WILDLIFE SURVEY OF RODAINI KACHO AREA DISTRICT AWARAN

Mohammad Yahya Musakhel 2004 - 2005 Balochistan Forest and Wildlife Department Uthal.

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CONTENTS
S.No. TOPIC Executive Summary 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 Introduction Habitat Type Material and Methods Group Classification Gud and Chin Kara Socio-economic condition Nature Balance/Threat to Biodiversity Suggestions for conservation/recommendations Miscellaneous observations/report Floristic list of the Rodini Kacho District Awaran Faunal list of the Rodini Kacho District Awaran Surveyed people Bibliography Page# iv 01 02 03 04 04 05 06 09 11 11 13

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Executive Summary
The area has great potential due to their natural resources. The area esthetically and ecologically provides unique habitat. The climate is arid subtropical and mostly receive monsoon shower during summer. The natural vegetation of the area consists of Sub-tropical thorn forest in the form of dry grass, shrubs and trees Wildlife survey of Rodini Kacho Area was carried out during the year 2005. The area has an arid climate, but contains many species and habitats of global biodiversity significance In the present survey; ten species of Trees, Ten Species of Shrubs and fifteen Species of herbs were observed. Local names, scientific name and family of each species given.

In the entire area; eighteen species of Mammals, thirty-two species of Avis, twenty six species of reptiles, three species of Amphibians, four species of scorpion and four species of Butterflies were seen. Conservation efforts have been limited, and not very effective in much of the area, though the Government sector and local communities have been effective to some degrees in this regard. Still due to little resources to undertake conservation activities and lack of political will, the critical habitats continue to degrade and many species of global importance have either become extinct or are critically endangered. Although conservation of arid ecosystems is essential to maintain an ecological balance and conserve biodiversity, these are generally considered ‘waste’ lands due to their limited productive potential. Therefore the Area has received very little attention for conservation. Overgrazing, cutting of scanty vegetation for fuel, indiscriminate hunting and trade in wild species are common practice and have caused large-scale environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. If that was not enough, the recent persistent drought has taken toll of whatever was remaining.

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Introduction
Balochistan is a vast province with flagrant population. More than 80% area comprised of rangelands, particularly used as an abode of wildlife, chronological vision reflects that such areas harbor desirable wildlife both in number and variety. Time has brought in the unbelievable change. The ruthless hunting and poaching in wide spread area has disseminated the wildlife population near to extinction. Balochistan Black Bear, Asiatic Cheetah, Wild Ass have probably lost their appearance, and some others are leading precarious existence and are on the verge of extinction. Kalat Division has a privilege to accommodate a significant heads of Ibex. Hingol National Park contain maximum population, next fall the Rodaini Kacho area, as the latest census studies undertaken in during 13 to 18 April 2005 proclaims. Darun and Tobatte, the other two important sites/habitats are also part of Kalat. Rodaini Kacho is an East-West range, with an estimated area of 23, 04,000 Acres. That encompasses (about 240 sq. km. Rodaini Kacho lies in between Darun and Hingol National Park, so is in the same geographical and biological region. The area also has historical importance. Darun that touches the northern aspect has fort like appearance and presents a panoramic view. The Mughal Empire towards the last period of their domain created watching targets. From these vital points a considerable territory could be scanned. Some signs of demolished structures were also observed in Rodaini Kacho area. The Government of Balochistan issued a notification on 4th March, 1997 and declared the Hingol, Darun and additional area into a single unit as “Hingol National Park”. The community of Umrani tribe comprises of seasonal migrant of about 800 population that roams about the area with their domestic livestock. Camel is a main transportation media. The area is about 40 Km from the Awaran RCD Highway. South of Jhal Jao ( Tehsil Headquarter). Ibex main concentration area lies on two days camel back walk off the road. The semi arid habitat predominantly comprised of loose sandstones extensively broken by gorges and Nullahs having ups and down. The terrain is most suitable for Ibex. The coastal belt of Arabian Sea is about 100 Km towards Southern extremity.

