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for a living planet

IDENTIFICATION OF BIODIVERSITY HOT SPOTS IN MUSAKHEL DISTRICT BALOCHISTAN
MOHAMMAD YAHYA MUSAKHEL
March – August 2005

All photographs taken during the survey. Photo credits: M. Yahya Musa Khel, Waheed Razaq and Muzaffar

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CONTENTS
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………II List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………..II List of Appendix………………………………………………………………………….II Project Introduction……………………………………………………………….…….1 Project Summary……………………………………………………………………… ..1 Project Objectives………………………………………………………………………..2 Methodology used ……………………………………………………………………….2 Result and their significance ……………………………………………………………3 Anthropogenic Aspect.........................................................................................................3 Socio economic scenario………………………………………………………………… 4 General description of project areas …………………………………………………….5 Ecological Aspect ………………………………………………………………………..9 General description of vegetation ……………………………………………………….9 Habitat types………………………………………………………………………………9 Vegetation study ……………………………………………………………………… 11 Miscellaneous uses of plants in Musakhel ………………………………………….…13 Medicinal plants …………………………………………………………………….….14 Forest types in Musakhel area………………………………………………………….17 Fauna Survey …………………………………………………………………………..18 Geography……………………………………………………………………………….19 Zoogeography …………………………………………………………………………...19 Mammals ………………………………………………………………………………..19 Aves ……………………………………………………………………………………...20 Reptiles ………………………………………………………………………………….20 Butterflies ……………………………………………………………………………….20 Equipments used in the survey………………………………………………………..21 Summary of Results……………………………………………………………………22 Conclusion and recommendation……………………………………………………..23 Out put: Reports, media, articles, slides, photographs etc…………………………..24 Equipment status report……………………………………………………………….25 Observers………………………………………………………………………………. 25 Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………………………….26 References ………………………. ……………………………………………………..27 Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………..28 Photographs……………………………………………………………………………..40

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LIST OF MAPS, GRAPHS & TABLES
S. # 01 02 03 04 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 TOPIC MAPS MAP OF BALOCHISTAN MAP OF MUSAKHEL DISTRICT VEGETATION TYPE PRECIPITATION GRAPHS RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SPECIES SPECIES AREA CURVE USE OF PLANTS FOR VARIOUS AILMEMENT TABLES PHYTO-SOCIOLOGICAL DATA OF MUSAKHEL CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE BASIS OF MORPHOLOGY MAIN FOREST TYPES IN MUSAKHEL WILDLIFE DIVERSITY IN MUSAKHEL Summary of results PAGE iii iv v vi vii 12 13 14 12 14 17 18 22

LIST OF APPENDIX
S. # Annex 1a Annex 1b Annex 2 Annex 3 Annex 4a Annex 4b Annex 5 Annex 6 Annex 7a. Annex 7b. Annex 8 Annex 9 TOPIC Socio-economic Questionnaire Socio-ecological Questionnaire Climate and physiography of surveyed areas Present Livestock Population of surveyed Villages Checklist of Plants identified during the survey Plants Under identification List of wild/medicinal plants of Musakhel List of Birds Sulaman Markhors observed during the Survey Urials observed during the Survey List of Mammal species. Fuel wood consumption in Musakhel PAGE 28 31 33 33 34 36 36 37 38 38 39 39

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Study Area

MAP OF DISTRICT MUSAKHEL

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VEGETATION TYPE

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Precipitation

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Project Introduction
The Project identification of Biodiversity hotspots in Musakhel district was designed to assess the status of biodivestiy under the following objectives: Identify threats to Biodiversity Identify solution to minimize the impacts. Strengthening the local CBO’s in intend to work in conservation areas. Prepare documentation of resources database. Prepare guideline for communities to improve the Socio-economic condition.

Summary of the Project
Musakhel is one of the most diverse districts in the province and aesthetically and ecologically provides unique habitat. It is a home of hundreds of species of plants and animals, many of which are found nowhere else in the whole province. The climate is arid and subtropical, and mostly receives monsoon shower during summer (detail climatic features are presented in the Annex 2). The natural vegetation of the area consists of sub-tropical thorn forest. Survey for the identification of Biodiversity Hotspots of Musakhel District was carried out during the year 2005. The area has many species and habitats of global biodiversity significance. For the identification and assessment of biodiversity situation in Musakhel district study was carried out based on review of secondary data and data collection in the physical environmental features (topography, soil, geology, climate and water), biological characteristics (ecology, flora and fauna), socio-economic conditions, and their analysis. The study was conducted in seven main areas in the District, which were thoroughly surveyed. Field data have been collected in accordance with biodiversity survey methodology developed. In seven areas of District approximately 1,600 Km area was surveyed. According to the survey of targeted areas, of the nearly 111 plant species recorded in Musakhel area, 102 species were identified and 9 species are under identification (details are presented in Annex 4a & 4b) Pinus wallichiana is listed as an endangered species. There are estimated 50 medicinal plants that could play an important role in the villages. Fourteen mammal species, 32 birds’ species, 7 reptile species, 4 amphibian species and 6 butterflies species were recorded during the survey (details are presented in Annex 6a & 6b). Among others, Sulaiman Markhore and urial (Ovis vignei) have special importance. Sulaiman Markhore is the national animal, endangered and listed in the schedule-1 of CITES. Both these species are listed in the 3rd Schedule of Balochistan Forest and Wildlife Act 1974. Presently very few information about the status and distribution of these species are available. Even in these targeted areas, population status of these species was not available before WWF – Pakistan’s survey

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-22005. Even this needs to be repeated regularly to know the trend in population dynamics. Wildlife is treated as a free commodity in the target area. Local Malaks and notables hunted the Markhore and urial in particular. During the survey, the trophies of Markhore and Urial were also found in houses and graveyards, which indicates the large scale occurrence and distribution of these animals. Vitality, dynamic and biodiversity of entire ecosystem of the area was being damaged through grazing, cutting and removal of vegetation for fuel wood, capturing of lambs of Urial and Markhore for selling as pets and illegal hunting for trophies and game. The root cause of this devastation was poverty, poorly developed agro-pastoral practices and lack of awareness regarding natural resources. The combination of these factors had taken the natural resources to the verge of impoverishment and destruction. An estimated 25000-30000 numbers of livestock heads graze in this targeted area (details are presented in Annex 3). Nomads also graze their animals in these target areas and they put extra pressure on the ecosystem. Traditional grazing system (Pargore) exists in the target areas. Rangelands are still freely grazed. The survey of the area revealed the potential for biodiversity conservation because the areas are important refuge of Sulaiman Markhore and Urial.

Methodology used
Participatory data collection techniques were used to collect and analyze the socioecological data of the area. A detailed questionnaire was also designed to collect the required information to ensure the quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of the gathered information. Participatory learning and action/ participatory rural appraisal (PRA/ PLA) techniques were used with the custodian communities while transect walks were conducted to know the population status of the available flora and fauna of the area. For floral survey, line intercept method, for ungulates fix point method and for aves stand watch and nest survey techniques were used. However, it was felt that a comprehensive detailed socioeconomic survey is required to explore the exact potential of the target area. Two day training was provided to the data collection team in order to acquaint them regarding the device questionnaire and different data collection techniques.

Result & their Significance:
District Musakhel is rich in floral and faunal diversity. However unsustainable utilization of these natural resources resulted in their extreme decline. The excessive use of these natural resources by the community has caused deforestation, habitat destruction, overgrazing, illegal hunting and depletion of population of wild species and cutting of vegetation. Some species are endangered and others have been reduced to small and scattered populations. Remote areas of Northern Balochistan are mostly owned by the local communities. These remote areas are still important refuge for a number of wild animal species. Shinghar, Surghar and Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen) areas in District Musakhel, Balochistan contain reasonable number of Slaiman Markhore, Urial and Chinkara. These are the potential sites for long-term conservation of species of special concern. While Dames Safa (Kingri) and Gokarh and perennial streams of Rodh and Toysar are the wetlands having reasonable number of wild ducks and several kinds of

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-3birds. It is the route of migratory birds e.g. cranes, eagles, houbara bustard and quills. Besides, it is an important area due to several prominent features regarding social, ecological, economic and aesthetic points of view.

