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- Art of Mutualism
- Bigger and better through research: Plum cultivar development
- EPN - our Biological Superweapon?
- Crystal balling storage life: The DPA dilemma


- Introduction Wiehann Steyn
- On tour Down Under
- Poland apple industry in crisis
- Shade netting - a burning issue
- Rootstocks for early nectarines in a low chill region
- Research on Track: Mechanical Blossom Thinning
CONTENT - Op Dreef: Navorsing oor Gebreekte Pit in Pruime
- Stone fruit: mechanical vs hand thinning
- Orchards of the Future
- Fonteintjie roep
- Does foliar application of BA increase fruit size in pears?
- What are the physical characteristics of a good nursery tree?
- Steenvrugtelesse: boordvestiging


- Introduction Matthew Addison
- Developing an Apple Scab Management Programme for South Africa
- Shredding leaves in autumn lowers apple scab levels in the next season
- Verwydering van blare op boordvloer help keer appelskurf
purpose is to
generate and
transfer knowledge,
technology and Hugh Campbell

practices required it is a requirement that all the research that is funded by

to mitigate, avoid the industry is published in the SAFJ. However, as there

isnt a searchable site to access all the articles published
or overcome in the SAFJ, growers would need to search through old CROP PRODUCTION
threats/risks. SAFJs in order to access the relevant articles. The Tech
Orchard of the Future,
book will be released in conjunction with the HORTGRO farming efficiency, rootstocks,
Science annual report. This will allow growers to review plant quality, water and
Furthermore to exploit opportunities what research is currently being done by reading the climate research.
which have an impact on the annual report and then access the published outputs of
ongoing economic sustainability of research by reading the Tech book. This will also be
the South African pome and stone accessible on-line.
fruit producers, while ensuring the
development and retention of skills.
The key outputs of research are technology and knowledge
We use many different platforms to development and the development of people. Readers are

land the technologies and knowledge encouraged to read the series of articles listed under return
developed by the pool of researchers on investment.
who conduct research on our behalf.
These include the HORTGRO Science
Technical Symposium, seminars, It is a reality that most of the research that we do is CROP PROTECTION
field days, workshops, workgroups, incremental and takes place over a period of time. Plant pathology, nematology
technical forums, orchard walks, These articles along with previous articles were written (e.g. entomopathogenic
study groups, short courses, scientific to reflect on some of the cumulative outputs of research. nematodes), entomology
publications, popular articles in the SA (e.g. fruit fly).
The articles showcase the benefits of the plum breeding
Fruit Journal (SAFJ) (and other popular
publications), Fresh Notes, Timely
Hints, annual reports, guidelines,
pamphlets, bulletins, protocols,
and the Entomopathogenic Nematode (EPN) research
programmes, while the article on the DPA dilemma
sheds light on the process of finding alternatives to
DPA for the control of superficial scald. The Art of
03 04
the HORTGRO Science website, Mutualism article should be read and studied in great
Facebook, Twitter and we are currently detail as it relates to the unacknowledged role that
finalising an App for stone fruit! research plays in developing the technologist of the
future. We need to recognise the different links in the
There is however, a disjuncture supply chain of producing a qualified technologist. This
between when the information is
presented to the end user of the
starts with the output of matriculants with maths and
science as subjects and the attractiveness of agriculture
information and his or her need for as an industry in which to work, through to the retention Protocols and fruit quality
maintenance, storage techniques,
the information. So, you might read
or see an article about mechanical
of senior academic staff in universities. Read the article
to get more insights!
market access, decay control,
fruit quality prediction, chemical
thinning but only have a need for residue reduction, packaging, Quantifying the economic
the information at a later date. The We trust that this Tech book will add benefit to your transportation systems. benefit the grower derives
objective of this Tech book is to business. We are learning that feedback is the lifeblood from applied research.
package what has been published of good communications so please let us know if this
in the SAFJ over the previous year Tech book meets a need and which improvements can
(2015). This is particularly relevant as be made.

01 02

In biology mutualism refers to the way two organisms of different

species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits. In the
deciduous fruit industry a similar relationship exists between academia
and the growers on the ground. Elise-Marie Steenkamp investigates this
beneficial relationship and looks at future challenges. Peter Dall Dr. Mias Pretorius Dr. Louise van Schoor Tienie du Preez Prof. Wiehann Steyn Willie Kotze

From the outside the Lombardi Building in Victoria science this year. Most of them will find work in the its a different story and growers have to pay for how my own business grew suddenly the demand
Street, Stellenbosch, looks pretty much the same as various fruit industries, but too few will end up in information, in essence pay for research. was great and I could appoint other technical staff
all the other university buildings: grey and stately. research. Dall believes that we are not generating and improve the information flow. I also realized that
However, it houses the last surviving stand-alone enough human capital for the industry. As a consultant the company needed specialists on more than one
horticultural science department in South Africa. At all who works with farm managers he is constantly on We regularly experience the effect of not having the right discipline to supply one stop shop technical advice.
the other institutions, the horticultural departments had the look-out for BScAgric students to fill farm manager people available. There is a huge technical skills gap and few Tienie believes that you start every day with your Bible
been downsized, or integrated into general biology positions. However, over the last two years he has not youngsters coming in to fill the void. That is worrying. and people. People are always number two on my
departments. This trend is not unique to our country. managed to find one. The same is true of consultants - list, thats why it is critical that you choose the right
there is too much work and not enough consultants. people for the job. Tienie deliberately took young
Emiritus Prof Ian Warrington, board member of the Dr Louise van Schoor is an agricultural scientist who people straight from university and taught them the
ISHS, said in an interview last year, that agriculture An illustration in point is Citrus Research International recently stopped doing research. Louise feels that even ropes. I was a soil specialist and recognised gaps
and horticulture the world over face immense pressure (CRI), which has been looking for a researcher for though she has always had positive relations with in my own knowledge base and had to go back to
as a result of reduced political influence and little a number of years and even tried finding someone growers and have found them eager and willing university to fill that. It took me about seven years but
interest on the part of young people to follow careers abroad, but without luck. I think that growers do not to implement new research, growers often do not by that time I was confident that i had a thorough
in land-based industries. give enough recognition for the work that scientists and understand the often dilatory research process. understanding of the finer aspects of horticulture.
researchers are doing, especially the applied scientists. It takes up to one year just to establish a trial. Then
The reality is that we as consultants would not be able another four years before you actually start getting According to Tienie the students produced by the USs
The skills levels required by those working at every stage in to do our work, if it werent for good applied research, results. Sometimes the industry needs quick solutions Horticultural Science and Soil Science departments
the horticultural industry are all at higher levels than ever says Dall. but unfortunately thats not possible in science. There have a solid knowledge base that is invaluable. I
before. When I was considering doing a PhD some 50 years are many constraints in our field, due to seasonal and dont think all the growers always appreciate and
ago, there were 20 universities in the US I could have gone to. The importance of researchers crop specifics, says Louise. I think it would be a understand how valuable the technical guys are. I put
Now there are only two or three that would meet those needs. Evidence from many countries over the past five decades good idea to get researchers and growers together so a lot of energy and effort into training these guys and
show that investment in agricultural research and that we can explain the processes to one another. believe we should do everything possible to keep them
development (R&D), education and rural infrastructure in the industry. They are an investment the industry
South Africa faces the same dilemma, says Peter yields much higher returns than other expenditures, Tienie du Preez is a technical consultant and industry capital the future leaders of the industry. Today most
Dall, technical consultant and industry thought leader. such as input subsidies. Many studies have proven that leader who deliberately starting building human of our larger clients have university training themselves
According to Dall the main reason is agricultures bad research has the highest ROI of any investment, says Dr capital twenty years ago. He explains why: and they understand the value that we add to the
image and that few regard it as a successful industry Mias Pretorius, technical advisor at Two-a-Day. When I started my own business in 1992 it soon industry, but I believe about 60% of growers do not
to work in. We have a serious shortage of human became apparent to me that there was a big gap share that perception these guys rely on information
resources in various fields in the industry, especially a The problem is that research is intangible and cannot between what academic researchers were doing and they get from other sources. To change that perception

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

shortage of researchers. We are not attracting black be measured physically. If it werent for research the use of that knowledge on the ground. I made it my problem is very difficult in Afrikaans there is a
students, partly because our basic primary education we wouldnt have had an industry. And we have to mission to get the knowledge out there on the farms. saying: if you want to pick a gecko up by its tail, the
system in South Africa is not up to standard. The acknowledge the role that applied scientists play and tail will break off. Its the same with some growers I
learners dont realise how important maths and science the value that they add - otherwise we are heading for Incredibly little was known. Initially people didnt guess its a human thing. Up to now we walked with
are. When you do get students that are skilled in troubled waters. People are fundamentally important want to pay for practically applied information, but the head and the tail must drag along. If, however, you
those two subjects they prefer to become engineers or to the industry. Without people we dont have an I recognised the need, and soon especially bigger want to be number one you need to have access to
doctors, not agriculturists. According to Dall there are industry. And we are in crisis. For many years in clients started realising the added value to their expert technical information and where the consultant
10 final year students at the department of horticultural agriculture many things were for free, but now business and they started asking for more. Thats also takes responsibility for the advice given.