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Habitat
The area esthetically and ecologically provides unique habitat. The climate is arid subtropical and mostly receive monsoon shower during summer. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 150200 mm, while the prevailed mean annual temperature is 25C. The natural vegetation of the area consists of Sub-tropical thorn forest in the form of dry grass, shrubs and trees. The vegetation was found extremely sparse in the higher reaches. Amongst the trees Pistacia atlantica, Acacia senagal, Ziziphus jujuba, Phonix dactylifera, Fraxinus xanthoxyloides, Olea ferruginea, Mimosa hamata, Tamerix indica, T. Salvedora, Acacia jacquemontii and Dalbergia sissoo were of common sight. The shrubs were commonly represented by Nannorophs ritchiana, Periploca aphylla, Lycium rultienicum, Grevia tenax, Prunus eburana, Arnebia fimbriopetala, Pteropyrum olivieri, Nerium oleander, Stockcia brohivica, Mimosa hamata, Capparis, Euphorbia, Rhazya, prosopis Indigophera and Calotropis procera. The remnants of few herbs were Commiphora stocksia, C. wighti, Dodonaea viscose, Ziziphora Sp, Cocculus hirsutus, Capparis deciduas, Prtulaca oleraceae, Rhyncchosia minima and Salsola drummnondii Some plants are under identification; Bio, Drongu, Budroe, Shurdu, Borka andDaidar. While the prominent identified grass species include Lasiurus, Dactyloctaenium and Cymbopogon. The locality has a diversified habitat with plains, deserts, mountains and water reservoirs. Each habitat represents an individual ecosystem with a peculiar flora and fauna. Due to diversified habitat and floristic cover, the prevailing fauna is also unique in nature bearing Chinkara, Gud (Urial), Sindh Wild Goat and Crocodiles along with numerous species of birds. The area was hitted by a recorded flood due to torrential rain in 1995 to 2005, while there was persistant drought during the last seven years. A prominent water stream Bazapi still has the imprints to indicate the level of water that ranges from 15-25m. This extremely fast current of water has uprooted strongly hold shrubs and trees. This stream still has tons of scattered rampantly felled trees and shrubs. Such trees were not exploited on commercial bases with the fear of destruction of habitat. The prolonged drought of 7-8 years span has adversely effected the area, mostly the floristic cover is restricted to the water courses, where scattered rain fed water points, seasonal and perennial water springs are the source of water for plants and animals and to maintain the underground water table by recharging it. On the cliffs and slopes the plant cover percentage was sparingly low. This alarming situation prevails throughout the range. Variation in floristic cover and other relevant conditions have effected health, weight, and height of animals. At least three such categories were recognized: Weak, medium and healthy strongly built.

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Material and Methods
To determine the population of wildlife (mostly Ibex) the area was surveyed by spending almost four days in the field. Due to extreme scarcity of food the animals were seen foraging round the clock during the day with short intervals. During the observation period, 3 census parties under the guidance of experienced responsible persons. Most of the animals were found at lower altitudes as the food was confined to Nullahs with sparsely scattered water points. The observations were made with the help of 20x50mm binoculars. Some animals were very close and easily visible as they were not much shy. The weather remained clear during observation period. In order to avoid double count some visible mark of a group was kept in the mind. As being gregarious they were found in discrete herds and adhere to their territories.