ANTHROPOGENIC ASPECT: Rationale:
It is a fact that no conservation initiatives can be successful in the long run without the involvement of local communities. Community participation in development and conservation initiatives is relatively a new approach in our country. The classical approach to manage the natural resources is emphasized on the legislation and its implementation through watch and ward. On one hand, this approach has successfully addressed the conservation issues of certain areas but has a negative impact on the local community for ignoring their traditional rights, food security and livelihood which ultimately results in increase in pouching, encroachments and conflicts with managers. WWF- Pakistan strongly believes on the involvement of local communities and also focuses on social dimensions of any conservation initiatives by recognizing their rights of ownership and tenure. It also emphasizes that the relationship between the local communities and their area is valuable and fragile as ecosystem. Pursuing its stated goals, the survey team has given equal consideration to social aspect during the survey of the target area. Objectives of data collection were to: • Identify tribal, social and economic nomenclature of the communities. • Know about the livelihood patterns, conflicts and possible solutions • Address the relationship between the human activities and the ecology. Following methods were employed in conducting the anthropogenic survey: a) Review of related literature

For this purpose, related materials were obtained from various institutions. Although, no work has been done so for on any aspect of Musakhel, but District Profile and District Gazetteer contain some data. b) Development of Questionnaire

Encompassing the main objectives of the study in particular and overall survey in general, questionnaire was designed to focus all the social aspects of the targeted areas the questionnaire used for the survery is provided in Annexure. 1) c) Meeting with Local CBO’s and NGO’s

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-4In order to further facilitate the survey, meetings with local CBO’s and NGOs like, Millat Welfare Society, Zimri welfare Society and Al-Shahbaz Welfare Trust, Water Environment and Sanitation Society were held. d) Field Survey / Interviews

Questionnaire was circulated among the targeted population to obtain the information. Group discussion / interviews were also held in the communities of the local villages.

Socio Economic Scenario
Social organization is based on kinship and lineage. A vast majority of the villages are either inhabited by a single lineage but some have small members of different clans. Kinship bound keeps the people together. The community organization in and around the Musakhel area varies between highly stratified villages and small in-situ egalitarian, nomadic groups. In winter season, majority of the residents of villages of Musakhel area live in traditionally built houses, which are non-insulated and have an open hole in the roof through which the smoke from the cooking fire escapes. This room is usually used as kitchen, sitting room, dinning room and bedroom. While in summer they live in hutments made of mud and chuff without adequate sanitation, while some live in huts (Madow). Nomads use tents (Khaima) made of goat and sheep wool or simple cloth. We selected seven villages for the survey. The villages have 180 to 300 households. The traditions of whole area are same; their identity is symbolized in their language and code of honor; otherwise they are heterogeneous collection of tribes of various origins. They are thought by the virtue of honesty, loyalty, faith and hostility. Tribal system varies, in some areas it is very strong while in other areas is normal, but Sardars and Malaks have strong role in conflicts resolution and decision-making. All the surveyed areas are socio- economically neglected by Government and nongovernmental organizations. No basic infrastructure and facility is available to the inhabitants of the area. They are still deprived of drinking water and electricity. Nonmetaled road exists in a few villages but almost all villages are deprived to shingle road. Literacy rate is close to nil. Livestock rearing and agriculture are the major sources of income. Each household keeps livestock. The average herd size is between 100- 150 heads per household. Agriculture is mainly dependent on rain which is used to grow wheat and pulses. Since the area is rich in forests, wildlife, wetlands, geological features, landscaping and historical heritage the enormous eco-tourism potential exists in the area. Ladies in the area are active and self-motivated but neglected force. This important resource is going waste. They are mainly responsible for fetching water and collection of fuel wood for domestic use. The primary economic activities are livestock rearing and embroidery. There is no Female Doctor available in the whole district and in all surveyed villages, no trained TBA was found.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREAS
The term ‘Project Area’ has been used in this document to denote the area where the survey has been planned and undertaken are; Shahsar (Torghar), Surghar, Safa, Zimri Palaseen, Rodh and Chassan (Gokar) Sali. These areas are rich in biodiversity composition.

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Shahsar:

Shahsar (Torghar) area is located about 34 Km in the north of Musakhail city having altitude of 5800 – 9,000 feet above sea level. The road is shingle totally and the area is un- approachable through vehicle because the target area is 14 km away from the village road connection with 293 households and a population of 2141. The area is thinly populated with scattered settlements. The entire population consists of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Mohammad zai. Tribal system has very strong hold in the area. The Malak provide local leadership and responsible for conflict resolution and decision-making. Malik Juma Khan is the Malak of the target area. There is no school, electricity, health facilities and water supply but one small shop is in the village. Mountains surround the area and two valleys are present in the center. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they move to the warmer areas in Punjab). National Park, wildlife sanctuary or game reserve and in the entire area and no sensitive archeological sites exists. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are scare. In the whole village only on small spring is situated at a distance of 1.5 Km, which fulfill the requirements of human being and livestock. The women of the area fetch water on their head for domestic use. Agriculture and livestock are the main source of livelihood; about 6500 Sheep, 5432 goats and 350 cows are raring in the area. The average herd size is 120 and above. It is almost all hilly area and agricultural lands are very scare. The area is well known for its thick forests and wildlife. The forests mainly consist of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Ficus johns and Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and Chinkara and in birds sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles are common. Shahsar is an extremely remote village as there is no Telephone facility and no post office; however, there are radio sets in each home.

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Surghar

Surghar area is located at about 20 Km in the northwest of Musakhail city having altitude of 7000-9300 feet. The approach road is shingle and the area is approachable through vehicle and the target area is 6-7 km away from the road. Surghar is the common mountain of four villages namely, Merdadzai, Hasankhel, Inzai and Sadozai. About 70%

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-6of the whole area come in the territory of Merdadzai tribe. Malik Mohammad Noor is the Malak of the tribe. Merdadzai village is thinly populated with scattered settlements and mainly nomadic. The total population of the area is 3,400, and predominantly Pashto speaking. One boys primary school, building is available it is not functional. There is no electricity and health facilities but water supply scheme exist which is not functional. Mountains surround the area and two valleys are present in the center. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they move to the warmer areas in Punjab). Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are rare. In the whole village, pond culture is very common and use stagnant water to drink. A small dam is located near Medadzai main village, which is, felled with silt. Agriculture and livestock are the main source of livelihood; around 90% income is generated through these practices. Wheat, maize and barley are the major agronomic crop grown in the area. Similarly, horticultural crops include pumpkin, tomato, fresh beans and onions. The area is well known for its thick forests and wildlife. The forests mainly consist of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Ficus johns and Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and Chinkara Sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pigeon and falcons are common birds in the area..

iii.

Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen)

Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen) valley is an isolated area located in the north eastern reaches of Musakhel area at the distance of about 55 Km from Musakhail city having altitude of 9,000+ feet above the sea level. The road is shingle totally and the area is unapproachable through vehicle because the target area is 10 km away from road, the village has 250 households with a population of 1200 people. It is thinly populated with scattered settlements. The entire population consists of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Zimri. Tribal system has very strong hold in the area. The Sardar provide local leadership and responsible for conflict resolution and decision-making. Sardar Ajab Khan is the Sardar of the target area. One boys and girls primary school exists in the area. There is no electricity and communication. Health facility exist but not functional, and no water supply in the entire area. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they move to the warmer areas in Punjab). Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are only few. Agriculture and livestock are the main source of livelihood. The livestock population consit of 5,000 sheep, 4,500 goats. The average herd size is 100 and above. It is almost all hilly and agricultural lands are very small.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-7The area is famous for its thick Pine forests and wildlife. The forests mainly consist of Pinus gearadiana, Pinus wallichiana, Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Fraxinus xanthoxyliedess and Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and in bird’s sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, and vultures. There is still reasonable no of Sulaiman Markhore but hunting is common practice of the local inhabitants.

iv.

Safa

Safa area is located about 85 Km in the South of Musakhail city having altitude of 5,000 feet above the sea level. The area is approachable from Musakhel, Kingri and Loralai. The road is shingle. The area is inhabited by 300 household with average household size of five. It is thickly populated with scattered settlements. The entire populations consist of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Sadozai. One boy’s primary School, but no girls’ school exists in the area. There is no electricity and health facility but water is supplied from the dame. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are scare. A small dam is located in the center of village that fulfill the drinking requirements of the people of the area It has a wetland and the area is well known for its thick forests and migratory birds. It is the habitat of ducks, sessi partriges, Chajoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles. The forest mainly consists of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Ficus johns and Pistacia khinjuk

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Rodh

Rodh area is located about 25 Km in the East of Musakhel city having altitude 3500 feet above sea level. The area is located in Union Council Ghuryasa on Musakhel- Dera Ghazi Khan road. The area is approachable through vehicle. The total population of the area is 300; it is thinly populated with scattered settlements and rarely nomadic. . The entire population consist of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Mali zai. One boy’s primary school exists in the area. Electricity, health facilities and water supply scheme exist. The village is located in a vally surrounded by mountain. Sub-surface and surface water resources are in much quantity. In the whole village, channel irrigation is very common. The area is well-known for habitat of wild ducks (Resident and migratory), thick forests, wildlife. The forest mainly consist of Olea ferrugenia and Acacia modesta,. It is the habitat of Black pattriges, sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles.