03 04
Levy According to Tienie, it has always been his concern that there arent enough youngsters to replace the old wood.
706 Pome Fruit When we started farmsecure the concept was to establish five or so crop divisions with each division consisting
Producers of a horticulturist, an irrigation specialist, crop protection specialist, nutritionist and orchard planner and a
0.3% of GDP teamleader. We were talking of a group of about 35 people. We couldnt gather those specialists there arent
925 stone fruit enough of them.
producers HORTGRO Science
0.7% of GDP Facilitates
Farm Gate Building human capital
Profit The only solution believes Prof Wiehann Steyn, Crop Production Programme Manager at HORTGRO Science, is
Round Table
to build human capital. We have to grow our own wood. In An effort to secure the future of the South African
Sustainable farming
deciduous fruit industry, HORTGRO Science through the funding of Saappa and Saspa has invested more than
Feeding the world
R15 million over the last ten years in human capital creating on average 30 40 postgraduate bursaries
annually with this scheme. If we do not develop capacity through research we will not have industry leaders
Experential Learning tomorrow. The industry needs a constant streaming of highly skilled young people to help us keep the competitive
Universitiess edge. According to Prof Steyn research has three outcomes, of which technological development is the easiest
Research Institutes
and most tangible to measure. The development of knowledge is more difficult to measure but inevitably leads to
Sustainable growth
GDP Annually technological development. Lastly, research leads to the development of people the human capital without which the
Stone R2.28 billion industry wont be able to survive.
Pome R8.2 billion

Research Projects
ROI Total Projects 109
Human Capital (61 Pome / 38 Stone) MSc (1993-2012) careers N = 114 PhD (1993-2012) careers N = 23
Technology New Projects 21
Knowledge (Pome 13 / Stone 8)
50 50
40 40

30 30 26%

20 20
17% 13%
11% 10%
10 7% 7% 10 9% 9%
It is through the foresight of my predecessors that Stellenbosch University is in this unique position as they have always strived to 6% 2%
2% 4%
4% 4%
maintain a strong department with close interaction with the industries it serves. It is important to maintain this interaction as 0 0










the four year academic programme trains students for a professional career and the training therefore needs to be very relevant to % %
industry. The biggest danger for an academic department is to lose senior academic staff as it takes time for younger academics to find
their feet in both academia and industry. Careful succession planning is therefore important. Also the pressure from the University
is towards academic output and academics are not rewarded for working closely with industry on industry related problems.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Prof Karen Theron - Chair in Applied Pre-Harvest Deciduous Fruit Research at Stellenbosch University.

05 06
Willie Kotze, 28, until recently HORTGRO Sciences Some of the PhD and MSc graduates (1993-2012) who studied on projects funded by SAAPPA
I think we are getting some things right, says Prof Steyn, and SASPA and who are working in the deciduous fruit industry.
Regional Fruit Researcher, has now joined Dutoit Agri
in that we have over the years developed incredible human
in Ceres as technical advisor.
capital for the industry through the postgraduate studies that PhDs YEAR CURRENT OCCUPATION
we have been funding. It is important to maintain a strong Karen Theron 1993 SU Chair in preharvest horticulture
HORTGRO Science was a huge stepping stone for
focus on human capital development and to take very good care Nigel Cook 1999 Private consultant
me, says Kotze. It not only helped me to develop
of the researchers and technical experts in the industry. We will Wiehann Steyn 2003 HORTGRO Science
as a person, but also gave me the opportunity to
have to think innovatively to attract more local postgraduate Elmi Ltze 2005 HORTGRO Science/SU Horticulture (nutrition)
develop my technical knowledge, my research skills
students and to ensure that we maintain applied research Mias Pretorius 2006 Two-a-Day Technical Dept. HOD
and gave me huge exposure to the industry. The fact
capacity at University, ARC and private research companies. Louise van Schoor 2009 Private company (audits)
that I was based in Grabouw with the Two-a-Day guys
was extremely beneficial. I was exposed to a broad Elke Crouch 2011 SU Horticulture (postharvest)
segment of people in the industry on a day to day Esm Louw 2011 SU Horticulture (dormancy)
basis - what they do and what the challenges and Mariana Jooste 2012 HORTGRO Science/SU Horticulture (postharvest)
What return do we get for investing in people?
problems are. Every time I jumped into the bakkie or
When we look at the Department of Horticulture at MScs
grabbed a coffee with someone, I learned something
Stellenbosch University over the last twenty years Tercia Marcos 1995 Marketing
new. Willie feels that the move to big business came
(1992 till 2012) 13 of the PhD and 61 of the 115 Gert Marais 1995 Delecta, technical
at the right time. Previously I had one foot in research
MSc students that were educated in horticultural Karin van Rensburg 1995 Capespan, technical
and one foot on the ground, now I will be given an
science studied on some or other deciduous fruit Petru du Plessis 1995 Grower and private consultant
opportunity to really apply all that I have learnt.
issue. (See page 6) What is interesting about our Johan Coetzee 1998 Agchem manager
industry is that the retention rate is high, says Prof Hein Coetzee 1998 Trucape, marketing
Steyn. Of the MScs, 69% stayed in the deciduous Hannes Halgryn 2000 Monteith trust, technical manager
fruit industry and another 15% came over to us from Evelyn Jacobs 2000 Grower
other study fields; 77% PhDs stayed with another 20% Pierre du Plooy 2001 Private consultant
joining our industry from other horticultural fields. Janco Jacobs 2001 Grower
At HORTGRO Science the deliberate development of Schalk Reynolds 2001 Philagro, technical manager
young people in the industry, for the industry has Stephan du Plessis 2003 Delecta, export and technical
paid off. Kobus Meintjies 2004 Agchem, technical
Werner-Marcell Pieterse 2004 ARC breeding and evaluation
Louis Reynolds 2004 Private consultant
Stephan Marais 2005 Nulandis, R&D
Hannes Laubscher 2006 Dutoit Agri, Technical Dept HOD
Karie Doorduin 2006 Stargrow, technical
Jorika Joubert 2007 Farmsecure, technical advisor
Graeme Krige 2007 Two-a-Day Technical Dept.
Waldo Maree 2007 Stargrow, technical
Tinashe Chabikwa 2008 PhD student in biotech
Nelius Kapp 2008 Private consultant
Stephanie Roberts 2009 Omnia, research
Fhatuwani Thovoghi 2009 Lecturer at Univ. of Venda
Anton Gouws 2010 KROMCO, quality assurance
Brian Makeredza 2011 PhD student in horticulture at SU
Robert Wilsdorf 2011 Viking, technical

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

David Hendricks 2012 Nulandis, R&D
Willie Kotze 2012 Dutoit Agri, Technical Dept
Prins van der Merwe 2012 Experico, research

07 08

In 1974 South Africa produced only 0.2 percent of the By 1982 improved cultivars represented more than 60
world plums because of a lack of suitable cultivars for percent of the plantings. Plantings increased as new
the environment. It was therefore necessary to breed producers entered the field and there were dramatic
improved cultivars that would breathe new life into the increases in total production. Sixty-six percent of the total
countrys plum industry. quantity produced was ascribed to new cultivars all
mid-season varieties and the industry was faced with
The ideal plum which was being sought was one which the hurdle of peak deliveries with gaps in-between. To
Elise-Marie Steenkamp Precious Tshabalala would be bold, firm and juicy. With a body not prone curb this, plums would be stored for long periods with
to being mushy, that would have the ability to withstand the consequence that the fruit arrived at overseas markets
A Zimbabwean city girl ARCs forerunner). three weeks storage at 0.5 . However, this required in poor condition. The problem would only be solved
who knew nothing about many years of research before the desired results would by developing a new cultivar that would fill in that gap
Outstanding agriculture apart from I decided to focus on plums as the cultivation of this be obtained. between peak deliveries.
quality, good watering her fathers fruit was exceptionally difficult within the South African
vegetable garden took environment and one that would have been impossible
yielding Initially the plum-breeding programme focused on Laetitia (released in 1985), became the rock star cultivar
up the challenge of without breeding and research.
developing a large-fruited early plum variety. Disaster of the industry. It was specifically bred to ensure a uniform
performance, investigating whether
struck when the industry was hit by the catastrophic supply of plums to the markets. The first tree plantings
durable disease breeding evaluation and According to Precious ample international research
research really pay in the showed that by investing in agricultural research and
bacterial spot (Xanthomonas pruni) in 1960. This disease were in 1980, yielding 5 kg per tree in 1982. The
resistance with South African deciduous breeding development, you greatly enhance global caused plum trees to lose their leaves, fruits ended up following year, the yield had doubled to 10 kg of fruit per
a low input of fruit industry. agricultural production. being discoloured, mottled and spotted - reducing yields tree, and by 1984 this had gone up to 25 kg per tree
by up to 50 percent. Consequently growers were hit hard (Bester, 1985). The performance of Laetitia superseded
chemicals, high
As part of her Masters In South Africa the deciduous fruit industry has also with huge financial losses. The plum breeding programme that of all other varieties and it has maintained its position
international thesis in agricultural yielded significant benefits, as continued investments made it a priority to find a bacterial spot resistant cultivar. as leader in terms of area planted and volumes exported.
demand resulting economics, Precious have led to the development of over 300 deciduous fruit Several years were spent on crossing, back-crossing, and Laetitias popularity also grew due to its high resistance to
Tshabalala (27), placed cultivars, and more continue to be developed to meet the evaluating promising selections. The first locally bred plum the bacterial spot disease. Today Songold and Laetitia are
into money the local plum breeding evolving needs of both producers and consumers, was released in 1972 under the name Songold. two of the most successful cultivars ever bred locally. Both
rolling into the and research programme said Precious.
Songold was well received in the industry and adopted cultivated on an area comprising 28% of the total area on
under the spotlight. It
bank account by many growers. Exports soon grew and growers which plums are planted.
started out as just another During the course of the last 15 years, 63 stone fruit
this is the kind of realized that it was more profitable to replace the old
project that I had to cultivars were released into the agricultural sector of
finish in order to get my cultivars with the new and improved cultivar. Today, Other cultivars released thereafter include: Celebration
cultivar growers South Africa through the ARCs stone fruit breeding
degree, admits Precious, programme alone, and 59 percent of these were Songold remains the second largest produced and (1989), Sapphire (1992), Souvenir (1993), Pioneer
dream about. but I soon fell in love released in the last five years. With most of the plums exported variety. (1995), Lady Red (1996).
with the deciduous fruit available in stores being varieties belonging mainly to the
industry and now want to Japanese plum1 group Prunus salicina, a vast amount of In 1973 a new mid-season cultivar Harry Pickstone New Cultivars of Note
But finding fruit cultivars make it my career. research has gone into producing plum varieties that are was released, to replace Wickson. The improved Sun Kiss and Sundew (1999), were the first full bright
that flourish naturally adapted to South African climatic conditions. Since the characteristics that it possessed were its ability to self-fruit yellow plums bred locally, and are both registered under
within the South African She focused on the inception of the plum research programme at Infruitec- and its resistance to bacterial spot. The cultivar had the trademark African Pride. They were developed to
climate has always been Agricultural Research Nietvoorbij over 23 varieties have been released and close the gap in the European markets post-Christmas.
good cold storage ability and it could bear fruit well. It is
a challenge for local Councils (ARC) stone fruit several crop management recommendations were made.
harvested early January and today remains one of the top African Pride is a unique South African product, as it
growers. It is therefore not breeding programme at But, where did it all start?
30 exported cultivars in South Africa. remains yellow even after ripening, has good storage
surprising that as early Infruitec/Nietvoorbij as