Group Classification
Three census parties were made under the heads of; Party 1 Park Manger Party 2 Project Director Party 3 Assistant Conservator Wildlife Hingol National Park. The party first surveyed “Saudi” situated in the North-west of base camp and sited about 42 mammals, amongst them ten were male and twenty were female. The same way party two move towards “To To nalla” situated in South-west of camp area. They cited eighteen animals, among them one was male and four were female. The third party surveyed the “ Kaner Kor dadry” area towards north of the camp and cited 32 animals, among them four male and ten female. The young ones at survey time were 9-10 months old. The age of males was estimated by the comparative length of the horns. For convenience males were grouped in to two distinct categories, those that have attained 04 years or above were trophy sizes. The females were difficult to classify as to their age groups. For survey, seven camels were hired from local communities. A survey carried by WWF- Pakistan of the whole area in February In 2000-2001, and the findings of the survey reveals that, A total of 637 animals were encountered. We reportedly covered 1/4th of Ibex abode, so this enumeration is partial the population estimate is more than 3000. The animals were spotted in herds…………. A biggest herd of 150 animals was spotted in Barri area. This herd also includes two extremely old males, quite passive and reluctant to run. One person chased them and was in a position to approach them and get hold easily. In total 347 females were counted, while there were 86 kids so the female/young ratio was 4:1, which seems to be unsatisfactory. The prolonged drought of three years span may have disturbed fecundity, since there could be many reasons of low rate of production, another study can reveal the factual position by counting freshly born young ones. In routine Ibex can produce 2 young to a litter. No 3 young with 1 female were reported. 6

______________________________ WILDLIFE SURVEY OF RODAINI KACHO AREA _____ It also depend on the physical condition, if climate is conducive twin births are common other wise majority produce only one young. At the time of survey it was almost the third month of pregnancy. So it was hard to clearly identify the pregnant one. Male/Female ratio is quite satisfactory. In total 347 females were counted while the estimated males were 220. 21 animals could not be identified. This data show drastic hunting and poaching rate. As interviewed from the local community members, since last two years they have got comparatively complete hold on local as well as other hunters mostly from Lasbela and Karachi.

Gud and Chinkara
The area is blessed with some of the rarest and magnificent species of Chinkaras with almost equal number of Guds (Urial). The sparsely scattered population exists in pocket. The planes and sub-mountainous area provide habitat to gazelle, the Gud in some localities also share the habitat with Gazelle in flat planes on the top and easier slopes. Estimated more than 200 individuals of each species still reportedly exist in the area. Few hours’ observation was made after the accomplishment of Sindh Ibex task. A considerable number of feacal beds of Chinkara and scattered droppings and footprints of these animals indicated their occurrence in this wide spread area. In this campaign we could spot 4 females, 3 males and one lamb of Gud in Murari, Sandh and Durri area. While 02 males and one female Chinkara was spotted in Murari cross and Bungi area. At least 04 animals could not be identified.

Socio-economic condition
Throughout the locality a group of about 600 human beings exists that belongs to Umrani tribe. They are nomads so practices seasonal shifting. The main profession is to rear livestock while farming is practiced on a limited scale. They have rustic background, almost illiterate due to lack of such facility with in the range of about 70km. Health and communication facility also doesn’t persist. More than 5% of them are blind others having physical and mental disabilities. Some of the villagers do have sophisticated weapons to kill the wild animals. Every body claim as a hunter of hundreds of Ibex and other wild animals. Hunting is mostly done by Sardars, Landlords, high Government officers, and businessman of Karachi, Bela and Quetta. Over grazing is not common. We observed quite a few cattle in the area. Meeting with the Malik of the area (Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim) head of Umrani tribe is an eminent elite, and he not agree to give the land for the Park management but latterly he agree to cooperate and supported park management issues. . He resides at camp Kundi (Sub Tehsil Jhal Jao). Sardar Sahib was basically a well-known hunter who also used to invite administrative, political and tribes head to enjoy hunting since 1999. Reportedly 20-30 animals were killed on every visit. The adjoining Govt. owned National Park area received special attention few years before to protect the Ibex. This exploitation resulted to motivation of community. They also

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______________________________ WILDLIFE SURVEY OF RODAINI KACHO AREA _____ started taking keen interest by strictly watching and put a complete ban on killing. During the study period we did not spot any hunter or listened a fire. A meeting with Mr. Abdul Qadus Bazenjo (Minister Live Stock Department Government Of Balochistan) is a political leader of the area for and he was praised abut the Management of Hingol National Park .