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Gokar (Chassan)

Gokar area is located about 13 Km in the North-west of Musakhel city having altitude of 6,000 feet above the sea level. The area is approachable from Musakhel and Zhob. The

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-8road is shingle totally. The area is inhabited by 200 households and the average household size is 6. It is thickly populated with scattered settlements. The entire population consists on Pashtoon and the major tribe is Sadozaii. The tribe is headed by Malik Sher Mohammad One boy’s primary School, but no girl’s school exist in the area. No electricity, health facilities but water supply scheme fulfill the requirements of the people of the area. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are little. A large dam is located in the center of village. It has a wetland and the area is well known for local and migratory birds. It is the habitat of ducks, cranes, sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges and wild pegion. The forest mainly consists of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Ficus johns and Pistacia khinjuk.

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Sali:

Sali is a medium-sized village in Toysar Union council, consisting of 190 households with the population of 1200 people, with scattered settlements. It is located at a distance of about 16 Km in the north of Musakhel city having altitude of 7400 feet above the sea level. The area is approachable from Musakhel and Zhob. It is connected with a shingle. The entire population consist of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Hamzazi.. One boy’s primary School exist in the area. There is no electricity and health facility but one small shop in the village. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they move to the warmer areas in Punjab). Major and sensitive archeological sites exist in the area. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but there is no perrinial streem in the area. The area is well known for its thick Acacia forests. The forest mainly consists of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Ficus johns and Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles.

ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Flora of Musakhel General Description of vegetation Musakhel area is coered with subtropical broad leave evergreen forest type. There are atro culled scrubs forests. The trees and woody shrubs are sparsely scattered mainly confined to ravines and edges of ephemeral streambeds. Although the vegetation show sign of preserved area and some species have exhibited remarkable capacity of regeneration especially, Acacia modesta, Pistacia khinjuk, olea ferrugiana and Ziziphus nummerulia. An exploratory survey of the flora and vegetation of Musakhel District was carried out between March & September 2005. the principle objectives was to elevate the status of core habitat sites in order to provide an over view of the vegetation and prepare
Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

-9a comprehensive floral checklist of Musakhel ecosystem. Of the nearly 111 plant species recorded in Musakhel area, 102 species were identified and 9 species are under identification (detail is in the Annex 1).The population of Pinus wallichiana is decreasing due to over cutting. There are about 50 medicinal plants that could play an important role in the villager’s economy.

Habitat Type
Habitat types can be distinguished on the basis of area’s landform. The area consists of low flat plains, across which there are several streams (some dry) originating from low hills. Topography, availability of moisture, soil structure, exposure to the sun and strong winds are dominant factors that generate the variety of habitats in the area. The dominant vegetation consist mainly dwarf scrub type which covers large area, from the low laying plains to high elevation at the tops of the divides and ridges. The scrub vegetation occupying different habitats varies considerably in density and species composition. The following physiognomic habitat types were observed in the area;

A. B. C. D. A.

Flat plains Foot hills Stream beds Hills Flat plains:

The survey area includes extensive flat alluvial covered by relatively similar vegetation, mostly small trees and dwarf shrubs. The trees and shrubs are generally thorny with small leaves, there is little ground vegetation most of the year but during the monsoon season a cover of herbs may develop.

In this area, dry season is long; rain fall takes place mostly in monsoon months of July to September. Slght rainfall takes place in winter season. The wind generally blows from northwest direction for nearly seven months ranging from October to April while its is form southwest in monsoon months of July and August. Due to heavy grazing, lopping, poor agricultural practices and urbanization, the original vegetation is almost destroyed. As a result of vegetation cover removel, the area is suffering from soil erosion. Some of the common tree species are Acaia modesta, Olea ferrugiana and Ziziphus nummerulia. Common Shrub species are Caragina ambigua, Nannorhops ritchieana, Periploca aphylla, Calotrophis procera, Diphine mucronata, , Hertia intermedia , Nerium oleander, Sophora mollis, Withania coagulans While in herbs Malva neglecta, Plantago oveta, , Carelluma edulis, Chenopodium album, Cocculus pendulus, Convolvulus arvensis, ,Cymbopogan jawarancusa,

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 10 Heteropogon.contortus, Iris soongarica, Hordium murinum , Peganum harmala, Poa bulbosa, Saccharum griffithii, are found every where. B. Foothills:

The foothills with gentle slopes, have extensive cover of mixed dwarf scrubs communities with different species of shrubs dominating at different sites. The vegetation cover varies with aspect and soil conditions. Shady aspect have more dense cover, and grasses like Lepidium draba, Poa bulbosa, Stipa himalaica, Avena sativa and, Cymbopogan jawarancusa are common. Common species of shrubs found in the scrub vegetation are Periploca aphylla, Pterophyrum olivieri, Astragulus stocksii, Cotoneaster afghanica and Daphni mucronata. C. Streambeds:

Dry streambeds and stream banks in the area provide some unique habitat. Several streams drain the area . Most of these streams remain dry for the greater part of the year. Some of these streams are fed from the underground spring water. The vegetation is widely scattered shrubs, which are mostly non-palatable to ungulates. However, some palatable herbs and grasses are also present, usually in the depressions and in some parts of the stream beds. In spring season after winter rains some annuals emerge from dormant soil seed bank. These are grazed by huge herds of sheep and the soil is compareted by their hooves. The compacted soil does not favor growth of vegetation. In the whole area Pargore (Rakh) system exist, and this system does not allow grazing whole of year and the communities close the area to grazing before monsoon, and thus the general condition of habitatis protected from degradation. The vegetation cover is quite high and species composition very different. Common species found are; , Acaaia Modesta, Ficus carica , Olea ferrugina,,Pistacia khinjuk, Ziziphus Oxiphylla, Ziziphus nummularia, Prunus eburnean, Punica granatum,, Reptonia buxifolia,, are common through out the area. In shrubs Caragina ambigua, Nannorhops ritchieana, Periploca aphylla, , Calotrophis procera, Diphine mucronata, , Nerium oleander, Sophora mollis, While in herbs Lepidium draba, Malva neglecta, Plantago oveta, Amaranthus spinosus,, Carelluma edulis, Artemisia meritima, Buddleja crispa, Canabis sativa, Chenopodium album, Cocculus pendulus, Convolvulus arvensis, Buddlega crispa ,Cymbopogan jawarancusa, Peganum harmala, Poa bulbosa, Saccharum griffithii, are found every where. In spite of that the scattered bushes provide cover to small sized birds and their leaves are eaten by several species of birds, mammals and reptiles, particularly by those which were observed in the habitat (enlisted in the text). D. Hills

The area is characterized by tuff hills, mostly rocky in nature. There are two big mountain ranges, namely Surghar and Torghar, branches of Sulaiman range. The

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 11 mountains range run from north to south. The larger area of Musakhel is mountainous and all are different in their height. The elevation of hills of Musakhel area ranges from 5,421F to 9,327 F with moderate to steep slope. The hills offer a greater variety of habitat types relative to the plains, but also they are complex as the mountain found in the north Pakistan. The vegetation of Torghar (Nashter ghar) varies from all hill vegetation of Musakhel. In Torghar, Pinus gerardina and P. wallichiana are found which are not found in all parts of the district. On the top of the all hills, Olea ferrugina, Pistacia khinjuk, Fraxinus xanthozyloides, and prunus eburana were observed commonly and small annual grasses produces much biomass. Nonpalatable species and grasses that have coarse leaves or other thorny plant parts are dominant in the area.

VEGETATION STUDY Vegetation was sampled by “Line Intercept Method” (Canfied 1941) randomly. In each site three transects of 30 meter was laid at random. The distance between plants, basal area, and height of plants are recorded on a chart with data locality and slope. The scale used in a woodland is mostly 1 : 100, while in grassland is 1 : 10 and in herbaceous vegetation 1: 5. Nomenclature of plants followed is that of Stewart (1972) and up-to date flora of Pakistan. The phyto-sociological data have been summarized in the Table 1. Relative abundance of each species shown in the Graph 1 and species area curve for minimum sampling is shown in the Graph 2.

Table 1. S.# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Summary of relative Phyto-sociological data of Musakhel. F1 40 50 40 30 20 30 20 10 10 10 10 20 C3 6.17 9.09 14.60 6.42 3.72 22.82 15.44 2.62 2.04 7.46 6.93 2.62 D3 16.83 10.89 5.94 9.90 13.86 8.91 9.54 4.95 0.99 10.89 4.95 5.94 F3 13.79 17.24 13.82 10.34 6.89 10.34 6.89 3.44 3.44 3.44 3.44 6.89 Y3 12.26 12.40 11.45 8.88 8.18 14.02 9.42 3.68 2.15 7.26 5.11 5.15

Pant Name Peganum harmala Withania coagulans Calotropis procera Sophora mollis Saccharum griffithii Acacia modesta Olea ferrugiana Proviskia abrotanoides Nepta glamerolosa Caragna ambigua Daphne mucronata Hordium murinum

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Keys: F1; Frequency, C3; Relative Cover, D3; Relative Density, F3; Relative Frequency and Y3 ; impotence value.