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

ability and was the first to be released under controlled
as 1945 researchers they were historically Cultivar development and breeding - SA style
associated with plum In 1977 the third locally bred mid-season plum cultivar, commercialization. Sun Kiss is among the top eight
were called in to help South Africa was largely dependent on plum cultivars
develop technologies research in South Africa, Reubennel, was released. The cultivar was deemed to most exported cultivars in South Africa, whilst Sundew,
imported from Europe and America, until the WPFRS was have superior characteristics to its breeding parents although among the significant export cultivars, has
and breeding cultivars with the first trials dating
formed. Initially research was based on similar projects (Gaviota, Wickson and Methley). It was resistant to been lagging behind. Ruby Red, a mid-season variety,
to enable growers to back to the early 1940s
(done under the Western
pursued in Chile, but due to the poor performance of bacterial spot, had reduced delayed foliation, and had soon followed. This cultivar has good storage ability,
participate in the
Province Fruit Research the cultivars that existed at the time, research had to be good yield and fruit size. Reubennel is still amongst the higher yield and is of better quality than other varieties.
world market.
Stations (WPFRS) - the aligned with the needs of local growers. top 14 exported cultivars to date. In 2003 two more yellow plums, Golden Kiss and Sun

09 10
L I F E : T H E D PA D I L E M M A

Breeze, were released, with Sun Breeze being an improvement on Songold. Amongst yellow plums, Golden Kiss was
outstanding in terms of cold storage and shelf life performance. However, Sun Breeze failed to live up to its expectations
and five years later it was not amongst the significantly produced cultivars. Golden Kiss is still in the top 24 significantly
In 2008, discerning industry role players anticipated
produced and exported cultivars in the country.
the restriction of fruit storage elixir Diphenylamine
In 2008, Infruitec released the much anticipated African Delight plum whose aim was to reduce production costs. This (DPA) by the European Union (EU). In response to
cultivar was well received by producers as it had the following characteristics; high sugar content, good storage ability
allowing the marketing period to be manipulated, and low chilling requirements. Due to its excellent performance, this threat they launched an innovative research
within four years of its release, this cultivar was the countrys fourth largest produced and exported variety. strategy, exploring alternatives to DPA, and to
allow growers to still export to the EU. Elise-Marie
Further new releases and improvements on existing said that understanding the importance of the lag
plums, include: structure of R&D is crucial. The lag structure refers to Steenkamp investigates the DPA dilemma and the
Solar eclipse (a black-skinned plum), the effects of investing in research over time. timely germination of various research projects that
African Rose (a red-skin early season plum), The lag structure emphasizes the need for regular
Ruby Star (an early season red-skin plum). and stable funding, otherwise you lose out on the
resulted in several tools in the box for growers.
These cultivars have great potential as they have all profit that research brings even ten years down
proven themselves to have a high yield/tree ratio of the line. According to Liebenberg in countries like Apples and pears are harvested once a year and kept in cold storage for as
more than 20 kg/tree. Nigeria where research funding is unstable - one long as twelve months. South African fruit growers wanting to deliver quality
Other improvements include: can clearly see the impact it has on capacity. Lag deciduous fruit from the remoteness of southern Africa to other parts of the
Ruby Sun a late-season red-skin plum which is structure showed that research can even have an world, have always had to find innovative ways to extend storage life.
an improvement on Sapphire impact on an industry up to 55 years after initiation.
Red Crunch a red-skin plum, as well as Satin When you think about it that way, it is really scary, Superficial scald, a physiological disorder of some apple and pear cultivars,
Gold a yellow plum which is an improvement on and if R&D is cut the negative effects will be felt by creates problems for cold storage and long shipping periods (up to 6 weeks
Songold. the next generation long after we are gone. Richard Hurndall for long-haul destinations). However, such discolouration is prevented when
Although impressive results have come out of the plum- fruit is drenched in DPA - an antioxidant which controlled several postharvest
breeding researchers at the ARC continue to breed in A failure to increase publicly funded agricultural disorders - that subsequently became the cold storage treatment of choice.
pursuit of more new and improved cultivars. R&D will likely have long-term consequences for the
sustainability of agriculture in a competitive global Cold storage is essential as it lengthens our marketing period to deliver
ROI environment and for the natural resources on which good quality fruit, says Richard Hurndall, HORTGRO Science Research and
The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of it depends. Technology Manager. The tabooing of DPA for superficial scald control by
the return on investment (ROI) of the plum research the EU potentially meant a reduction of imports of apples and pears from
breeding and evaluation and research programme at The results of the study imply that plum research South Africa to the EU.
Infruitec/Nietvoorbij. The period evaluated were from was beneficial for the industry and that investing Kobus van der Merwe
1980 2012. The study found that the ROI of the plum in profitable technologies can improve agricultural DPA - originally a vulcanizing agent to stabilise rubber - has been in use to
research programme was 14.23 % with a ten year lag. productivity. It just makes economic sense for prevent superficial scald in apples and pears in South Africa since 1962.
beneficiaries to fund R&D efforts, thus reducing the The World Health Organisation (WHO) evaluated the safety of DPA several
We used an analysis technique to estimate the lag reliance on public funds, said Liebenberg. times since the 1960s. In 2007 the WHO stated that, the long-term
structure that exists from the time when research and exposure was unlikely to present a public health concern. It has always
development investments were made, to the time when been a tricky thing, says Hurndall. Public opinion usually holds sway in the
the effects are felt. In this regard we found that the EU, and there is no silver bullet for replacing something like DPA.
effects of the R&D were immediate and highest return

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

was experienced in the fifth year. In a 10 year lag, We realised that we needed a coherent strategy for life without DPA, says
significant relationships between R&D investments Hurndall. We got together a working group to strategize and investigate
and output were experienced in all the years. These alternatives to DPA. When the axe finally dropped, we already had a couple
relationships were all statistically significant (at a of tools in our box and we could advise the growers about the
confidence level of 95%), said Tshabalala. way forward.
Dr. Frikkie Liebenberg, Agricultural Economist from
the University of Pretoria and supervisor for the thesis, Early in 2008 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) began pressing

