29]

Screw-terminal breakout
shield in a wing-type format

Arduino Ethernet [30]

(AVR + W5100)

Adafruit Motor Shield with

screw terminals for connection to motors

Arduino Yun [31]

(AVR + AR9331)

Adafruit Datalogging Shield

with a Secure Digital (SD) card slot and real-time
clock (RTC) chip
Arduino Due [32]
(ARM Cortex-M3 core)

3 Software development
2.2 Shields
Arduino programs may be written in any programming
Arduino and Arduino-compatible boards use printed cir- language with a compiler that produces binary ma-
cuit expansion boards called shields, which plug into chine code. Atmel provides a development environ-
the normally supplied Arduino pin headers. Shields ment for their microcontrollers, AVR Studio and the
can provide motor controls for 3D printing and other newer Atmel Studio, which can be used for programming
applications, Global Positioning System (GPS), Eth- Arduino.[37][38][39]
ernet, liquid crystal display (LCD), or breadboarding The Arduino project provides the Arduino integrated de-
(prototyping). Several shields can also be made do it velopment environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform
yourself (DIY).[33][34][35] application written in the programming language Java.
It originated from the IDE for the languages Processing
and Wiring. It was created for people with no pro-
found knowledge of electronics. It includes a code editor
with features such as syntax highlighting, brace match-
ing, cutting-pasting and searching-replacing text, and au-
tomatic indenting, and provides simple one-click mech-
Multiple shields can be anism to compile and upload programs to an Arduino
stacked. In this example the top shield contains a board. It also contains a message area, a text console,
solderless breadboard. a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a series
of menus.

A program written with the IDE for Arduino is called #dene LED_PIN 13 // Pin number attached to LED.
a sketch.[40] Sketches are saved on the development void setup() { pinMode(LED_PIN, OUTPUT); // Con-
computer as les with the le extension .ino. Arduino gure pin 13 to be a digital output. } void loop() { dig-
Software (IDE) pre-1.0 saved sketches with the extension italWrite(LED_PIN, HIGH); // Turn on the LED. de-
.pde. lay(1000); // Wait 1 second (1000 milliseconds). dig-
The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ us- italWrite(LED_PIN, LOW); // Turn o the LED. de-
ing special rules to organize code. The Arduino IDE sup- lay(1000); // Wait 1 second. }
plies a software library from the Wiring project, which This program uses the functions pinMode(), digital-
provides many common input and output procedures. Write(), and delay(), which are provided by the internal
User-written code only requires two functions, for start- libraries included in the IDE environment.
ing the sketch and the main programs loop, that are
compiled and linked with a program stub main() into
an executable cyclic executive program with the GNU 5 Applications
toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution. The
Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert
Xoscillo, an open-source oscilloscope[45]
the executable code into a text le in hexadecimal coding
that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program Arduinome, a MIDI controller device that mimics
in the boards rmware. the Monome

OBDuino, a trip computer that uses the on-board

diagnostics interface found in most modern cars
4 Software
Ardupilot, drone software and hardware

Gameduino, an Arduino shield to create retro 2D

video games[46]

ArduinoPhone, a do-it-yourself cellphone[47][48]

Water quality testing platform[49]

Automatic titration system based on Arduino and

stepper motor[50]

Low cost data glove for virtual reality

Power LED (red) and integrated LED on Line 13 (green) on Ar-
duino compatible board, made in China Impedance sensor system to detect bovine milk
A minimal Arduino C/C++ sketch, as seen by the
Homemade CNC using Arduino and DC motors
Arduino IDE programmer, consist of only two
with close loop control by Homofaciens[53]
DC motor control using Arduino and H-Bridge[54]
setup(): This function is called once when a sketch
starts after power-up or reset. It is used to initial-
ize variables, input and output pin modes, and other 6 Recognitions
libraries needed in the sketch.

loop(): After setup() is called, this function is called The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the
repeatedly by a program loop in the main program. Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars Elec-
It controls the board until it is powered o or is reset. tronica.