Graph 1: Relative Abundance of Species
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
3.68 2.15 12.26 12.4 11.45 8.88 9.42 8.18 7.26 5.11 5.15

14.02

Graph 2: Species Area Curve

um di or H e hn ap D na ag ar C ta ep N a ki is ov Pr a le O ia ac m Ac aru h cc Sa ra o ph So pis ro ot al C ia an i th W um n ga Pe
Name of Species
Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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No. of P lant S pecies

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

No. of Stands
Miscellaneous uses of Plants in Musakhel
The area has great potential for its natural resources. Ethnobotanical information revealed that there are 111 wild uncultivated species. Among them nine species are under identification and 102 (Trees, 23, Shrubs; 27 and herbs were 52) species were identified. Poaceae was dominating family in the area, followed by Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Rhamnaceae and Astraceae, Olea ferrugina and Acacia modesta are dominant trees. Information regarding plants use gathered from more then 50 persons of different fields including women. Classification of informative people made, was educated, uneducated, age limits etc. it was observed that older person have deeper knowledge as compare to young ones. Women of the area have much knowledge about plants use. 50 plant species are available having medicinal value. Some plants are used in area for multi purposes and some have only single use, while some plants are used as mixture with other plants. Many of them are used by local people for the treatment of various ailments, fodder species, and for timber purposes in the area. The local uses of plants were enquired from the local peoples. During the study it is also noticed that most of the species are facing great threats and being rapidly depleted due to the severe drought, overgrazing, deforestation and collection of medicinal plants. Need urgent rehabilitation by imposing ban on their destruction. Flora of Musakhel area was compiled on the basis of plant collection. The list of plant species has been arranged family wise and alphabetically.

Medicinal Plants
Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 14 Musakhel district is one of the backward area due to lack of basic needs and facilities. Traditionally, plants are used by local inhabitants for cure of various diseases. Disappearing of folk uses knowledge transferring from old ones to youngsters, trade of medicinal plant and up-rooting on large scale are the main reasons that the people are now turned to Allopathic medicines. The common diseases in the area, are malaria fever, Tuberculosis, gastro-intestinal problems and infections of the urinary tract. This survey lists about 50 species are used as medicinal purposes in the area (Annex 5). This probably represents only half of species used for medicine in Musakhel The number of plants use for various ailments given in the Graph 3 and Morphological classification of drug yielding plants is given in Table 2. Graph.3
No. OF PLANTS SPECIES USED FOR DIFFERENT AILMENTS IN MUSAKHEL

Aches, 4 Urinary tract infection, 3 Fever, 6

Power, 5

Respiratory diseases, 3 Wounds, sores and cuts, 4 Gynecological , 2

Digestive system, 4 Body heat, 7 Scorpion bite, 1

Eye diseases, 2 Infectious diseases, 2

Circulatory system, 3 Skin care, 4

Table2 : Classification of medicinal plants of Musakhel on the basis of morphology. S.# 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Obtaining Source Root and other underground parts Barks Leaves Flowers Fruits Seeds Entire Plant Gum-Resins Mixture of plants Source/ Plants Allium ascalpnicum,Sopora molis Acaia nilotica, Olea ferrugina,Mentha logifolia Achalia santolina, Ficus carica, Peganum harmala, Mentha longifolia, Ephedra Spp. Pistacia khinjuk, Acacia modesta Ephedra, Wathiana Spp, Artimesia maritima

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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FODDER SPECIES:
In total 70species were found to be used as fodder in Musakhel by the maximum contribution of grasses belonging to the family Poaceae. However, Zea mays (Makai), Avena sativa (Jandar), Brassica compestris (Sarsoon) and Penisetum americanum (Bajra) are also used in their respective season. PLANTS USED FOR BUILDING: The use of plants as a source of timber is only recent. Non-Musakhel timber poachers who are also co-operating with locals are increasingly introducing handsaws, which are required for splitting logs to timber. The most valuable timber specie is Pinus exelsa (Nashtar), P. geradina (Chilghoza),and Olea ferrugina (Zaitoon). Timber is mainly used in the construction of roofs for modern houses. FENCING Fencing is done around animal enclosures, homestead and to protect cropland. Three types of fences are common in Musakhel: poles, dead branches and a living fence. The traditional way of fencing is by fixing up branches of thorny acacias and Ziziphus species in to the ground surface; other species used for dead fences include Periploca aphylla suaed friticosa. Fencing with poles involves creating a continuous wall of 3-4 m height in holes or in a trench dug round the area to be fencing. Fencing poles are almost of Acacias, Ziziphus and pinus species.

FOOD PLANTS:
A). Edible Inner Bark Some plants, particularly Nannorrohps ritchiana, “pshee” are chewed for their sweet taste, their water contents, as an exercise for the jaws and to pass time. The bark is removed and the inner light-colored thin layer is chewed. B). Infusions

The stem and root bark of a number of species is used to prepare a green tea- like infusion. Sugar and sometimes milk may be added. The plants used for the purpose are Nepeta and leaves of Olea ferrugina. In the majority of cases, these infusions serve the dual purposes of a drink and medicine, which may either be curative or preventive. Most of them are nice smelling. C). Gums and Resins for Chewing

In this category are species that exude substances, which are chewed. Many are almost tasteless but are chewed just to exercise the mouth and to pass time. Resins are mainly

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 16 obtained from periploca aphylla, Pistacia khinjuk and gums from Acacia spp. can be made into chewing gum. D). Edible Fruits

Although consumed as snacks, fruits constitute a major part of the food ingested by children and women looking after cattle as well as morons in the wilderness. The five most preferred fruits are: Pastacia khinjuk (Shanae), Ziziphus jujuba (Ber), Olea ferrugina (Shnani), Ziziphus oxyphyla (Gargool) and Morus alba (toth) E). Edible Galls

The galls of Acacia modesta (Kand-I-bambri), are formed at the base of a pair of spines. The galls are fleshy, hollow, up to 4 cm in diameter, dark green to reddish purple when fresh, turning dark grey to black and usually inhibited by black or brown ants as they dry. The fresh soft galls are edible. Very young galls are green to dark green, bitter and filled with fluid. As they mature they turn to reddish purple and hollow but harden with age, becoming fibrous. F). Edible Roots and Tubers

A number of species especially Allium ascalonicum, Boucerosia edulis and several genera in Asclepiadaceae have edible tubers. A slight sweet taste and a juicy consistency characterize all. As a result they are also preferred for their water. The plains of grassland are the home to the majority of these edible tubers, many of which are noticed, only in rainy season when they sprout new shoots from their underground tubers. PLANTS USED AS FIREWOOD A great number of species are used as firewood. Mostly they preferred Pinus and Acacia species as fuel wood because the wood burns brightly, thus providing lighting for the usually dark village houses. It imparts a characteristic good scent to the house, unlike other fire wood species; Acacia burns with little smoke. The average consumption of fuel wood in the area is about 260 mond per year. Details are given in the Annex 9. WOOD PRODUCTS A variety of personal and household items are carved from various plant species. Arrow shafts are made from plants with straight, narrow and durable stems. The most commonly used are Olea ferrugina (Showan), Ziziphus jujuba (Ber) and Acacia nilotica (Kiker). Trees with soft and thinner stems are used for knife and sword handles, sword sheaths and quivers for arrows. On the other hand, clubs tools for branding animals, and sticks for walking, are made from tough wood. Wood of Olea and Dalbergia is used for clubs. The tough, narrow, straight stems of some species such as Populas alba are used for sticks. TOOTH-BRUSHES (Miswak)

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Chewing the tips of twigs of certain species is used as toothbrushes. The most important species is Acacia modesta. Toothbrushes from tree, known locally as miswak, that has a medicinal value as well.