Nature Balance/Threat to Biodiversity
It is a matter of common observation that people look at nature in different ways. They mostly react negatively to the idea of wild nature or natural balance. Chronological view reflects that there was a balanced relationship between prey and predator. The Leopards, Wolf, Cheetah, Fox, Wild Cat and Jackals remained visible as an integral part of ecosystem. The prevailed ignorance and illiteracy in the community played havoc to kill most of the animals (mostly predators). Since long this practice continued. Before the appearance of sophisticated weapons, they use to kill them by trapping them in traditionally stone build trap. One such trap about 80 years old was filmed and a local person explained its operation. When the sophisticated weapons become available this practice discontinued. People of the area feel proud in killing predators. Few years before a group of hunters from Lasbela and Karachi stepped in to Jhal Jao and its hinterland, camped in the area for many days and killed most of the animals including Foxes, Jackals, Hares and Wolves of the area for commercial purpose to sale out their hides. The local hunters also have different stories and rationale to ruthlessly kill some selected species. Four years before Striped Hyena killed five sheep near the Soar village. These were stray sheep that lost the herd. The effectee killed almost every Hyena he spotted in the area. Just last year at least 6 crocodiles were killed with the blame to have killed two goats near the water point. Their skin and skulls were sold at Lasbela on a nominal price of Rs.500 each. In this way the local community thought that the predators are vulnerable to domestic livestock, as their stray cattle were prone to the killing by predators. In order to overcome this problematic situation they almost killed every category of predator so that their stray cattle can freely stay in wild state even for months.

Suggestions for conservation/recommendations
A remarkable aspect of the area is that with few exceptions the overall biodiversity position is satisfactory. At least at present moment the Flora and Fauna is enjoying full protection. During the study period no incidence of habitat destruction or animal hunting was encountered. The number of domestic livestock including goats, sheep and cattle is negligible due to limited human population. No doubt the pathetic environment conditions are quite satisfactory. In order to made this effort more effective and sustainable following recommendations need to be implemented:

1. It was observed that though the prolonged drought has significant impact on the area but still the habitat is adequate for most of the species and where inadequate has sufficient potential

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______________________________ WILDLIFE SURVEY OF RODAINI KACHO AREA _____ to recope/improve itself. The wildlife population is more prone to direct killing than probably due to shortage of food. To promote conservation/to protect these treasures it is inevitable to achieve environmentally sustainable levels by educating the masses. They are almost illiterate due to lack of formal education facility in the area. Though they have inherent wisdom and perceive the idea sharply yet on some points they have their own reservations particularly as they are afraid of predators impact on a livestock. There is need to develop perceptive and supportive culture through formal and non-formal education. 2. A most noticeable identified problem was the provision of jeepable kacha track, which inevitably also attract crowds that have positive as well as negative impact. But it is immensely burdensome and pains taking task to fetch daily commodities from 80km away from Jhal Jao town. It is a two days camel back journey. The latest survey indicates considerable number of trophies in the area. Their hunting could provide a sustainable resource for the resolution of immediate problem. 1. To control the illicit practice of hunting the entry points must be carefully watched. The defaulters should be dealt with strictly by imposing heavy fines and confiscation of arms. The Malik of area should remain in touch with senior civil administrators and seek their cooperation in dealing with the lawbreakers. For their survival the inhabitants of the area rear livestock and cultivate some crops. Their rights of grazing must be honored but restricted to certain areas. This restriction should be based on sound rationale. For this purpose a need assessment survey is needed. The wastage of water was reported due to absence of check or delay action dams. For recharging the water table the construction of small dams will prove fruitful. This is an overdue task to study the distribution, status and management of different species including Sindh Ibex, Chinkara, Gud, Cheetah, wild Ass and crocodile. The last three species are of extreme importance in order to discover the surviving population. These surveys should also include the evaluation of habitat and general information of the incidence of poaching. The team is willing to undertake a project to involve the community to protect the area in lieu of some welfare work for the community. Money is a blood stream of every activity, the WWF-Pakistan Scientific Committee is requested to earmark some funds in a first phase to visit the area to write a prefeasibility report for the preservation of locality and then work for sustainable development of the area.