Most Arduino boards contain a light-emitting diode

(LED) and a load resistor connected between pin 13 and 7 Trademark dispute
ground, which is a convenient feature for many tests and
program functions.[44] A typical program for a beginning In early 2008, the ve cofounders of the Arduino project
Arduino programmer blinks an LED repeatedly. This created a company, Arduino LLC,[56] to hold the trade-
program is usually loaded in the Arduino by the manu- marks associated with Arduino. The manufacture and
facturer. In the Arduino environment, a user might write sale of the boards was to be done by external companies,
such a program as shown:[44] and Arduino LLC would get a royalty from them. The

founding bylaws of Arduino LLC specied that each of [4] Home. 2016-01-01. Re-
the ve founders transfer ownership of the Arduino brand trieved 2016-03-06.
to the newly formed company.
[5] Rhizome - Interview with Casey Reas and Ben Fry.
At the end of 2008, Gianluca Martinos company, Smart 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
Projects, along with Microsoft, registered the Arduino
trademark in Italy and kept this a secret from the other [6] How many Arduinos are in the wild?" About 300,000.
Adafruit Industries. May 15, 2011. Retrieved 2013-05-
cofounders for about two years. This was revealed when
the Arduino company tried to register the trademark in
other areas of the world (they originally registered only in [7] Arduino FAQ With David Cuartielles. Malm Uni-
the US), and discovered that it was already registered in versity. April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
Italy. Negotiations with Gianluca and his rm to bring the
trademark under control of the original Arduino company [8] The arduino source code. The arduino source code.
failed. In 2014, Smart Projects began refusing to pay [9] Policy. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
royalties. They then appointed a new CEO, Mr. Musto,
who renamed the company to Arduino SRL and created [10] Freeduino Open Designs. Retrieved
a website named, copying the graphics and 2008-03-03.
layout of the original This resulted in a rift [11] Hardware Index. Arduino Project. Retrieved 2013-12-
in the Arduino development team. All Arduino boards 10.
are still available to consumers so the implications of this
are uncertain.[57][58][59] [12] Optiboot Bootloader for Arduino and Atmel AVR. Re-
trieved 2015-10-01.
In January 2015, Arduino LLC le a lawsuit against Ar-
duino SRL.[60] [13] Bare Bones Board.
In May 2015, Arduino LLC created the world-wide [14] Boarduino.
trademark Genuino, used as brand name outside the
United States.[61] [15] Redirect....

At the World Maker Faire in New York on October 1, [16] Schmidt, M. ["Arduino: A Quick Start Guide"],
2016, Arduino LLC co-founder and CEO Massimo Banzi Pragmatic Bookshelf, January 22, 2011, Pg. 201
and Arduino SRL CEO Federico Musto announced the
[17] Arduino RS232 ocial webpage;
merger of the two Arduino companies.[62]
[18] Arduino Diecimila ocial webpage;

[19] Arduino Duemilanove ocial webpage;

8 See also
[20] Arduino Uno ocial webpage;
Comparison of single-board computers [21] Dierences between Ocial Arduino Uno, R2, R3
boards; Starting Electronics.
List of open-source hardware projects
[22] Arduino Uno SMD ocial webpage;

[23] Arduino Leonardo ocial webpage;

9 Notes
[24] Arduino Pro ocial webpage;
[1] Diecimila means ten thousands in Italian
[25] Arduino Mega ocial webpage;
[2] Duemilanove means two thousands nine in Italian
[26] Arduino Nano ocial webpage;
[3] Uno means one in Italian [27] Arduino LilyPad ocial webpage;

[28] Arduino Robot ocial webpage;

10 References [29] Arduino Esplora ocial webpage;

[1] Arduino - Introduction. [30] Arduino Ethernet ocial webpage;

[31] Arduino Yun ocial webpage;

[2] David Kushner (26 Oct 2011). The Making of Arduino.
IEEE Spectrum. [32] Arduino Due ocial webpage;
[3] Justin Lahart (27 November 2009). Taking an Open- [33] Arduino breadboard shield: $10 & 10 mins. todbot blog.
Source Approach to Hardware. The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved 7 September 2014. [34] Arduino Shields for Prototyping.

[35] Jonathan Oxer. Arduino Shield list. Retrieved 5 Nov [56] Business Entity Summary for Arduino LLC.
2013. State of Massachusetts.