FOREST TYPES IN MUSAKHEL
Forestland accounts for about one-sixth of Musakhel area. There is a great diversity of forest types across different altitudes and microclimates, each having specific uses. The main types of forest of Musakhel are illustrated in Table 1. Forests tend to lie above and below agricultural land and provide a variety of products and services, including grasses, fodder, timber, fuel wood, medicinal herbs, fruits and other services. One of the most lucrative is pine products (Fruit, resin and timber), although many herbs are also collected and marketed to local wholesalers (Yahya 2003). Most accessible, fertile forestland has been converted into agricultural land. Generally, only inaccessible and unproductive land remains under forests. Table3: Climate zone/ altitudes
Lower Temperate 2400m – 3109m

Main forest types in Musakhel District. Main Forest Types
Lower mid-slope coniferous forests Upper slope mixed hardwood Forest

Uses

Main Species
Pinus wellichiana, Pinus gerardiana Pistacia khinjak, Olea ferrugenia,Prunus eberuna, Pistacia cubulica • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Construction timber Resins Fruit Construction timber Fuel wood Fodder Leaves as Medicine Gum Fuel wood Agricultural tools Fruit Fencing Timber Fuel wood Fencing Fruit

Sub- Tropical 1700 – 2400m

Lower mid-slope mixed hardwood forest Dry valleys/ deciduous hill forest

Pistacia khinjuk, Acacia modesta, Pistacia mutica,

<1000m

Ziziphus nummerulia. Z. oxiphylla, Cotoneaster Sp.

9.2.2 FAUNA SURVEY

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 18 Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan with diverse species and habitats; most of the Biodiversity of the area has not been evaluated comprehensively. The province is rich in Biodiversity and is positioned in the transitional zone between two of the world’s major Zoogeographical regions, the Palaearctic and the Oriental. A few species form the Ethiopian region are also represented. Mammals of Balochistan are adapted to arid, mountainous, deserts and harsh climatic conditions and there is a great variety of species including ungulates, rodents and carnivores. Wildlife in Pakistan has been severely affected due to increased habitat disturbance and over-exploitation caused by increse in human population and industrialization. As a result less number of animals will be supported than could be expected an intact habitat of the same size. As a rule all the animal populations have their own critical minimum numbers beyond which the given species is unable to survive naturally. In Pakistan, a number of wildlife species have become extinct and many more will have the same fate, due to exploitation of natural resources without proper planning. Urial (Ovis vignei) and Sulaman Markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) are considerd endangered species in Pakistan. District Musakhel is situated in the north east of Balochistan. The locality is well known in Zhob division for the presence of Sulaman Markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and Urial (Ovis vignei) in this unique mountain range. Most of the mountain ranges like Toarghar and Surghar had a good population of Urial and Sulaman Markhor as well as many mammals and birds Due to lack of awareness and knowledge about proper utilization of wildlife resulted the over exploitation of game animals which are becoming scare in most of the areas of Balochistan and the country. If conservation measures are adopted, Musakhel will be a fine model for wildlife conservationists in the country

TABLE Type Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Birds

4:

Wildlife Diversity in Musakhel No. of species in Pakistan 20 159 182 666 No. of species in Balochistan 8 94 71 356 V. Common Species in Balochistan 0 7 2 0 No. of species in Musakheli 3 7 14 32

Geography:

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 19 Musakhel District is situated in the north east corner of Balochistan. It lies 30o 17 to 31o 18 north latitude, and from 69 28 to 70 15 in the east longitudes. The total area of the district is 5,727 square kilometers. The district is a part of Zhob division. Elevation above sea level ranges from 3000 to 11300 ft.

Zoogeography:
Musakhel district area comes under the Oriental Region (Oriental Bird Club). The area can also be classified as a part of Balochistan Xeric Woodlands. Major fauna of the area is Saleman Markhor, Urial, Cape Hare, Indian Crested Porcupine, Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Asiatic Jackal (Canis aureus) and Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes). Major birds species are Chakor Partridge and Sissi Partridge.

MAMMALS:
Ungulates: Three areas of Musakhel District have the population Suliman Markhor (Capra falconery jerdoni) and Urial (Ovis vigneii) both the species were common in many areas of Balochistan but at present they restricted to few places. Fix point methodology was used for ungulates survey. The survey was conducted on foot and on vehicle depending on the terrain and suitability. The survey team sighted 35 Sulaiman Markhors and 39 Urials directly. Indirect signs like foot prints and droppings were found in large number. Though, it was not good season for ungulates survey, because their population was scattered due to nomadic population was present with their livestock on top of the surveyed hills. It may be triple this figure if survey carried n proper season. Before this survey, the presence of ungulates in area was controversial (detailed list is given in the Annex 7a & 7b) Small Mammals: Cape hare was found very common in the entire area during survey. A total of 47 cape hare were found during the survey. Carnivores: For the determination of population status of carnivores, nights walks were arranged. In the plains the survey team used vehicle and search lights. After seeing the eyes of carnivores in high powerful lights, noted the eye colors and consulted the literatures. In foothills, used search light in same way. Four Indian gray wolf, 2 red fox, 3 Asiatic jackals and one Indian Crested Parcopine were sighted. While indirect observations were made on the droppings, foot prints of several carnivore species such as stripped hyena, Jungle cat, afghan hedgehog, Caracal and Indian gray wolf. List of species given in the Annex 8. Skin of Panther in five houses was seen, using for prayers were observed. It also noticed that, the species existed in the area five years earlair . Now it became very rare.

AVES:

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Migratory birds: Musakhel district is one of the favorite route of migratory birds. There are two season of migration; August to October, these birds (Cranes, Houbara bustard, Eagle, Ducks and Quills) come from colder areas stay here for some time and move towards warmer areas of Punjab and Sindh Provinces. While, from February to April they back to colder areas passing this rout. 20 flocks of Cranes were observed. Each flock consists over more then 70 birds. A pair of houbara bustard sighted directly while, indirect observations like foot prints and feathered were observed. Detail given in the Annex 6. Resident birds: Direct sight techniques like ground nests searching and stand watch techniques were used for this survey. Several species of birds observed in the area. Chakoor and Seesee partridges were found very common throughout the area. The birds were mostly observed near water points and wetlands. Few species of waterfowl and black red start, while wagtail, cinerous vulture were observed, (Annex 6 ) Hindereds of flocks of Chakoor and seesee partridges were observed in the area. Survey techniques were discussed with following field biologists; o Dr. C. M. Shafeeq, Zoological Survey Department, Islamabad. o Professor Dr. Mohammad Maroof, Science college Quetta. o Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir, Lecturer Zoology, Govt. College Quetta. o Mr. Meherban Ali Barahvi, Wildlife conservation Officer, Zoological Survey Department, Karachi. o Mr. Abdul Jabbar, Park Manger Hingol National Park, Uthal. o Mr. Tahir Rasheed, National Project Manager, SUSG-C Asia. Reptiles: The survey team observed lizards in six different locations. At one location freshly hunted Afghan Tortoise shell was observed. Many snake species are reported from the area. In the present survey three snake species and two sheded skin of a snake were observed. Clif rcer (Coluber rhodoracus) and Agama (Agama spp.) are available in every where. Butterflies: Different Butterflies species were observed at different altitudes. Mostly near water points. Commonly seen butterflies were Blue Pensy, and White Edged Brown.

EQUIPMENTS USED IN THE SURVEY

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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A pair of binoculars, 8 x 40 and 7 x 50 magnification. Zoom telescope 15 x to 45x magnification Altimeter 4 x 4 vehicle Still camera with telephoto lens Hand came movie camera with digital camera Compass Data regarding sheets Note book An identification guide to flora of Pakistan An identification guide to birds of Pakistan An identification guide to mammals of Pakistan An identification guide to Butter flies of Pakistan

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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1.
S#
1

Summary of Results:
Strength
Each of the area is the property of one clan

Table 5. Type
Ungulates

Summary of Results Activity
Determine the population status of ungulates

Status
74 animals sighted in the area (35 Mrkhore and 39 Urial)

Threat
Pouching, illegal hunting

Opportunity
Vast area, excellent habitats and vegetation, Less human population

Remarks
These areas seemed good habitat of Sulaiman Markhore and Urial. The people of the area were willing to conserve these important species if organized and motivated accordingly. The people of the area are not involved in the bird trapping, However the people from NWFP and Punjab are the main threat for migratory birds.

2

Birds (Migratory) Crane, Eagle, Houbara bustard

Determine the population status of migratory birds

20 flocks of crane, a pair of Houbara bustared and two species of eagle were sighted

3

Birds (Resident)

Determine the population status of resident birds Vegetation cover, medicinal plants, floral checklist

32 Bird species were sighted

4

Flora

111 plants species were observed 23 tree, 27 shrubs and 52 herbs species.

Crane stay in the district at four spots, in two spots locally bane on trapping and hunting by community, while all the local people unhappy with trapping and hunting of cranes but eagle species are caught by people for sake of money The area is vast, thick forest, no specific water points, water available in each stream. Area falls in moon soon zone and have positive impact on vegetation , local rotational grazing system can save the vegetation.

Trapping, Hunting

Vast area, Dams, Wetlands and perennial streams

Trapping and Hunting

Thick vegetation cover, Wild fruit trees in excess Re introduction of local conservation system Pargore , Marketing of medicinal plants, wild fruit, Plants parts.

The people of area hunt birds for food and selling for money. Grafting of wild olive trees, introduction of improved varieties of plants.