11 12
the chemical industry for more information about - In the rest of the world it remained unchanged. Council (ARC) into DCA demonstrated that the
DPA. The World Apple and Pear Association (WAPA) - From 2014, new MRL regulations imposed a technology controlled scald on Packhams Triumph
HORTGRO Science foresaw the problem - we anticipated
requested inputs from member countries, including 0.1 ppm limit (100 x less than the norm). (and other pear cultivars) under South African
the nonavailability of DPA for the EU market; evaluated
South Africa, regarding cultivars and volumes affected Fruit that were previously treated with DPA in conditions. DCA also controls scald on apples but
various options, and looked for various strategies and research
by the possible non-inclusion. Following a survey South Africa, include: there is a limitation of at least six weeks of subsequent
to deal with the non-use of DPA; and developed a toolbox with
of local packing operations, South Africa provided - Apples: Granny Smith, Red Delicious, regular atmosphere before scald may reappear.
solutions for growers. Richard Hurndall
statistics, together with a strongly-worded objection Cripps Pink, Cripps Red, Golden Delicious, Dissatisfied with the poor investigation, the European
to the WAPA. European officials, however, were not Braeburn, Fuji and Pears: Packhams Triumph. Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that the
satisfied about the safety of DPA. manufacturers had failed to prove that DPA was safe
WHAT IS SUPERFICIAL SCALD? In anticipation of DPA restrictions, HORTGRO and, in 2012, severely limited its use on apples. In
DPA Fact File Science initiated research projects to investigate March 2013, the EU slashed the tolerance level of
Superficial scald is the brown In South Africa DPA amounts to drench treatment; alternatives to DPA, such as Dynamic Controlled DPA on imported apples to 0.1 parts per million - so
discolouration that occurs on the whereas in Europe they use thermo-fogging Atmosphere (DCA), single and repeated initial low low a level that nobody would be able to adhere to it.
which amounts to a vapour applied in a room, oxygen stress (ILOS) and others. Our main objective
skin of the susceptible apple and
thereby increasing the risk of contamination of was to provide growers with viable alternatives to We did have the option to continue using DPA and
pear cultivars after a period of the room. DPA, says Richard. lose the EU/UK market, but then we had to find
approximately 2 months in cold In the gas stage, DPA infuses everything within alternative markets fast. 42 percent of our apples and
the room. Luckily SmartFreshSM, albeit more expensive, which 78% of our pears were destined for the UK/EU, which
storage and as a result of the DPA breaks down over time. also controls superficial scald, was introduced is a big market to lose.
breakdown of natural antioxidants. It The DPA used in the fruit industry is a benign some time ago. In 2000, ExperiCo, or Capespan
growth regulator, also called an antioxidant. Technology Development, as the unit was then DPA on its own is not believed to be harmful, says
is usually initiated in cold stores and
Scald is a major defect with tolerance between known, was commissioned by AgroFresh Inc. to Kobus van der Merwe, ARC researcher and DPA
develops after transfer to ambient 1 2%. do registration trials for SmartFreshSM (1- MCP expert. However, of the concern was related to
temperature. In severe cases superficial EU MRL reduction: or 1-methylcylopropene) on apples and pears. impurities; carcinogens called nitrosamines not
- The maximum residue level (MRL) for the use of SmartFreshSM is however not suitable for certain pear something you want to find on your everyday apple.
scald can develop in cold storage. DPA in EU/UK up to the end of 2013, was varieties such as Packhams Triumph. This is where
10ppm for pears and 5 ppm for apples. research conducted at the Agricultural Research

1962 1990S 2007 2008 2010 2013

DPA approved Bertie Truter at ARC WHO declares: Long-term HORTGRO Science, discerning industry Several other trials MRL reduction: EU
for use in SA starts trials looking WHO exposure to DPA unlikely to role players anticipate restriction: commissioned. slashed tolerance
to prevent for alternatives present health concerns. launch strategy exploring several No great successes. level 0.1part/million.
superficial scald. for DPA. alternatives to DPA.

EARLY? 1960S 2000 2008 2010 2012 2015

DPA silver Regular DPA Experico* commissioned by *Capespan European Food Safety DCA trials EFSA: Chemical Grower
evaluation by Agrofresh Inc. to do registration Technology Association (EFSA) start. industry failed toolbox:
bullet against WHO

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

superficial WHO (health trials for SmartfreshSM (1-MCP Development, pressurise chemical to prove DPA DCA; ILOS;
scald. and safety). or 1-methylcylopropene) as the unit companies for safety proof. safety. SmartfreshSM
on apples and pears. was then known

13 14
Non DPA superficial scald control strategies
It would be declared illegal to sell fruit with an MRL over the determined
level, resulting in the return of the fruit at the growers cost and/or the
rerouting of the fruit to another market outside the EU/UK. Treatment Effectiveness Status / Constraints

1-MCP (SmartFreshSM)
The biggest problem now with DPA is the contamination South Africas fruit industry is unique and we have All fruit should be of similar maturity. Effective control; Product cost
that occurs during its gaseous phase. In South Africa unique challenges, says van der Merwe. Twenty Treat within 7 days of harvest. Multiple applications No detectable residues Capacity limitations
fruit is drenched in DPA; whereas in Europe fruit was years ago, researchers like Bertie Truter, were already recommended to stay within 7 day protocol. Increased cold storage - require gas tight CA
thermofogged which amounts to a vapour applied looking for alternatives to DPA. Bertie Truter conducted Do not mix cultivars and shelf-life chambers
in a room, thereby increasing the risk of contamination research on ILOS, which was partially successful for Cultivars for treatment: any apple cultivar susceptible
of the room. limited storage periods. to scald, except possibly Braeburn!

According to van der Merwe, research showed severe We have limited resources and infrastructure, but Initial low oxygen storage (ILOS)
and far-reaching contamination of cold stores, wall we still manage to provide the industry with excellent 6 - 8 months control for apples at 0,5% O2 and 1% Residue free Capacity constraints
joints, porous surfaces, bins (plastic and wood), and research. I honestly think our researchers deserve a CO2 for 10 days; then normal CA Risk of treatment not
even the paint on the walls. Also pack lines, all fruit medal for what they have achieved. As they say, n 12 weeks control at 0,5% O2 and 1% CO2 for 10 being 100% effective
contact surfaces, and flumes may be contaminated. Boer maak n plan. days; then normal CA + 6 weeks RA on Packhams
Triumph from Grabouw (1 years data)
Growers were faced with huge dilemma and had Repeated ILOS currently being trialled on
to make serious decisions about their marketing In the end there were 2 feasible alternatives to DPA i.e. DCA Granny Smith
plans, says Richard Hurndall. If a grower planned and SmartFreshSM, with others such as single and repeated
on supplying the EU/UK market they had to dedicate ILOS currently being evaluated. In addition research was Dynamic CA
infrastructure to being DPA-free as anything that was conducted to identify the risks of contamination with DPA Residue free Capital outlay
remotely touched by DPA was potentially contaminated and results showed that it is only a high risk if treated fruit is Effective control for 9 Management intensive
without a prospect of being cleaned. Research by stored in the same room as non DPA-fruit. The combination of months Post-DCA RA storage
Experico has subsequently shown that the risk of SmartFreshSM treatment with DCA is gaining prevalence in limitation
contamination from bins, walls and other surfaces is Europe for better quality and shelf-life.
relatively low. The risk is highest when fruit treated with
DPA is stored together with untreated fruit. Other strategies, such as heat treatment, higher temperature storage, Vitamin C & E derivatives, were investigated, but are not
effective treatment options at this stage.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

15 16

Ten years ago, Addison, started researching the matter.

Elise-Marie Steenkamp Crop Protection Manager She read almost every paper she
at HORTGRO Science, had could find and connected with
R30000 funding but nobody to international researchers. She soon
When Matthew Addison take the research further. A great found herself on a plane heading
believer in biological control as a for the University of Florida, USA,
originally started
fundamental aspect of integrated to train and learn with Dr Khuong
thinking about using pest management he realised the Nguyen. He taught me everything: Dr Antoinette Malan Matthew Addison
entomopathogenic potential, but was at a loss as to how to identify them, how to find
how to proceed. them in the soil, and all the other
nematodes (EPN) to
research techniques. Another big
treat codling moth Dr Antoinette Malan, then help was Prof Ralf-Udo Ehlers, then fruit weevil. These positive results made it possible commercialization of local EPN species.

infested wooden fruit Principal Plant and Quality based at the Christiaan Alberts to develop culture methods for local EPN species
Officer at the National University of Kiel, in Germany. and launch investigations into their physiology and This grant will allow for commercial outdoor
bins, he never dreamed Department of Agriculture, temperature tolerances. application of EPN in the different industries such
that it could possibly stepped in. Malan had at that Back in Stellenbosch Malan found as deciduous, citrus and grapevine. The research
stage, in an attempt to continue an enthusiastic student, Jeanne de programme is still active and proposed research
turn out to be a
nematology at the Stellenbosch Waal, who was willing to take Today the development of effective biological control agents includes the integration of EPN with fungi that attack
biological superweapon University, replace retired on EPN and eventually completed for use in the deciduous fruit industry is regarded as a insects. If history is anything to go by, it will be an
that could potentially nematologist, Prof Bertus Meyer. her MSc and PhD under Malans priority, says Addison. Pest management cannot rely on a interesting and productive process.

save the deciduous guidance. Together we did single method of control. It is imperative that we expand the
Even though I am a research and taught ourselves. management options available.
industry millions of nematologist, I didnt know
rands and in the process anything about EPNs. Nobody It helped that EPNs are what
knew anything about them as it Malan calls model organisms. For Addison a good analogy is that of a table that
spawn a vast scientific
was a totally different concept. I previously worked with plant- cannot stand on one leg. The more legs - the more
research network. I had no one to ask, no one to parasitic nematodes notoriously stable the object. The same with pest management.
train me. It was new to us all, difficult to study. EPN are exciting
says Malan. and highly satisfactory to work The integration of biological control agents
with. We were very motivated. supplements existing management methods. They are
Nematodes are among the most stable over time and can be highly effective. EPN are
ubiquitous organisms on earth. In 2003, the industry funded a an attractive natural option with the added benefits
They occur in virtually every survey of local EPN. The survey that they have adapted to local conditions and are
possible environment, either was important as nothing of generalists. Their positive effect on the environment
as free-living nematodes or as the local EPN occurrence and cannot be measured in monetary terms, says Addison.
parasites of vertebrates and distribution was known. The
invertebrates. There are many survey was successful and during To date the deciduous fruit industry has invested R