[36] Arduino Software Release Notes. Arduino Project. Re- [57] Allan, Alasdair (6 March 2015). Arduino Wars: Group
trieved December 26, 2016. Splits, Competing Products Revealed?".
Maker Media, Inc. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
[37] Using Atmel Studio for Arduino development. Me- Retrieved 2013-01-18. [58] Banzi, Massimo (19 March 2015). Massimo Banzi:
Fighting for Arduino. Maker Media, Inc.
[38] Using AVR Studio for Arduino development. Eng-
Retrieved 21 April 2015. Retrieved 2013-01-18.

[39] Ch Arduino. Retrieved 2016-10-07. [59] Williams, Elliot (28 March 2015). Arduino SRL to Dis-
tributors: We're the Real Arduino"".
[40] Programming Arduino Getting Started with Sketches. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
McGraw-Hill. Nov 8, 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
[60] Arduino LLC vs Arduino SRL lawsuit; United States
[41] Tutorial: Bare Minimum code needed; Courts Archive.

[42] Documenation for setup() function; [61] Arduino Announces New Brand, Genuino, Manufactur-
ing Partnership with Adafruit. Make:. 16 May 2015. Re-
[43] Documenation for loop() function;
trieved 17 May 2015.
[44] Blink Tutorial.
[62] Arduino Blog Two Arduinos become one. Arduino
[45] xoscillo A software oscilloscope that acquires data us- Blog. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
ing an arduino or a parallax (more platforms to come).
Google Project Hosting. Retrieved
11 Further reading
[46] Gameduino home page.

[47] ArduinoPhone. (2013-07-17). Re-

Getting Started with Arduino; Massimo Banzi,
trieved on 2013-08-04. Michael Shiloh; 262 pages; 2014; ISBN 1-4493-
[48] DIY Cellphone, MIT
Make: Sensors; Tero Karvinen, Kimmo Karvinen,
[49] Bas Wijnen, G. C. Anzalone and Joshua M. Pearce, Open- Ville Valtokari; 400 pages; 2014; ISBN 978-1-
source mobile water quality testing platform. Journal of 4493-6810-4.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 4(3) pp.
532537 (2014). doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.137 open
Arduino For Dummies; John Nussey; 446 pages;
2013; ISBN 978-1118446379.
[50] Grossi, Marco; Ricc, Bruno (February 2017). An au-
tomatic titration system for oil concentration measure- Programming Arduino Next Steps: Going Further
ment in metalworking uids. Measurement. 97: 814. with Sketches; Simon Monk; 2013; ISBN 978-
doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2016.11.014. 0071830256.

[51] Silva, L.; Dantas, R.; Pantoja, A.; Pereira, A. Exploring Arduino: Tools and Techniques for Engi-
(1 July 2013). Development of a low cost data- neering Wizardry; Jeremy Blum; 384 pages; 2013;
glove based on arduino for virtual reality applica- ISBN 978-1118549360.
tions. 2013 IEEE International Conference on Compu-
tational Intelligence and Virtual Environments for Mea- Arduino Workshop: A Hands-On Introduction with
surement Systems and Applications (CIVEMSA): 5559.
65 Projects; John Boxall; 392 pages; 2013; ISBN
[52] Durante, Gabriel; Becari, Wesley; Lima, Felipe A. S.;
Peres, Henrique E. M. (February 2016). Electrical Beginning C for Arduino: Learn C Programming for
Impedance Sensor for Real-Time Detection of Bovine the Arduino and Compatible Microcontrollers; Jack
Milk Adulteration. IEEE Sensors Journal. 16 (4): 861 Purdum; 280 pages; 2012; ISBN 978-1430247760.
865. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2015.2494624.
Programming Arduino: Getting Started With
[53] CNC V2.0. . Retrieved on 2016-02-24 Sketches; Monk Simon; 162 pages; 2011; ISBN
[54] Arduino Robot Motor Control. Re- 978-0071784221.
trieved on 2016-04-16
Make: Electronics (Learning by Discovery); Charles
[55] Ars Electronica Archiv. Retrieved 2015-03-27. Platt; 352 pages; 2009; ISBN 978-0596153748.