Cutting, Over grazing, uprooting of medicinal plants.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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2.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

God Almighty has blessed this district with two virgin resources. One is the enormous hidden wealth of natural resources and other is unutilized human resource. Both human and natural resources need harnessing. Priorities are to be prefixed. The study demonstrated that Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and chinkara were very common in different parts of the district a decade ago. These ungulates have completely vanished from Hazargat, Ziri, Sali, Safar and Zimri area. However, still the population of Sulaiman Markhore and Urial exists in Surghar, Torghar and Shahsar which needs to be monitored. 35 Suleiman Markhore and 39 urials were observed Deatails are given in the Annex 7a and 7b. While dropping and foot prints were observed in different places. One species of small mammal, four species of carnivores were observed during the survey. As far as the birds are concerned, most of them were summer visitors in the area. A total of 32 species of birds were sighted during the survey. Details are in the Appendix 6. On a visit to Safa dam during the survey 22 waterfowls were observed. Due to large number of hunters in the dam waterfowls were unable to stay in the dam. Mostly hunting was conducted by the villagers of the nearby village. During a two days survey in the dam three hunters were seen hunting waterfowls in the early morning and in the evening. 130 cranes were trapped by trappers this year and more then 500 cranes trapped each year in their respective season. The status of Houbara Bustard is critical in the area, because during the survey we were observed only one pair of Houbara Bustard, only at one occasion foot prints of 9 birds were observed. Once they were common in Toysar plains. These new sighting will add to the checklist of Mammals and birds of Musakhel because before, this survey the status was controversial. Floral survey of Musakhel demonstrated that 111 plants species were observed during the survey details are given in the Appendix 4a. Before this survey, 54 plants species were reported from Musakhel area, these new 57 species will added to the checklist of flora of Musakhel district. The latest checklist will be 111. Habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, deforestation, overgrazing and over hunting are five causal factors that account for most extinction of biodiversity. Mazri is cutting by people in large scale and each year more then 100 trucks transported to Punjab province. Sustainable use of this important plant is necessary. Major ecological issues are: o o o o o o o o o Deforestation Illegal Hunting of Wild Animals Grazing and Fodder Collection Soil Erosion Desertification Lack of Awareness Poisoning of Dead Animals Lack of Basic Secondary Data Lack of Proper Marketing of Forests Products

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Following are the recommendations; o Awareness raising and Environmental Education Program should be started in the area o Create a sense of ownership among people regarding proper management of natural resources o Proper Marketing of Forests Products Wild fruits, Especially, Olive, Gargool, Hailani, Ber, Pistacio and Chalghoza,. o Implementation of Forests and Wildlife Laws to control uprooting and cutting of plants and hunting and trapping of animals and birds. o Creating a sense of ownership among people and the Local communities should be involved and encouraged in the conservation and protection of the target areas. Tribal elders, religious leaders and other notables of the areas should be contacted and organized to formulate an “Area protection committee” with a full mandate of protection and conservation of natural resources. o Comprehensive ecological studies of the area should be conducted especially in Shinghar area to study in detail the flora and fauna of the area in general and the exact population status of Sulaman Markhor and Urial in particular o Introduction of Trophy Hunting o There is a great potential for Eco-tourism. Training on eco tourism (Tour guide, Photography, etc.) should be provided. o Ladies in the district are active/ dynamic but are neglected force. This important resource should not go waste. They tend livestock, work on land and when free from household chores, engage themselves in needlework. The last mentioned activity is their area of specialization. Social organizations and NGOs can provide credit and channel their product in the market. Handmade products have huge market in foreign countries. The important element should be involvement of local population, particularly women, to give them sense of ownership and participation. This will bring confidence and bring imperceptible social change without compromising basic values o Resources are available but are going waste and the poverty level remain unchanged; new approaches and income generation activities should be identified and implemented to gain trust and minimize the poverty of the area.

3. • • • • • • •

Out put: Reports, media, articles, slides, photographs etc; Vegetation Survey report Wildlife survey report Socio-economic profile of the area Article in the Daily Jang Quetta Photographs Video Trained and skilled locals of targeted area.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 25 4. • • • • Equipment status report: Binocular Camera Altimeter Compass

Observers:
Mohammad Yahya Musakhel, Project Manger, Identification of Biodiversity hotspots in Musakhel District. Mr. Abdul Waheed Razaq , Conservation Officer, TCS, Quetta. Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir, Lecturer Zoology, Government College, Quetta. Mr. Alam Khan, Executive District Officer, Community Development Officer, Musakhel. Mr. Muzaffar Khan, surveyer, Musakhel. Mr. Abdul latif , Community Development Officer, WESS, Musakhel. Khanzada Malik Kaleem Ullah, President, MWS Musakhel.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Acknowledgments
The present document is the result of work I carried out with funding by the Scientific Committee of World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) Pakistan. The work was undertaken between March and August 2005, largely at WWF- Pak Quetta Office, which acted as host institution for the period of study and provided facilities as well as administrative, technical and scientific support to me throughout the study. Thanks to the entire department for their attention and kindness. The assistance of Mr. Fahad Ehsan Dar and Mr. Abdul Waheed is especially acknowledged: my thanks and gratitude to both. I am also thankful to Mr. Muzaffar Khan, who spare time and give me full support during study. I am highly thankful to Proff. Dr. Rasool Bukhsh Tareen, (Head Botany Department University of Balochistan, Quetta) Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir, (Lecturer Zoology, Government College, Quetta), Mr. Tahir Rasheed, (Provincial Project Manager SUSG- SA), Mr. Abdul Jabber (PM Hingol National Park Uthal) and Dr. Bashir Husain,(Team leader PAMP Hingol) for their support. My special thanks to Mr. Noor Mohammad, Mr. Sardar khan of WWF- Pakistan Quetta Offic for their support and help in office.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Refrences
Ali, S and S.Dolton, 1985: A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Ali, S. and S. Dillon 1995 : A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Faiz, T. M. et al 1997: District Profile of Musakhel District, Printed at Quetta Printing Press, Quetta. Bateman, I. 1991a. Recent developments in the evaluation of non-timber forest products: The extended CBA method. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 85(2) (April): 90-102. Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 1992. A systems perspective on the interrelations between natura, human-made and cultural capital. Ecological Economics 5: 1-8. Brown, K. 1994. Approaches to valuing plant medicines: The economics of culture or the culture of economics? Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 734-750. Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE). 1993. Mexico forestry and conservation sector review: Sub-study of economic valuation of forests. Report to the World Bank: Country Department II (LA2). Norwich: CSERGE. Chomitz, K.M. and Kumari, K. 1996. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: A critical review emphasizing hydrological functions (draft, mimeo.). GOB and IUCN 2000: Balochistan Conservation Strategy, 2000 Khan, M. S and S. M. Irshad, 2005; A revised working list of the flowering plants of Balochistan, Published at Hyderabad, Pakistan. Khan, M. S. 1998: Drug plants of Balochistan, Published at Latif Abad No. 7, Haidar Abad, Pakistan Qureshi J.I and Akram S.M. 1993: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of Balochistan Qurishi, J.I and Sufi, M. A, 1992-93: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of Balochistan. Roberts, T.J 1997: the Mammals of Pakistan, Printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi. Roberts, T.J, 1991: The Birds of Pakistan Vol I, ii, Printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi Roberts, T. J. 1995: Wild Flowers of Pakistan, printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi. Robert T.J. 1995: The Birds of Pakistan, Vol: 2, printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi. Yahya, A. M. 2003: An Ethno Botanical Study of Musakhel Area, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Balochistan, Quetta

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Appendix
Annex 1a. Socio-economic and Socio-ecological Questionare

Date Union Council Number of Compounds Number of Families Estimated Population Pattern of Settlement Leadership of the Village Social Traditions Historical Background Language Infrastructure Health Education 1 RHC 2 BHU 3 Civil Dispensary 4 Veterinary Hospital 1 Primary School (Distance) 2 Middle School 3 High School 4 College 5 Mosque/ Madrasa School 6 How Many are able to write their names 1. Well 2. Hand pump 3. Pond 4. Spring 5. Water Supply scheme 6. Any other Village

Tribes 1_______ 2_____ 3________

Drinking Water Source

Problems Solutions Social Tradition Norms Sanitation Facilities

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 29 Other Facilities 1.Electricity 2. Telephone 3. Post office 4. Others

(Distance)

Problems Social Tradition Source of Irrigation 1. Rain 3. Tube well 5. Kareze 7. Others 2. Well 4. Spring 6. Stream

Livestock population Cattle Donkey Camels Poultry Sheep Other 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Goats Horses

Livestock management

Preference (Quality / Quantity) Average herd size No. of herds New Livestock improvement technique Traditional LS imp technique Feeding (grazing / stall feeding)

Range resource

1. Total range area 2. Type 3. Range condition 4. Grazing practice 5. Location / distance 6. Availability of fodder 7. Any fodder shortage 8. Causes of fodder shortage 9. Any local rules for grazing 10. Any traditional range protection / improvement approach 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Are nomads use your area For how much period No. of their LS Do you get incentives In what form (cash / kind) Impact of such use

Nomads

Medicinal plants

Types Quantity harvested Use 1. Local use Are you know any plant collector/ seller of the area if any their name?