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

different kinds of nematodes, the following year a project was 2.74 million and the citrus industry 1.2 million in the
but the ones creating the buzz launched that investigated the use EPN research effort. Altogether 10 post graduate
are the insect-parasitic or of EPN for controlling codling moth students have completed their studies, and 38 peer
entomopathogenic nematode larvae in fruit bins. During this time reviewed publications have been published along with
or just EPN for short. EPN attack Citrus Research International also numerous popular articles. The programme has drawn
and feed only on insects. came on board and research was the attention of the pest management community, and
Malan was fascinated. expanded to include false codling a huge government grant was recently awarded to
She got onto the internet and moth, mealy bug, and the banded a development company, which will allow for the full

17 18
What is Biological Pest Control? Trends and Future Possibilities in Biological Control

Biological pest control is the reduction of pest populations by using natural enemies. It is important because crop The advantages and limitations of biological control are viewed in comparison with chemical pesticides.
pests become resistant to chemical pesticides. It thus forms an integral part of the integrated pest management Natural predators are usually very specific in their range of prey. Natural enemies actively seek out their prey
(IPM) approach. and can increase the level of control over time. The arguments against chemical pesticides are that they not only
kill the pest, but also other species, including natural predators. Furthermore chemical control is limited to area
How are bio-control agents found? application, frequent application may be required which are costly.
The main limitation of biological control agents is that it is a slow process which requires the predators to
The first step is a survey of the natural enemies of the target pest. Researchers observe the natural cycle to make establish themselves.
sure that the biological control agent does no other damage. Then it can be reared and released in large numbers. EPNs as a biological control measure have had excellent results in closed orchards.
Future research will focus on applying EPNs in local open orchard conditions.
What are EPNs? 50% reduction in a given pest population can be expected.
Elimination of pest individuals with possible chemical resistance.
Entomopathogenic nematodes are a group of nematodes (round worms) that kill insects. The term Seeding of orchard soil with nematodes.
entomopathogenic has a Greek origin entomon, refers to insect, and pathogenic, which denotes causing disease. Secondary control against insects in soil such as fruit fly and weevils.
Although many other parasitic round worms cause diseases in living organisms, entomopathogenic nematodes are
specific in only infecting insects. EPN live parasitically inside the infected insect host, and are therefore described Did you know?
as endoparasitic. They infect many different types of insects of which some stages are in contact with the soil, like
the larval forms of moths, butterflies, flies and beetles as well as adult forms of grasshoppers and crickets. EPN The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first
have been found all over the world in a range of ecologically diverse habitats. The most commonly studied EPN historical record of biological control dates back to around AD 300 when predatory ants were used to control
are those that can be used in the biological control of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. pests in citrus orchards. In the modern era an imported ladybird was widely used to control cottony-cushion scale
on American citrus crops in California in the 1880s.
Implications for growers? There are about 120 EPN species worldwide with a total of 24 EPN species on the African continent of which
12 are new discoveries. In South Africa 6 new species have been described.
Currently scientists are investigating the application of EPN to the soil and directly onto trees.
EPN cannot be treated the same as chemical applications they are little animals and sensitive to
environmental conditions. Further reading: Bale, J.S., Van Lenteren, J.C. & Bigler, F.(2008): Biological Control and Sustainable Food
Knowledge of handling nematodes is imperative for their success especially a full understanding of their Production, Royal Society London Biol Sci.363(1492):761- 776
life cycle. content/363/1492/761.abstract
There are major differences between aerial and soil applications.
When applying EPNs aerially onto trees certain considerations apply: Insects such as codling moth and mealy
bugs are highly susceptible; there is only a short window period for application; temperature and humidity
remain the main problems as trees must stay wet before and after application.

The Big Challenge - Grower Education

In an effort to produce more and better fruit, growers worldwide prefer pesticides as a means of pest control. It s
not an easy task to convince growers to adopt a systems approach to pest management and make greater use of
biological control agents. Once a good natural enemy has been found, it is important to train the extension service
and farmers in its use. There is a big attitudinal barrier that needs to be broken down before growers will opt for

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

biological control agents. Future pest management will depend strongly on biological control because it is the
most sustainable, environmentally safe, although not the cheapest system of pest management. Biological control is
expected to account for a significant increased proportion of all crop protection methods by the year 2050 (Bale,
Van Lenteren & Bigler, 2009).

19 20
55 784 000


FRUIT SECTOR - 108 404

54 350

23 625

33 063 328 APPLE




Dear Deciduous Fruit Grower, We increasingly try to address

these shortcomings within the
The Crop Production articles articles you will note the
published during 2015 in the SA improvement in 2016 SA Fruit
Fruit Journal provides a snapshot Journal articles. However, our
of recently completed research. research covers a very broad field
All project leaders commit and we do not have the luxury
Prof Wiehann Steyn (when we accept their research considering our limited space in the
proposals) to write a popular Journal to specify for every project
article on their research findings exactly where it fits in.
for publication in the journal.
This is because we know that all fit in with our overall objectives and stem from
many of you learn about the I thus come to what I thought would be research needs identified by various workgroups. First
research done for you through of most benefit to you in my introductory of all, there is feedback on the demo-block Orchards
the latter publication. We piece for this first issue of our SA Fruit of the Future where leading grower groups are
request the articles to be popular Journal HORTGRO Science Tech book trialling dwarfing rootstocks (M9 and Geneva) at
(i.e. easy to read gesels trant article series, which would be to state higher plantings densities than the norm. Piet Stassen
with nice, supportive photos) the focus areas of the Crop Production also reports on his stone fruit rootstock research
because we want them to be programme and to indicate where each some of the new rootstocks are definite improvements
accessible to you as grower. of these articles fit in. over our industry-standard Kakamas and Mariana
We realise that scientific articles in certain specific conditions. Nets provide a way
(which the researchers also need to soften the climate and address some of the main
to write for their employers) are The research conducted in the Crop risks to the Orchard of the Future by decreasing the
often difficult to read since they Production programme, is aimed at heat-load on the fruit and tree as well as by saving
tend to be wordy (sacrificing achieving (literally) the Orchard of water. One of our great inefficiencies is the amount of
readability for the sake of the Future and addressing the risks fruit we send to juice. Research on broken stones in
completeness and backing all to it. The Orchard of the Future is plums and increasing fruit size in Abate Fetel is aimed
statements with references) and highly productive, very uniform and at increasing packout and, in the case of the plums,
scientifically intimidating (science considerably more efficient than our provide pointers to breeders. Mechanical thinning
articles generally require a current orchards. We dont want to of stone fruit has great potential to increase orchard
formal writing style and uses rely too heavily on a weak Rand to efficiencies and also fruit size due to the earliness
very specialised researchers stay competitive. We achieve this of the thinning. Gerrit van der Merwes evaluation
will say precise terminology). orchard by focusing on optimising of platforms has pointed out how labourer unfriendly
our planting systems (productive our (mostly pome fruit) orchards are and has provided
rootstocks, efficient tree shapes and further impetus for the move to higher density, spindle
Publishing our research in the SA Fruit
good nursery trees). The major or fruiting wall type orchards.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Journal is, however, not the ultimate, perfect Crop Production risks are water
communication tool. A major shortcoming availability, climate change (drought, Lastly, we have also included some articles stemming
heat, lack of winter chill) and extreme from overseas visits. Comparing our industry with our
is that is doesnt provide the context of the
climatic events (e.g. hail). counterparts and competitors illuminates our strengths
research where does it fit in, why did we and weaknesses and also provide some direction as
do it, what will be the benefit to you, the The articles in this series may seem to the changes we should make in order to keep our
like a bit of a mixed bag, but they Orchards of the Future competitive and profitable.
levy-paying grower?
22 23

The main aim of our visit was to On the last day, the group visited the Yarra-valley, What we saw:
network, survey the Aussie apple south-east of Melbourne, where Colonel Saunders A lot of two-dimensional fruit walls on dwarfing
industry and evaluate their progress showed them his farm again all orchards rootstocks, M9 in particular which makes
to date; we were also on the look- were netted. spraying more effective, are labour-friendly
out for possible synergies and and ideal for mechanisation. These structures
found many, said Prof Steyn. are relatively simple and makes for good
Four South Africans and Prof Luca Corelli- Saunders and his brothers are shifting the boundaries of light distribution. We complain about the low
Grappadelli of Bologna University in Italy, The first day of their tour was spent high density apple farming and he has his own nursery that productivity of our labour force, yet our trees are
at Stanthorpe (about 3 hours west produces large, branched trees on M9 rootstock. He believes much more complex than those we saw
toured through the main fruit producing regions of Brisbane) on invitation by Dr nursery tree quality is vital and non-negotiable for orchard in Australia.
near Brisbane and Melbourne, Australia. Heidi Parks, a horticultural scientist success. He started his own nursery, because commercial We also learned a lot about the Future
HORTGRO Science Crop Production Manager, from the Queensland Department of nurseries did not deliver the standard of tree that he needs. Orchards programme and how they used it to
Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. modernise their industry and improve their use
Prof Wiehann Steyn, shared his thoughts of technology in fruit orchards. Their challenge
with Elise-Marie Steenkamp. Prof Karen We visited several orchards and Apple farming in Australia is an expensive business. was to lower production costs, whilst improving
had discussions with researchers Establishment costs are around R800000/ha and production and quality. It seems as if they have
Theron, from Stellenbosch University, Anton
from Applethorpe Research Station operational costs are expensive with R350/hour as been quite successful.
Mller, KROMCO technical advisor and Dr about their work.All the orchards the minimum labour wage. This is why they focus The Aussie breeding programmes are impressive.
Piet Stassen, Agricultural Research Council in this area - which reminded me heavily on mechanisation and automatisation as Not only were the Western Australia breeding
of the Highveld - are netted, due to research priorities. They have a lot of hail and netting programme responsible for Pink Lady, but they
researcher were also part of the group.
regular hail storms. We saw high is everywhere and is not as expensive as in South have just come up with a new Black Apple
density orchards using M9 or M26 Africa, because they have access to a lot of wood and that still needs to be named. Another new, scab-
rootstocks despite relatively poles are cheap. Despite the high establishment and resistant variety, Kaylee, is the product of the
mediocre soil. operational costs, growers can break even after 5 to 6 Queensland breeding programme.
years. This is because local supermarkets by-and-large They focus a lot on developing precision tools
Climate change and dormancy only sell Australian apples, said Prof Steyn. for agriculture, because labour is so expensive.
are some of their main research They did a lot of research on netting they dont
priorities. The group then travelled have a choice due to sunburn, hail and pests
to Melbourne, Victoria, as guests of such as parrots and flying foxes.
Kevin Colonel Sanders a leading Their research is also focusing on the
figure in the Aussie apple industry. impacts of climate change and their situation
is similar to ours. There are great opportunities
We visited the Tatura Research for possible collaborations, especially on
Station of the Dept. of Environment irrigation, dormancy and fruit quality.
and Primary Industries at (Dr Esm Louw, researcher from the US
Shepparton where we met with Department of Horticultural Sciences, has
researchers including: Dr Ian already made contact with Australian
Goodwin (irrigation needs of colleagues; exploring possible research