12 External links
Ocial website

Evolution tree for Arduino

Arduino Cheat Sheet

Arduino Dimensions and Hole Patterns

Arduino Board Pinout Diagrams: Due, Esplora,

Ethernet, Fio, Leonardo, LilyPad, Mega, Micro,
Mini, Nano, Pro, Pro Micro, Pro Mini, Uno, Yun


Arduino - The Documentary (2010): IMDb, Vimeo

Massimo Banzi interviews: Triangulation 110,


13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

13.1 Text
Arduino Source: Contributors: AxelBoldt, Caltrop, Ceaser, Hikari, Mahjongg,
Kku, Delirium, Darkwind, Kragen, Glenn, Scott, Donio, Mulad, Greglocock, Nv8200pa, Taxman, Val42, Klaus Leiss, Dumbledad, Scruss,
Raeky, Knobunc, DocWatson42, BenFrantzDale, Ds13, Mcapdevila, Micru, Jorge Stol, Cmkpl, Halosix, Abdull, Thorwald, Imroy, Dis-
cospinster, ArnoldReinhold, Duchamp~enwiki, Bender235, Nabla, PutzfetzenORG, Jantangring, Bobo192, Smalljim, R. S. Shaw, Girae-
data, Trevj, Jdabney, Nasukaren, Radical Mallard, Velella, Marasmusine, Mindmatrix, Danmaz74, Pol098, Ruud Koot, Eyreland, SDC,
CharlesC, DustyDingo~enwiki, Sprague, Royan, Magister Mathematicae, Rjwilmsi, Koavf, Patrick Gill, Salix alba, MZMcBride, Allen
Moore, Intgr, Lmatt, Tedder, Chobot, ATH500, Remmelt, Hydrargyrum, Bovineone, Geertivp, Tkbwik, Wrachelson, Venix, Warrenm,
Elkman, Wknight94, Arthur Rubin, Cedar101, Dspradau, Petri Krohn, Red Jay, Back ache, JLaTondre, Snaxe920, Kingboyk, Mardus,
Sbassi, Zlogic, Attilios, Lethalmonk, SmackBot, Gracehoper, Faisal.akeel, DMellis, InverseHypercube, McGeddon, Misto, Arny, Nick-
Garvey, Anachronist, Adamfeuer, JennyRad, Thumperward, Salvor, George Church, Deli nk, Randomskk, Chendy, Dro Kulix, Frap,
Alphathon, OrphanBot, JonHarder, Grhabyt, Stepho-wrs, Mwtoews, Ihatetoregister, Salamurai, Pfhyper, RickO5, Ian Spackman, Dej-
udicibus, Toggio, IronGargoyle, TerryKing, Hu12, Courcelles, Sreeram shankar, Fabrice Florin, Amalas, Pfagerburg~enwiki, Drinibot,
Yaris678, Cydebot, Mike65535, Meno25, Nick Wilson, Gogo Dodo, Simenheg, ShadowGuy, Neoforma, ClarkMills, Abqsteve, Surturz,
Kozuch, Waveking, Cinderblock63, Thijs!bot, Pemboid, Potax, MarshBot, Guy Macon, Jonathan Williams, JonOxer, Chrisjj3, JAnD-
bot, Viskr, CosineKitty, Khommel, H3llbringer, Magioladitis, David Oliver, JamesBWatson, Oskay, Cadsuane Melaidhrin, Steven Walling,
Jatkins, JMBryant, Philg88, Gwern, Wimh, CommonsDelinker, Yannick56, Buhadram, Silas S. Brown, Minime72706, Aervanath, Gonzalo
M. Garcia, Ajfweb, ICE77, Lexein, TXiKiBoT, Moumouza, Calwiki, Chuckwolber, Exprice, Nexus501, Sgbirch, Seb az86556, Rajsite,
Jamelan, Andy Dingley, Synthebot, Nave.notnilc, DonBarredora, Userper, Kbrose, Yngvarr, Anilashanbhag, Yadoo86, Sav vas, Mikebar,
Yintan, Rob Prikanowski, Soler97, Jerryobject, Bentogoa, Udawatabhimanyu4, Ali asin, Henryerinjones, Linuxrules1337, Vbscript2, Mi-
siu mp, Tintin192, Treekids, Denisarona, Kookish, ImageRemovalBot, Stephensb42, TerribleTadpole, Shloimeborukh, ColorfulNumbers,
GreenSpigot, VQuakr, Machee, Gbarberi, Niceguyedc, Blanchardb, TjeerdVerhagen, Lessogg, Craigbic, Crazyburns, Awickert, Alexbot,