2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

Miscellaneous observations/report
Although emphasis was on large animals some birds and reptiles were also recorded. Due to winter, most of the reptiles were in hibernation condition. Mountain viper, Horned viper, Krait and Cobra were reported. Some species of lizards including crocodile persists in the area since long. At least 20 crocodiles still reportedly exist. 9

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Many villagers supported the occurrence of Wild Ass. One villager last year wounded wild Ass when 3 of them entered in his field (Imam Bail) in Kuphalo area West of Awaran. There are reasons to believe that Leopard and Cheetah may also exist. The Gazelle is an indicator species of Cheetah. The local community has keen observation on almost all categories of wildlife. Most of them can easily recognize the animals by their footprints. The footprints (Pugmarks) of Cheetah were seen last year while a live Leopard was spotted 3 years before. At least three of them were taken away by a flood of 1994 when they get trapped in a gorge. Among the birds Sessee Partridge was of common sight, Golden Eagle, Raven Crow, Purple Sun Bird, White head Chat are also found.

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Floristic list of the Rodini Kacho District Awaran Balochistan

Table 1 S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 2 S. No 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Table 3 S. No 21 22 23

Trees Scientific Name Pistacia atlantica Acacia senagal Ziziphus jujuba Phonix dactylifera Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Olea ferruginea Mimosa hamata Tamerix indica Acacia jacquemontii Dalbergia sissoo Shrub Scientific Name Nannorophs ritchiana Periploca aphylla Lycium rultienicum Grevia tenax Prunus eburana Arnebia fimbriopetala Pteropyrum olivieri Nerium oleander Stockcia brohivica Mimosa hamata Herbs Scientific Name Commiphora stocksia C. wightii Dodonaea viscosa Local Name Google Google Anatrick Family Burseraceae Burseraceae Sapindaceae Local Name Mazri Gishter Jarick Gwazgi Jogar Kaneer Karwankush Joor Kotor Kandi Family Aricaceae Asclepiadaceae Solanaceae Tiliaceae Rosaceae Boraginaceae Polygonaceae Apocynaceae Sapindaceae Mimosaceae Local Name Kasoor Kore Kunar Mach Shishar Kato Kandi Ghaz Chigrid Tali Family Anacardiaceae Mimosaceae Rhamnaceae Aricaceae Oleaceae Oleaceae Mimosaceae Tamerixaceae Mimosaceae Fabaceae

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______________________________ WILDLIFE SURVEY OF RODAINI KACHO AREA _____ 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Ziziphora Sp Cocculus hirsutus Capparis decidua Prtulaca oleraceae Rhyncchosia minima Salsola drummnondii Phurak Zaamore Kalore Shordeo Airshak Hashuk Bio Drongu Budroe Shurdu Borka Daidar Lamiaceae Menispermaceae Capparaceae Portulacaceae Fabaceae Chenopodiaceae

Faunal List of Rodini Kacho
Table 4: S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 List of Mammals Local Name Pachin Buz Gurand Maish Ask Gor-Khar (Reported) Younz (Reported) Kaftar (Reported) Tola Showk Pulang (Reported) Dajuk Hidrik Dadi – Shak Sainkoor Nor Pulang Pishi Gurg Scientific Name in Parenthesis Ibex Female Ibex Urial Female Urial Chinkara Gazelle Wild Ass Asiatic Cheetah Striped Hyena Jackal Fox Common Leopard Hedgehog Squiral Rat Indian Crested Parcopine Mangoose Wild Cat Grey Wolf

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Table 5: S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

List of Birds found in the area: Local Name Fairozag Murgh Batoo Pain Dorr Karook Jirki Maish Murgh Topi Murgh Murgh-e-Sulaiman Boora Kalagh Karkaz Jawar Kark Murgh Koli Wah Gaisar Kang-gash Kating-gar Si-su Dandi Ti-Ti Kankoor Sai Par Charz Shantool Koko Chahi Baro Boom Akob Gothoo Sagarook Banz a. Shah een b. Bara in c. Char k Scientific Name