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

On tour in front of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry at apples); Dr Mark OConnell collaborations on dormancy). I also strongly
Stanthorpe, Queensland, Australia; in the back row: Dr Piet Stassen, from the (spatial technology and precision believe that we should focus research into the
ARC, Profs Luca Corelli-Grappadelli, University of Bologna, Wiehann Steyn, management of orchards); and development of enabling technologies that will
HORTGRO Science and Karen Theron, Dept. of Horticultural Science at SU, Dr Rebecca Darbyshire (climate allow us to adapt to future adverse climatic
Anton Mller,technical advisor KROMCO and Simon Middleton, Queensland change predictions). There is great conditions (i.e., lack of winter chill, heat waves,
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. In the front: Dr Heidi potential for collaboration with increasing frequency of severe weather events,
Parks, Alan McWaters and Osi Tabing, all from the Queensland Department of these researchers. decreasing access to irrigation water). Otherwise
Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. our goose will be cooked.

24 25

Hugh Campbell

Hulle l baie klem op klimaatsverandering en die impak wat dit op hul

Prof. Karen Theron, senior navorser produksiesisteme gaan h. S, doen hulle byvoorbeeld baie werk oor
by die Departement Hortologie aan die impak van nette op boorde. Plat nette vs gegewelde nette. Weens
die Universiteit van Stellenbosch, klimaatstoestande het hulle amper nie meer n keuse nie en dit is n
gee haar indrukke: konstruksietema wat al outomaties deel van is van nuwe aanplantings.
Hulle persepsie oor boomkwaliteit was ook interessant. Hulle sukkel
blykbaar om geskikte bome uit hul kwekerye te kry, wat sommige
produsente daartoe noop om self hul eie bome te kweek.

Weens swak grondkwaliteit soek hulle natuurlik groeikragtige

onderstamme soos M9s en M26s.

Die Aussies se produksie aspekte is hoogs gemeganiseerd en hulle Pieter de Wet, Larry Whitfield and Peter Dall outside one of the many new pack sheds
boorde is ook uiters verbruikervriendelik. with extensive cold storage facilities including DCA built in Poland (75% subsidy
from the EU and Polish Government).
Ek was veral bendruk met wat intensiewe boorde met sagter,
Dr. Piet Stassen, die Australirs in n kort tyd kalmer dra-eenhede onwikkel is.
ARC Infruittec-Nietvoorbij: vermag het - om boordeffektiwiteit Meegaande figuur verduidelik die
en produktiewiteit te verhoog. ontwikkeling miskien die beste. A group of six intrepid South Africans and one
Een van Apple and Pear Australia Hulle het ook soos ons meer Zimbabwean under the leadership of Peter Dall,
Ltd. se inisiatiewe was die Future groeikragtige onderstamme verkies
Orchard projek waaraan meeste (MM106) en geleidelik beweeg
undertook a technical tour to the apple production
produsente deelneem om nuutste na M26. Die laaste paar jaar areas of Poland, Bodensee (Germany), Switzerland
inligting te verkry en onderling word nuwe appelaanplantings and South Tyrol (Italy). This article will mostly
uit te ruil asook kundigheid in te toenemend op M9 onderstamme
trek. Dit het meegebring dat meer gemaak. Bome is nader gespasieer focus on Poland.
as sentrale leiers, bi- en self tri-
leiersisteme. Die 1:3 verhouding
van draereenhede tot leier het plek Poland, the fourth largest producer of apples in the world and by far the an average fruit size of in excess
gemaak vir 1:4. Onderste takke largest producer of apples in Europe was in a state of shock when we of 80mm. The general orchard
word gebuig maar daarna word arrived there in early October 2014. Many of the growers had lost their design was similar to what one
die drag gebruik om alles in beheer primary market over-night. The ban on imports of fruit and vegetables from saw in South Tyrol and Germany.
te hou. Alle boorde is onder net EU Countries, Norway and Australia imposed by Russia meant that Polish We visited numerous brand new,
en nie net om teen hael en vols te growers had to find alternative markets for their 2014 apple crop estimated state of the art packsheds paid for

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

beskerm maar ook om toestande at 3,5 million tons as around 70% of their fresh apples (50% of by 75% subsidies (EU and Polish
te skep vir beter groeitoestande en the production processed) were traditionally marketed in Russia. Government). These cooperative
om kwaliteit van vrugte te verbeter. packsheds supported around 350
Minimum snoei word toegepas. The main apple growing area in Poland around Skierniewice is basically hectares of production and had
Boorde is ook ontwikkel om very flat and is a patchwork of production blocks of 10 hectares. The packaging and storage capacity
meganisasie in die hand te werk average farm size of an apple producer is 10 hectares with no farms (with DCA) way beyond the present
en selfs latere gebruik van robotte greater than 50 hectares in size. About one third of the apple production demand implying that there is huge
te akkomodeer. is seen to be highly productive producing around 80 tons per hectare with scope for expansion.

26 27

Observations and lessons learnt: Why did we do the work? Findings of a study in the EGVV on the
One needs to diversify ones markets. It is very dangerous to rely on one market no matter how successful one Sunburn is a major defect of apples produced for the fresh markets use of shade netting to reduce sunburn
has been in the past. In a South African context, the need for access to a diversity of markets is critical. under the warm growing conditions in South African. Affected fruits are in apple.
One must plant the best and newest commercially successful varieties that are in demand in a variety of characterized by bleached or golden brown discoloured areas or, in its
markets. We visited the biggest nursery in Poland producing in excess of one million apple trees where the most severe form, necrosis of the peel. Since the visual appearance of
main varieties being made were focused on the Russian market and are not varieties demanded in Western the fruit plays an import part in the consumer preference, affected fruit are Daan Brink1,2, Willie Kotze1,3
Europe and other markets. downgraded. In Granny Smith, which is very susceptible to sunburn and Wiehann Steyn1
One must always produce top quality fruit. Good quality fruit is always easier to sell. where even the slightest bleaching is visible, the pack-out may be as low
1HORTGRO Science
Often we require major catastrophes to catalyse change. After the 1987 freeze Poland lost 30% of their trees as 40% (personal communication: Two-a-Day technical team).
2Two-a-Day Technical Dept.
to winter damage. This created the opportunity to establish high density orchards on M9 Rootstock which
3Dutoit Agri
helped the industry greatly. We need to be proactive and make the changes that are required timeously. Sunburn is caused by high light levels and high fruit peel temperatures.
Virtually all the apple plantings viewed in the countries visited were high density plantings (3,000 and more Sunburn browning occurs at a peel temperature of 48 C while 10
trees / hectare) on M9 rootstock. The fruit size, precocity and tree size benefits of M9 are very evident. South minutes above 50 C is enough to kill peel cells resulting in necrosis.
Africa needs to select the right apple rootstocks and develop these as fast as possible. We need to select no These seem like very high temperatures, but bear in mind that radiant
more than three main rootstocks. heating may increase the fruit surface temperature by up to 16 C
Mechanisation and the use of harvesting platforms. Self-propelled platforms were seen on all operations above air temperature. Shade nets decrease sunburn by decreasing
Orchard floor management. Orchards are designed to accommodate machinery and are therefore very level the light exposure and thereby also the radiant heating of the fruit peel.
allowing for platforms and spray rigs to spay at 8 10 km/h. This makes shade netting the most effective means to reduce sunburn
Tree height is at 100 120% of row width. Platforms have allowed for the optimisation of tree height. on apples.
Hail and shade netting. The general trend is to cover orchards for hail. All structures viewed were able to
In 2007, Two-a-Day Pty Ltd and
open and the structures were rather over designed than under-designed.
Vegtech initiated a project to
Subsidies are not always good. They often over-capitalise in one area at the expense of another.
evaluate the production of different
apple cultivars under shade nets
Poland apple production: in the Elgin, Grabouw, Vyeboom,
Villiersdorp (EGVV) area. Funding
Population: 38 million people for the project was obtained from
Annual rainfall: 500-600mm HORTGRO Science. Different
Poland 4th largest apple producer in world coloured nets were used in the trials;
Poland - largest apple producer in Europe however, we here only present the
2013 apple production: 3m tons effects of the netted strips (nets)
2014 apple estimate: 3,5m tons to uncovered (control) strips due
Processing apples: +- 50% to unsuitable trial design and
2013 exports: 70% of fresh apples to Russia inconsistent effects obtained for the
(1m tons) different colour nets.
Adam Lajitj a large Polish farmer who farms on 50ha and Main varieties: Idared, Jonagold sports, Ligol
vice President of the Coop in a young apple block. (Polish variety), Szampion (Czech variety)
An example of sunburned apples

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

produced without shade netting and
South african apple production: apples that were protected by netting.