2 Sold 1. 2. 3.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 30 Wildlife Present in your area A. B. C. D. Hunting / poaching Self Mammals Birds Reptiles others □ Heard □ □ Fur Other Seen □ □ Heard Sighted

Are people hunt

Themselves Fun □

To facilitate others □ □ Meat □

Why people do hunt

Money □ 1. 2. 3. 4.

Do you know any hunter of the area if any their name?

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition/ Norms

Interviewed person name Surveyors name Signature

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 31 Annex 1b. Socio-ecological data collection questionare.

Date District Tehsil

Union Council Dependence on natural resources

Village

Type of wilderness area( in cres)

Forest □ State land

Rangeland □

Other

Status of wilderness area( in acres)

Communal land □ Other □ □ □

Protected area □ Timber □ Wildlife □ Mineral □ Water Ground water

Services with usage ( Subsistence = S; Commercial = C; Fun = F ) Fuel wood □Fodder Medicinal plants □Water Other □

Stream flow

Spring

Present Historical 1. Avg depth 2. Quality 3. Increase / Decline rate Present Historical 1. Frequency 2. Quality 3. Intensity 4. Stream type (seasonal / perennial) Present Historical 8. Number 9. Quality 10. Flow 11. Type (seasonal / perennial)

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition Norms

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Rains

Historical Present 1. Intensity 2. Frequency 3. Distribution

Problems Wind Local nomenclature 1. Quantity utilized a. Winter b. Summer 2. Purchased/acquired a. From market b. From range/forest area

Fuel wood

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition/ Norms

Surveyed person name

Surveyors name

Signature

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Annex. 2. Climate and physiography of comprehensive surveyed areas.
The climate of Musakhel is located, 1200-2400 m above the sea level, and is semi arid “moderate summer and mild winter”. The summers hot with mean temperature (21˚-32˚ c). June is the hottest month. Summer is longer to seven months (Apr-Oct). The winters cold with mean temperature (21˚-10˚ c). However, the mercury may touch the freezing point during cold spell. (Fazal Kareem 1993) To date no meteorological station has been established in Musakhel by the Pakistan Meteorological Department. Barkhan is a neighbour district of Musakhel and has similar geographic characteristics, therefore, data from Barkhan station have been given here just to have an idea of the situation. In 1993, the total annual rainfall in Barkhan district was 512.5 mm, which increased to 601.6 mm in 1994 and again decreased to 429.7 mm in 1995. It may be assumed that Musakhel does have approximately equivalent rainfall levels

Average Climatic Data of Musa Khail
134.1 136.4
Temp Rainfall(mm)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Ja n Fe M ar b
17.9 16 19.2 9.8
22

69.6

27

34.4

38.8 35.3 37.1 33.2 34.2

30

25

8.8

0

0

7

0

17.4 9.2

Ap r

M

ay

Ju Ju l n

Au S e O ct p g

No De c v

SOURCE: Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi (recorded in Barkhan 1995).

Annex. 3.
Sl.

Present Livestock Population of the surveyed Villages
Total HHs 293 490 250 300 50 200 190 1,773 HHs with live stock 293 490 250 300 50 200 190 1,773 Cattle Sheep Goat Camel Donkey

Name of Village/ Cluster 1. Shahsar 2. Surghar 3. Gharhi (ZP) 4. Safa 5. Rodh 6. Gokar 7. Sali Baseline Survey Total (sample area)

350 795 60 250 90 310 240 2,095

6500 9540 3500 6400 3200 2500 4100 35,740

5432 4500 4700 1800 2400 4300 2500 25,632

27 29 45 98 4 1 48 252

210 290 39 34 18 120 64 775

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Annex 4a. Checklist of Plants identified during the survey
S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Scientific Name Achillea santolina Aspparagus gracilis Amaranthus spinosus Allium ascalpnicum Artemisia meritima Ascalpnicum Alhagi maurorum Andropogan contrutus A. schoenanathus Avena sativa Acacia nilotica Acacia modesta Astragulus stocksii Berbaris Sp. Brassica compestris Buddleja crispa Carelluma edulis Canabis sativa Centaurea cyanus Caragina ambigua Carum bulbocastanum Calatropis procera Cotoneaster afghanica Cotoneaster rechingeri Chenopodium album Cocculus pendulus Convolvulus arvensis Cymbopogan jawarancusa Citrullus colocynthis Diphine mucronata Dalbergia sissoo Ephedra intermedia E. procera Eremurus aucherianus Ficus carica F. johannis Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Ferrula assa-foetida Grewia asiatica Heliotropium Sp. Hordium murinum Heteropogon.contortus Haloxilon griffithii Hymemocrater sessilifolius Hertia intermedia Local Name Zawal Satawar Meliro Khukhai Terkha spera Buskai Zoz Barwaza Sargharai Wasta Kikar Palosa Zaray Zarlog Sarawan Sparai Pamangi The bangi boti Kurgh Makhi Zira Spalmai Sharow Sara Sharow Tora Tor sag Parwatee Bachakai Sargarhai Maraghoni Laghoni Tali Parar oman Nari oman Shezai Inzar Inzar Shang Hing Pastawana Lashta Washa Barwaza Family Asteraceae Asparagaceae Amaranthaceae Alliaceae Atracerae Cruciferae Fabaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Fabaceae Berberidaceae Brasicaceae Buddlejaceae Asclepiadaceae Cannabaceae Astreceae Papilionaceae Ascilopiadaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Chenopodiaceae Menispermaceae Convolvulaceae Gramineae Cucurbitaceae Thymelaeaceae Ephedraceae Ephedraceae Liliaceae Moraceae Moraceae Oleaceae Apiaceae Tiliaceae Boaganaceae Gramineae Gramineae Chenopodiaceae Lamiaceae Asteraceae Locality Shinghar Safar, Surghar V. Common V. Common V. Common V. Common V. Common Surghar, Shahsar V. Common Ziri, Safar, Chrkundi Kingri V. Common V. Common Surghar, Safar, Zimri Surghar, Zimri Safar V. Common Drug, Torghar, Safar V. Common Surghar, Torghar V. Common Safar, Zimri Safar, Surghar, V. Common V. Common Toysar, Rodh Surghar, Salai V. Common V. Common Drug Surghar, Torghar, Zimri Surghar, Hazar ghat Surghar Sali, Surghar Zimri Safar, Surghar, Zimri Surghar, zimri Safar, Zimri Safar V. Common Torghar, surghar, Salai V. Common Surghar Kot Khan Mohammad,

Shori
Sursanda Gangu

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 35 Kingri V. Common Safa, surghar Surghar, Shahsar V. Common V. Common Surghar, Shahsar, Olmai V. Common Rodh, Toysar, Salai Shahsar, Safar V. Common V. Common V. Common Ziri, Surghar, Shorlan Dragai Safar, Surghar, Shahsar V. Common V. Common Surghar, Shahsar V. Common V. Common V. Common V. Common V. Common Tap, Zimri Tap, Zimri V. Common V. Common V. Common Rodh, Sali Drug Kingri, Kajori Hazargat, Barkohi, Tangisar Kingri, Kot Khan Mohd Safar, Ziri ,Tap Rodh, Toysar Safar, Zimri V. Common V. Common V. Common Surghar, Shahsar, Zimri Salai Sali, Behoo V. Common Surghar Kingri, Gokar, Toysar Kot Khan Mohd, Sarwand Toysar, Rodh, Shahsar, Surghar Zimri, Safar V. Common

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

Iris soongarica Lactuca orientalis Lepidium draba Mentha longifolia Malva neglecta Malcolmia africana Moas alba Nannorhops ritchieana Nepeta glomerulosa Nerium oleander Olea ferrugina Periploca aphylla Pterophyrum olivieri Prunus eburnea Prunus domesatica Punica granatum Peucedanum beluchistanicum Plantago ciliata Peganum harmala P. ovata P. major Poa bulbosa Pinus gerardina Pinus wallichiana Pistacia khinjak Pistacia cubolica Prunus domestica Populus alba Phoenix dactylifera Prosopis juliflora Reptonia buxifolia Rhazya stricta Rosa lacerans Salix acmophylla Stachys perriflora Saccharum griffithii S. ciliare S. munja Stipa himalaica Sonchus asper Salvadoraceae oleoides Sophora mollis Sophora griffthii Tecomella undulata Tamarix indica Typha angustifolia Thymus linearis Teucrium stocksianum Tribulus terrestris