Hoopoe Wood Pecker Raven Vulture Purple Sun Bird White Cheeked Bulbul

Sand grouse Sissi Partridge Egret Red wetteled Lapwing Crane Houbara bustered Laughing Dove

Common Quail Owl Owl Purple Moor Hen Felcon

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Table 6: S# A 1 2 3

Reptiles reported from the area: Local Name SNAKES: Shahi Ghar Ghar Gwand a. Sia Gwand b. Dastoo Gwand Mangal Mar Hatlo Soor Mar Sia Mar Domb Ushtar Mar Daraj Mar Teer Mar Langar Pursh Doosarai Gwand Hadair Shahi Mar LIZARDS: Ghar Kulairr Shor Kulairr Pabii Dadoo Kulairr Koshe Sabz Kulairr Kor Karr Koon Toruk Bali Koh Gohj Litko Kulairr CROCODILE: Crocodile Scientific Name Horned Viper Mountain Viper Saw Scaled Viper

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 C

Black Cobra

Agama species Agama species Agama species Agama pecies

Varanus species

Gondo

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Amphibians
Three species of frogs/Toads reported from the area: 1. Sia Pughut 2. Khaki Pughut 3. Sor Lakir Wala Pughut

Scorpions
Four species of scorpions reported from the area: 1. Sia zoom 2. Zard zoom 3. Nozda Bog 4. Platoo

Butterflies
Four species of butterflies reported from the area: 1. Kirri Pirok 2. Zard Pirok 3. Sorain Pirok 4. Sabz Pirok

Freshwater Crab was recorded but unidentified. Crab is locally known as “KALKOLO”

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Surveyed People
S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name Mr. Manzor Ahmed Mr. Abdul Jabbar Mr. Sharifuddin Mr. Saduddin Khan Mr. Abdul Rehman Mr. Gohar Khan Mr.Sher Jan Mr. Badu Mr.Shadu Mr. Ali Bakhsh Mr.Daru Designation Project Director, Hingol National Park Project Manger, Hingol National Park Assistant Conservator Wildlife, Divisional Forest Officer Deputy Ranger Deputy ranger Deputy Ranger Game Watcher Game Watcher Game Watcher Game Watcher

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Baquar, S. R. 1995: Trees of Pakistan, Published at Royal Book Publisher Karachi, Pakistan. 2. Burkill, I. H. 1969: A working list of the flowering plants of Balochistan, Printed at the west Pakistan Government Press, Karachi. 3. Faiz, T. M. et al 1997: District Profile of Chaghi District, Printed at Quetta Printing Press, Quetta. 4. Jamal A Nasir and Asghar M2001: Wildlife Survey of Rodini Kacho, District Awaran, Balochistan, WWF- Pakistan, Regional Office Quetta. 5. Khan, M. S. 1998: Drug plants of Balochistan, Published at Latif Abad No. 7, Haidar Abad, Pakistan. 6. Malik, A., 2002: Preliminary Ethno botanical Study of Nushki Tehsils, M. Sc. Thesis University of Balochistan, Quetta. 7. Roberts, T. J. , 1995: Wild Flowers of Pakistan, printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi. 8. Tareen, R. B. et al 2001-2002: Development and Propagation Medicinal Plants in Balochistan, Forest Department and University of Balochistan, Quetta. . 9. The Birds of Pakistan, 1991, 2 Volumes (T.J Roberts) 10. Birds of India and Pakistan, 1989. (Salim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley) 11. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent, 1998 (Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp) 12. Balochistan Conservation Strategy, 2000 (Govt. of Balochistan and IUCN) 13. Salim A and S. D Ripley1995 : A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian Subcontinent, 14. Junaid I Qureshi and SM Akram 1992-93: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of Balochistan,

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