Population: 49 million people

Annual rainfall: 500-2500mm
South Africa 16th largest apple producer in
the world
Not applicable

28 29
What did we do? What did we find?
Full-bearing Granny Smith, Cripps Red, Cripps Pink Granny Smith
and Fuji orchards were selected in the EGVV area. Fig. 1 shows that the nets substantially reduced the and alternate bearing in the last season resulted in yield losses under the nets. Although not assessed, the decrease
Alternating double rows of Granny Smith on MM109, incidence of sunburn in Granny Smith. On average, in yield was possibly due to reduced flower bud development. Previous research has shown that Fuji shows a very
Cripps Red on M25 and Cripps Pink on M25 were sunburn at the Granny Smith (6) site was reduced strong growth response to netting (Smit, 2007) and this may have a detrimental effect on both fruit red colour and
covered in an orchard of producer (6), while alternating by 25% per annum over a 4 year period. At the yield regularity.
double rows of Granny Smith and Fuji on M793 were Granny Smith (66) site, sunburn was reduced to lesser
covered in an orchard of producer (66). Fuji trees on extent due to intermittent net coverage. The decrease
a M25 were also covered at producer (41). An area in sunburn was directly reflected in a considerable Fig. 2 - The class distribution of the different cultivars as affected by the treatments.
of approximately 0.5 ha was covered with horizontal increase and decrease in the percentage class 1 and 3
nets. Adjacent uncovered trees served as control. There fruit, respectively (Fig. 2). The average yield for netted
were at least 5 replicates for each treatment. Data were Granny Smith was not affected compared to the 80
collected only from central trees under each strip. 70
uncovered strips (Fig. 3).
Vigour control was adjusted under the nets, but irrigation, 50
Cripps Red, Cripps Pink and Fuji

nutrition and all other orchard practices were managed Netting almost completely eliminated sunburn in Cripps 30
the same as the control. This is not ideal since netting Red and Cripps Pink and reduced sunburn by 10% 20
affects irrigation and nutritional demands and also
in Fuji on average (Fig.1). On the downside though, 10
affects fruit set, therefore requiring adjustments in thinning
the nets also decreased fruit red colour resulting in a t/ha
programmes. Pearl, white, yellow and red nets were
large increase in the percentage of poorly coloured fruit Granny Smith Granny Smith Cripps Red Fuji Fuji Cripps Pink
supplied by Vegtech while Knittex supplied a blue net.
(Fig. 4). There was a trend for average yields of Cripps (6) **** (66) ** (6) ** (41)* (66)* (6)****
The nets were all classified as 20% shade net, which
Red and Cripps Pink to increase under the nets
means that 20% of the area covered by the net consists
although these increases were not statistically significant Nets Control
of the net material; the amount of light absorbed by the
(Fig. 3). The apparent increase in yield can be ascribed
nets differs based on the absorbance characteristics of
to an increase in tree bearing area under the nets due
the net material, i.e. a 20% black net absorbs more light 30
to an increase in shoot growth. The effect on Fuji yield
than a 20% white net. Please refer to the suppliers for
and pack out was variable over the different seasons 25
specifications on the different nets.



Fig. 1 - Sunburn as percentage of all the fruit on the tree. 0

t/ha Granny Smith Granny Smith Cripps Red Fuji Fuji Cripps Pink
(6) **** (66) ** (6) ** (41)* (66)* (6)****
30 30
15 20
10 15
5 CLASS 3 10
% 5
Granny Smith Granny Smith Cripps Red Fuji Fuji Cripps Pink
(6) **** (66) ** (6) ** (41)* (66)* (6)**** 0

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

t/ha Granny Smith Granny Smith Cripps Red Fuji Fuji Cripps Pink
Nets Control (6) **** (66) ** (6) ** (41)* (66)* (6)****

(#) Indicates the site number. *Number of * indicates the numbers of years of data for each orchard that were available for data analysis. (#) Indicates the site number. * Number of * indicates the numbers of years of data for each orchard that were available for data analysis.

30 31
Older Granny Smith orchards may also benefit may be an aid when planting precocious
from a reduction in sunburn under nets. Nets may dwarfing rootstocks.
also invigorate worn out Granny Smith orchards, Research under local conditions is needed so
In Cripps Pink, the slight decrease in sunburn ( 6 %) did not compensate for increased the class 1 fruit resulting in a potential yield increase. that informed decisions that consider all potential
the loss in red colour ( 20 %) despite the slight increase in yield observed in produced. benefits and drawbacks of netting can be made.
some years. More class 2 and 3 and less class 1 were produced (Fig. 2). In In Cripps Pink, the slight The reduction in sunburn in less sunburn-sensitive Dr Simon Middleton of the Queensland Department
Cripps Red, the decrease in fruit with adequate red colour was evened out decrease in sunburn ( 6 %) and in red and blushed cultivars does not justify of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry at Stanthorpe,
by the reduction in sunburn. Hence, due to the slight increase in yield, nets did not compensate for the loss the cost of netting. The economics may improve Australia, did some great work on netting.
in red colour ( 20 %) despite for orchards on dwarfing rootstocks like M9 or Interested readers are referred to a summary of
the slight increase in yield G222 and with better coloured strains of blushed his work published in the Compact Fruit Tree as
Fig. 3 - Fruit with inadequate red colour as percentage of all the fruit on the tree. observed in some years. More cultivars. Middleton, S. & McWaters, A. 2002. Hail netting
class 2 and 3 and less class of apple orchards Australian experience. The
50 1 were produced (Fig. 2). In Its not a good idea to cover orchards on vigorous Compact Fruit Tree 35 (2): 51-55.
45 Cripps Red, the decrease in rootstocks under nets except maybe if the trees for The article can be accessed on the web at: http://
fruit with adequate red colour some reason are stunted or if you like pruning very
was evened out by the reduction much and have a mountain of growth retardants in page51.pdf
in sunburn. Hence, due to the chemical store. Whereas the growth response
20 the slight increase in yield, under nets may be a benefit in the case of trees Those who believe that local is lekker and are not
15 nets increased the class 1 fruit on dwarfing rootstocks, on vigorous rootstocks it afraid of thick books can request Armand Smits
10 produced. results in poor colour in blushed cultivars, decrease MSc thesis from the authors of this article. Armands
5 fruit quality in general and may also negatively study was conducted under the supervision of
0 So whats the net result? affect total yield and the regularity of cropping. Prof Stephanie Midgley at Stellenbosch University.
% It makes economic sense
Cripps Red Fuji Fuji Cripps Pink Smit, A. 2007. Apple tree and fruit responses to
(6) ** (41)*** (66)** (6)**** to cover new Granny The project did not answer the question of whether shade netting. MScAgric, Stellenbosch University,
Smith plantings coloured nets are better than the durable and Stellenbosch.
Nets Control under nets. The reduction most commonly used black nets. However, such
in sunburn alone justifies research is difficult due to the effect of coloured
(#) Indicates the site number. * Number of * indicates the numbers of years of data for each the considerable cost of nets on both the light spectrum and quantity of light
orchard that were available for data analysis. netting. that is allowed through.

Further net benefits not assessed in this study,

but that should be part of the equation:
It falls outside the scope of this study, but the
economics of netting improves dramatically in
Fig. 4 - The effect of netting on average yield of the different cultivars. hail-prone regions, especially for the most lucrative
cultivars. This is a risk decision the producer takes
100 together with his insurer and bank manager.
90 Fig 5: Airial view of the Granny Smith, Cripps' Red and Cripps'
80 Apart from the obvious reduction in sunlight Pink net trial at site 6. Note that the control trees are fairly sparse.
70 levels under nets, netting also increases humidity
60 and lowers wind speeds. Hence, netting may
50 decrease irrigation needs, allow spraying for
pests and diseases when conditions outside
are unsuitable and allow better drying of spray
chemicals. Full enclosure of orchards like the

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

0 Oak Valley Orchard of the Future may keep out
% some insect pests. A net covering provides some
Granny Smith Granny Smith Cripps Red Fuji Fuji Cripps Pink
of the same physical benefits of a mulch layer,
(6) **** (66) ** (6) ** (41)*** (66)** (6)****
such as buffering soil temperature and decreasing
evaporation of irrigation water from the soil.
Nets Control

The increase in growth in response to netting Fig 6: Airial view of the Fuji net trail at site 41. Note the
(#) Indicates the site number. * Number of * indicates the numbers of years of data for each orchard that were available for data analysis. volume, indicative of vigour, of the control trees.