Vancircuit, A Pirard, Arjayay, Jinlye, Chaosdruid, Apparition11, DumZiBoT, Darkicebot, InternetMeme, XLinkBot, H0dges, NobbiP,
Cmr08, Cbenson1, Zodon, Fiskbil, Dsimic, Mortense, Non-dropframe, Johanroed, Jncraton, Tergenev, Cst17, Harviecz, MrOllie, Down-
load, CUSENZA Mario, 84user, Jarble, Softy, Margin1522, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Wonder, AnomieBOT, ICSeater, Gtz, Jim1138, Jack-
ieBot, Bjepson, Csigabi, Citation bot, Ghstwlf, LilHelpa, ChococatR, Xqbot, IslandMountain, PabloCastellano, JimVC3, Rvumbaca, Grou-
choBot, Xan2, Mort42, SassoBot, Brunonar, Alainr345, Thomas-pluralvonglas, Robertelder, Rstuvw, FrescoBot, JaadesA, Lonaowna, W
Nowicki, Angmall, Idyllic press, JackStonePGD, FlyFire, Danhomer, DivineAlpha, Shiki2, Kristianpaul, Edderso, Joebigwheel, Jone-
sey95, Skyerise, Tehuglyscientist, Jandalhandler, SimonPStevens, E-Soter, Mibix, ActivExpression, , Cyb3rn0id, Trap-
pist the monk, DixonDBot, Michael9422, MakerShed, ErikvanB, MoreNet, Jluciani, RenaudBedard, Tbhotch, Julian dasilva, Roland
Richter, Obankston, Bernd.Brincken, Migaber, Peapodamus, Mazurov, DASHBot, EmausBot, Rusfuture, Dead Horsey, WikitanvirBot,
LordStDennis, Kronick, Bricoman55, Dewritech, RA0808, Sukkin, Scgtrp, Tikitpok, Hscharler, AvicBot, ZroBot, Pbruins84, TLeek,
, Ubarro, Lemio, Mowcius, Sbmeirow, Lorem Ip, Howetimothy, Palosirkka, John Garvin, Davidch12, Tronixstu, JohnBoxall,
ChuispastonBot, Gandrewstone, Sudozero, Fargasch, Luckylarrycouk, Clay Digger, ClueBot NG, 392236a, Phry, Braincricket, Widr,
Danim, Tuxskar, David Johnson-Davies, CasualVisitor, Helpful Pixie Bot, Simonmonk2, Troy.hester, Se Ra Bu Tan, BG19bot, Vir-
tualerian, Techformeplease, Paradoxiality, Gbulmeruk, Barefoottech, Northamerica1000, PatrickCarbone, Frze, Srcvale, Compfreak7,
BKJanzen, Abishai Singh, Sn1per, Nungalpiriggal, Jjolla88, Mycosys, Zedshort, Udoklein, carusdaidalos, Ldsrc2008, Roguebhagman,
Mfoulks3200, Shields Arduino, , Laure f o, Khazar2, Riktw, Theoduino, Youdonotknow, Imheck, Dexbot, FoCuSandLeArN, Rowe-
boat14, Olonic, MarkAStephenson, Vinnycordeiro, Luli17, Razvaniycdi, Theskuter37, MaharajaMD, Beige.librarian, MWikiOrg, Prestja,
Edsfocci, Pdecalculus, Onorai, Dairhead, Kirstine Dupont, TobiasAD, Pabhilash, Granttchart, Ales9000, Borg4223, WikiEditingRe-
searcher, RaphaelQS, ArmbrustBot, Htbwmedia, Ashishbuntybhaiya, Carafriez, JustBerry, Toastcoast, Rajib.hyderabad, Andreafermi,
ScotXW, Snakomaniac, WAYNELYW, 32RB17, Bad Dryer, Timofteandrei, Lagoset, Cman21031, Scarlettail, Dsprc, Darkness Fallss,
Engr Wasim Khan, 329n8z7TeL, Karlsonx, Bonomont, Sarr Cat, Andhof-mt, JudeBass, Morszeck, Javiterr, Eudorina412, Gondi56,
Hemangjoshi37a, Hackarobot, Petschekr, JeremiahY, B445778, CAPTAIN RAJU, CitrusEllipsis, Rafey Iqbal, 40ozCorona, Massimil-
ianoarceri, NgYShung, TristanRobitaille, Cattus Fluus, Holenthedevil, Coresnoble, CheCheDaWa, Darkbluebit, Zakmylastname, Iran
dokht, Hammertime56, David Dragino, M++, Rajurajasekhar, AR16, Crmind, Stikkyy, Javac203, Vamsichowdary, Heashon, Niko-
laylechev, PaulG134 and Anonymous: 515