Gharhwastai Sandraza Buskai Shinshobai Cherhya biscut Khatool Toth Mazarai Simsok Gandarai Zaitoon Bararha Gharwangi Zarga Aloocha Nargoosa,Anar Raghbel Ispaghole Spanza Ispaghole Ispaghole Washa Zanghozae Nashtar Sharawan Ozgai Alocha Spaidar Khajora Maskat Gargool Orlagama Gul gulab Wala Sparai Sarghasi Sarghasi Mishkini Wasta Garwa Palwan Ghuzara Ghozrera Rawodawan Ghaz Lukha Tora mori Karpola Skarwandai

Iridaceae Astraceae Cruciferae Lamiaceae Malvaceae Brassicaceae Moraceae Palmeae Lamiaceae Apocynacnaceae Oleaceae Asclepiadaceae polygonaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Punicaceae Aiaceae Plantaginaceae Zygophylaceae Plantaginaceae Plantaginaceae Gramineae Pinaceae Pinaceae Anacardiaceae Anacardiaceae Rosaceae Salicaceae Palmeae Mimosaceae Sapotaceae Apopynaceae Rosaceae Salicaceae Libateae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Astraceae Salvadoraceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Bignoniaceae Tamaricaceae Typhaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Zygophyllaceae

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 36 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Triticum valgare Withania coagulans Ziziphora tenuior Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana Ziziphus Oxiphylla Ziziphus nummularia Sundai Khamazora Mouri Ber Wara Ber Hailanai Karkan Poaceae Solanaceae Lamiaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Surghar V. Common Shahsar, Surghar V. Common Gokar, Nali Merdazai V. Common V. Common

Annex 4b.
S. # 1 2 3 4 5 6

Plants Under identification
Local Uses Poisnous but use for snake bite Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Fodder for plants Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Occurance Safar, Zimri palaseen Safar, Zimri palaseen Safar, Zimri palaseen Gokar, Nali Merdazai Safar, Zimri palaseen Surghar

Local Name Kharpatha Sparai Zharha Spari Tora Salam Spari Hing

Annex 5 list of wild/medicinal plants of Musakhel SCIENTIFIC NAME Acacia modesta Acacia nilotica Achillea santolina Aspparagus gracilis Amaranthus spinosus Allium ascalpnicum Artemisia meritima Buddleja crispa Carelluma edulis Calotrophis procera Caragina ambigua Canabis sativa Chenopodium album Cocculus pendulus Convolvulus arvensis Cymbopogan jawarancusa Diphine mucronata Ephedra gerardiana Ephedra intermedia Ephedra procera LOCAL NAME Palosa Kikar Zawal Satawar Meliro Khukhai Terkha spera Sparai Pamangi Spalmai Makhi The bangi boti Tor sag Parwatee Bachakai Sargarhai Laghoni Oman Parar oman Nari oman SCIENTIFIC NAME Mentha longifolia Moras alba Nepeta glomerulosa Nerium oleander Nannorhops ritchieana Olea ferruginia Peganum harmala Pinus gerardiana Pinus wallichiana Periploca aphylla Pistacia khinjuk Pistacia mutica Plantago ovata Prunus eburnea Prunus domesatica Punica granatum Reptonia buxifolia Saccharum griffithii Sophora mollis Tecomella undulata LOCAL NAME Shinshobai Tut Simsok Gandarai Mazarai Showan , Zaiton Spanza Chalghoza Nashtar Bararh Shrawan Uzhgai Ispaghole Zarga Aloocha Nargoosa,Anar Gargool Sarghasi Ghuzara Rawodawan

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 37 Ficus carica Hertia intermedia Hordium murinum Heteropogon.contortus Iris soongarica Lepidium draba Malva neglecta Inzar Gangu Washa Barwaza Gharhwastai Buskai Cherhya biscut Thymus linearis Tamarix indica Teucrium stocksianum Withania coagulans Ziziphus oxyphyla Ziziphus nummularia Ziziphus jujuba Tora mori Ghaz Karpola Khamazora Halanai Karkan Ber

Annex 6.
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

List of Birds. (* Migratory species)
Scientific Name Alectoris chukar Ammoperdix griseogularis Strepopelia decarcto Otus bakkamoena deserticolor Streptopelia sengalensis Dicrurus macrocercus Lanius schach Falco tinnunculus Aquila rapax Ownanthe picata Phoenicurus ochruros phoenicuroides Hirundo rustica Ammomanes phoenicurus zarudnyi Galerida cristata Corvus corax Anthus similis Motacilla alba Riparia diluta Gyps fulvus Grus virgo Grus grus Chlamydotis macqueeni Anas crecca Francolinus francolinus Francolinus pondicerianus Pterosles spp. Aegypius monachus Milvus migrans migrans Circus cyaneus Falco tinnunculus Alaemon alaudipes Calandrella acutirostris

Common English Name Chakor Partridge Sissi Partridge Eurasian collared Dove West Pakistan Collard Scops Owl Laughing Dove Black Drango Long tailed shrike Common kestrel Tawny Eagle Variable wheatear Black Redstart *Swallow Persian Rufoustailed Finch-Lark Crested Lark Common Raven Long Billed pipit White wagtail Pale martin Eurasian Griffon *Demoiselle Crane *Common Crane Houbara Bustard Common Teal Black Partridge Gray Partridges Sandgrouses Cinerous Vulture Black Kite Hen Harrier Common Kestrel Hoopoe Lark Hume’s Short-Toed Lark

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Annex7a. Sulaman Markhors observed during the Survey
S.# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Female 2 3 7 ---2 4 Young 1 1 2 ---1 1 M -2 years. -------1 -TOTAL 1 M. 3 Yer. ----2 ---M. 4 yrs. -----3 1 --M. 5 yrs. ---4 ----Total No. in herd 3 4 9 9 1 4 5 Location Gok Ghurasa (Shahsar) Ghargistan (Shahsar) Landa Ghurasa (Shahsar) Khiaza (Surghar) Sukai (Surghar) Kok lotha (Torghar) Gharhi Tak (Torghar)

18

6

2

4

4

35

Annex 7b . Urials observed during the Survey
S.# Female Young M -2 years. M. 3 Yer. M. 4 yrs. M. 5 yrs. Total No. in herd Location

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 2 -4 -3 2

1 2 -3 --3 1

----1 -----

1 2 --1 -3 TOTAL 7

--1 -2 1 ---

---1 ---2

5 7 1 10 2 6 8

Gok Ghurasa (Shahsar) Shahsar (Shinghar)_ Landa Ghurasa (Shahsar) Khiaza (Surghar) Sukai (Surghar) Kok lotha (Torghar) Gharhi Tak (Torghar) 39

14

10

1

4

3

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 39 Annex 8. S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 List of Mammal species. Scientific Name Capra falconeri jerdoni Ovis vignei Lepus capensis Hystrix indica Cane lupus pallipes Hyaena hyaena Gazella gazelle bennetti Vulpes vulpes Canis aureus Panthera pardus Selenarctos thibetanus Felis chaus Hemiechinus auritus Felis caracal

Common English Name Suleaman markhor Urial Cape Hare Indian Crested Porcupine Indian gray wolf Striped Hyaena Chinkara Red fox Asiatic Jackal Leopard or Panther Black bear Jungle cat Afghan Hedgehog Caracal

Annex 9
Name of Area Shahsar Surghar Zimri Palseen Safa Gokar Rodh Sali

Furl wood consumption (in Mond)
Summer / HH No. Of HH Total Consumption 82772.5 120696.6 122500 55758 39000 37600 35530 4,93,857.1

Winter / HH
102.5 71.66 130 79.2 65 65 72 Total In Seven Villages 180 165 360 106.66 130 170 115 293 510 250 300 200 160 190 1903

Annual / Household Fuel wood consumption : 260 Mond In 7 areas 1903 H/H consume about 4, 93857.1 Monds Total 24464 Households in the district Annual consumption approximately: 63, 60,640 M

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 41 -

Pistacia – a Source of Fruit in wilderness

A source of Chewing gum

Allium asplinicum

Cotonoster afghanica

Withenia coagulans

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 42 -

Tamerix – in flowering condition

Morus alba – source of food at wild

Sophora mollis

Trophies of Sulaiman Markhor `

Chakor partidiges – a common bird

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

- 43 -

Chalghoza forest in Musakhel

A view of Chalghoza in Musakhel

A thick Acaia modesta forest in Nali merdad zai.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005

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Folk mella

A view of Sali Acacia forest

Trophy of Markhore and Urial

Carraluma edulus in flowering condition

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005