13.2 Images
File:ARSH-09-DL_03.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA
2.0 Contributors: Flickr: ARSH-09-DL_03 Original artist: oomlout
File:Adafruit_Motor_Shield_-_ARSH-02-MS_01.jpg Source:
Motor_Shield_-_ARSH-02-MS_01.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Adafruit Motor Shield - ARSH-02-MS_01 Original
artist: oomlout
File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: License: CC0
Contributors: self-made, inspired by Gnome globe current event.svg, using Information icon3.svg and Earth clip art.svg Original artist:
Vipersnake151, penubag, Tkgd2007 (clock)
File:Arduino-compatible_R3_UNO_Sku066313-01.jpg Source:
Arduino-compatible_R3_UNO_Sku066313-01.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Arduino-Compatible R3 UNO ATmega16U2
AVR USB Board (le) Original artist:
File:Arduino316.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contrib-
utors: Original artist: Nicholas Zambetti
File:ArduinoDue_Front.jpg Source: License: CC BY-
SA 3.0 Contributors: Original artist: Arduino SA
File:ArduinoYun.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contrib-
utors: Own work Original artist: Massimilianoarceri

File:Arduino_Diecimila_6.jpg Source: License: CC

BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Arduino Original artist: Remko van Dokkum
File:Arduino_Duemilanove_2009b.jpg Source:
2009b.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Original artist:
H0dges (
File:Arduino_Esplora.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Original artist: Arduino SA
File:Arduino_Ethernet_Board.jpg Source: Li-
cense: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Arduino Ethernet Board Original artist: oomlout
File:Arduino_Leonardo.jpg Source: License: CC BY-
SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Arduino Leonardo! Original artist: Jeremy Blum
File:Arduino_Logo.svg Source: License: Public do-
main Contributors: Original artist: Unknown<a href='//' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='
svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='
Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Arduino_Mega.jpg Source: License: CC BY 2.0 Con-
tributors: Flickr: Arduino Mega Original artist: David Mellis
File:Arduino_Nano.jpg Source: License: CC BY 2.0 Con-
tributors: Flickr: Arduino Nano Original artist: David Mellis
File:Arduino_Pro.jpg Source: License: CC BY 2.0 Contribu-
tors: Flickr: Arduino Pro Original artist: David Mellis
File:Arduino_Protoboard_Shields.jpg Source:
jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Arduino Protoboard Shield Original artist: Marlon J. Manrique
File:Arduino_Robot_Top.jpg Source: License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Original artist: Arduino SA
File:Arduino_UNO_unpacked.jpg Source: Li-
cense: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Arduino UNO Original artist: Nick Hubbard
File:Arduino_Uno_-_R3.jpg Source: License: CC BY
2.0 Contributors: Arduino Uno - R3 Original artist: SparkFun Electronics from Boulder, USA
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Dragino_Lora_Shield.jpg Source: License: CC
BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: David Dragino
File:Free_and_open-source_software_logo_(2009).svg Source:
open-source_software_logo_%282009%29.svg License: Public domain Contributors: FOSS Logo.svg Original artist: Free Software Portal
Logo.svg (FOSS Logo.svg): ViperSnake151
File:Genuino_Logo.svg Source: License: Fair use Contributors: Original artist: ?
File:LilyPad_Arduino_Main_Board.JPG Source:
Board.JPG License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Original artist: Leah Buechley
File:Nuvola_apps_ksim.png Source: License: LGPL
Contributors: Original artist: David Vignoni / ICON KING
File:Power_and_Pin13_LED_on_Arduino_Compatible_Board.jpg Source:
Power_and_Pin13_LED_on_Arduino_Compatible_Board.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rajib
File:Question_book-new.svg Source: License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
File:Symbol_list_class.svg Source: License: Public domain Con-
tributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:UnoConnections.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: 1sfoerster
File:Wingshield_on_Arduino_-_ARSH-05-WI.jpg Source:
Arduino_-_ARSH-05-WI.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Wingshield on Arduino - ARSH-05-WI Original artist:

13.3 Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0