32 33

The effect of high water table during winter was and 600 (500 680 Infruitec chilling units).
Dr Piet Stassen, lessened by drainage, a deep cut off trench at the All experimental layouts were randomised complete
ARC Infruittec-Nietvoorbij: mountains side of the orchard and ridges. This sandy block designs. The data were subjected toan analysis
soil (93.4 % sand, 1.5% silt and 5.1% clay, pH [KCl] of variance (ANOVA) using PROC GLM of SAS
6.5) was fumigated pre-plant using the soil fumigant statistical software version 9.3 (SAS, 2012).
The South African stone fruit production, a negative effect on planted during 2008 (8 rootstocks) Telone C-35 (1, 3-Dichloropropene) at 1130ml.100m-
industry needs a variety of fruit size and even the die-back and 2009 (7 rootstocks), row. Richardson chilling units during the experimental Results and discussion
rootstocks to choose from because of trees under certain conditions. respectively. Trees were trained and period varied between 350 and 600 (500-700 1. 2008 nectarine planting at Bufland (Table 1, Fig.1
of the variability of soil textures, Imported rootstocks from different pruned as described by Stassen Infruitec chilling units). Cumulative yield of trees on Flordaguard is the
the presence of Criconemoides breeding programmes (Reighard (2014). The Richardson chilling highest, but does not differ significantly from that
xenoplax, Meloidodogyne and Loreti, 2008) are available. units at this orchard varied between African Delight plum trees on 11 rootstocks were on Atlas. Fruit weight of trees on Flordaguard,
incognita and M. javanica, However, their ability to optimise 170 and 270 (270 - 340 Infruitec planted during 2008 as part of a commercial orchard Cadaman and Atlas are not statistically different,
calcareous soils, high water tables scion performance under local chilling units) over the past 4 years. in the Little Karoo on the farm Sonskyn (S 3351 but significantly better than on Tsukuba 5, SAPO
during winter and spring as well as conditions must be determined. The soil texture is sandy (clay 3.90, E 195919.80 and altitude, 157m). Soil is 778 seedling and Kakamas seedling. The Fruit
different climatic conditions. For this purpose, 16 trials were 1.6%, silt 5.1%, sand 90.8%, with sandy (89.4 % fine sand, 7.1% silt and 3.5% clay) weight of trees on Flordaguard are 14% better
Stassen (2011) and Stassen and planted in different soil and climatic a pH [KCl] 5.8 and low numbers with a pH [KCl] 7.6 and Richardson chilling units than on Kakamas seedling. The cumulative
Reinten (2011) discussed some of conditions. This paper discusses of ring nematodes occur (30 to during the experimental period varied between 350 yield over four harvests are double for trees on
the variables and how rootstocks rootstock performance in terms 88 nematodes per 300 cm- soil).
can affect the performance of of yield, yield efficiency, fruit Soil was treated with Crop Guard Table 1
nectarine and plum trees under mass and trunk circumference of (Furfural manufactured from Average yield values, fruit mass and trunk circumferences for Alpine nectarines on eight rootstocks after four
such conditions. nectarine and plum trees at four of bagasse) at 600 l.ha- before plant harvest seasons at Bufland, 2008 planting.
these sites. (June 2008 and 2009), followed
The local rootstocks Kakamas with two fenamiphos (Nemacur)
seedling, Marianna, Maridon and Materials and methods applications after plant (2.5l.m-) Rootstock Average Ave yield Cum. Average Trunk
Royal seedling are still widely The first two trials are at the same through the irrigation system during yield efficiency** yield fruit weight circ.
used because of their ease of location in the northern fruit region August (2008 and 2009) and (kg/tree) (kg/cm2) (t/ha) (g/fruit) (mm)***
propagation at lower cost. All these (S 242563, E 283579) on a March (2009 and 2010) for 2008
rootstocks have their limitations commercial farm (Bufland) in the and 2009 plantings, respectively. Flordaguard 5.00 a 0.1437 a 52.54 a 99.42 a 261.64 ab
that can result in decreased Mpumalanga Province and were A third application with cudusafos Cadaman 4.35 ab 0.1077 c 41.54 bc 94.65 ab 267.94 a
(Rugby) at 15 l.m- was done
during October (2009 and 2010) Atlas 4.23 bc 0.1379 ab 46.85 ab 95.59 ab 247.44 bc
for the 2008 and 2009 plantings, Guardian 3.59 cd 0.1149 c 34.11 cde 90.42 bc 243.00 bc
respectively. After severe hail
damage during November 2008, Tsukuba 5 3.55 cd 0.1235 abc 39.47 bcd 87.49 c 248.93 abc
trees in the 2008 planting had to SAPO 778* 3.46 de 0.1150 c 32.22 de 87.80 c 240.11 c
be headed back to 50mm above
the bud-union. GF 677 2.95 de 0.1251 abc 29.07 e 90.61 bc 218.77 d

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Kakamas* 2.80 e 0.1191 bc 26.48 e 85.55 c 214.75 d
African Delight plum trees on 10
rootstocks were planted during P (Anova) <0.0001 0.0255 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
June 2008 as part of a commercial
orchard on the farm Elkana in the Low average yields due to the fact that fruit from this area is two to three weeks earlier than the same fruit in the
Berg River valley, Western Cape Western Cape and also the occurrence of cold during flowering during two harvests.
Province (S 3350 20.60, E 18 Means within column marked with same letter (s) do not differ significantly at P=5%
Harvesting African Delight at Sonskyn, Robertson (V-system 5.5m x 0.75m) 57 57.60 and altitude, 138m). * seedling (others cuttings) ** average yield over two harvesting seasons *** trunk circumference during last year of measurement

34 35
Flordaguard compared to trees on Kakamas This site was selected because of the low lying subsequently treated with Rugby at the beginning Marianna. Marianna as rootstock has statistically
seedling. Trees on Cadaman, Flordaguard and orchards and the fact that high water tables of January 2014 and during March 2014. higher ring nematode numbers in the root zone
Tsukuba 5 are the strongest growers with trees during winter had previously killed many plum Results over a four year period show that trees on than Maridon and other rootstocks used. Viking and
on GF 677 and Kakamas seedling the weakest. trees. However, an effective drainage system and Maridon have the highest cumulative yield, but SAPO 778 seedling has significantly lower numbers
Kakamas seedling as a rootstock performs poorly the necessary cutoff furrows were put in place do not differ significantly from those on Marianna of ring nematode than Marianna and Tskuba 5,
in terms of cumulative yield as does GF 677. The before the orchard was planted. Trees were and Viking. Trees on Marianna, however, have but not as Cadaman, Atlas, Flordaguard, Maridon,
average yield efficiency of trees on Cadaman, also planted on 500mm high and 1.5m wide poor fruit weight due to the presence of high SAPO 778 and GF 677. Cumulative yield over 4
Guardian, SAPO 778 seedling and Kakamas ridges. Flordaguard as rootstock was included numbers of ring nematodes ( years does not differ significantly between trees on
seedling was significantly lower than that of trees because of its high sensitivity to waterlogged before 2014 treatment. GF 677, Cadaman, Marianna and Viking, but fruit
on Flordaguard. conditions. Flordaguard and GF 677 would weight of Viking and especially Marianna is poor.
not be recommended for soil where high water 4. 2008 plum planting at Sonskyn (Table 4, Fig 3) On SAPO 778 seedling the cumulative yield over
2. 2009 nectarine planting at Bufland (Table 2) tables may occur, but results show that with good This site was selected for its high pH and high four years is only 65% of that on GF 677) Trees on
The cumulative yield of trees on Flordaguard drainage even these rootstocks can do well. numbers of ring nematodes. During the fourth Maridon under these stress conditions flower even
was significantly higher than on any of the harvest, trees on GF 677 and Cadaman performed more abundantly and exhibit more dwarfing than
other rootstocks while those on Penta and Marianna and Maridon are still the lowest risk on best in terms of cumulative yield and fruit weight. normal and this resulted in lower cumulative yield
Tetra were lower. Cumulative yield of trees on soils where standing water may occur especially Trees on Flordaguard, SAPO 778 and SAPO and fruit size. Cumulative production in Robertson
Kakamas seedling is significantly lower than on in early spring, but ridges are a prerequisite 778 seedling showed severe symptoms of iron- (Sonskyn) is more than double that in Paarl (Elkana)
Flordaguard, Viking and Atlas. The fruit weight of (Stassen and van Zyl, 2014). Susceptibility of induced chlorosis. Trees on Marianna had a poor with much the same fruit weight and sandy soils
trees on Atlas is the highest, but not significantly these rootstocks to ring nematode, especially fruit weight due to its susceptibility to high ring (Elkana 93% sand and Sonskyn 89% sand). This
higher than the fruit of trees on Flordaguard and Marianna, required specific treatment for these nematode numbers (more than 9% less than on GF difference can possibly be explained by the better
SAPO 778. Fruit weight of trees on Tetra is the pests. 677). Table 5 gives an indication of the increase early spring conditions at Robertson.
lowest, but does not differ significantly from those The African Delight orchard was fumigated in numbers of ring nematodes in the root zone of
on Penta and Kakamas seedling. The low chilling before plant as previously described. Nematode
units had an effect on trees on SAPO 778, Penta analysis done on two samples during February
Table 3
and Tetra, causing delayed foliation. 2013. This revealed that ring nematode
Average yield values, fruit mass and trunk circumferences for African Delight plum trees on 10 rootstocks after
3. 2008 plum planting at Elkana (Table 3, Fig. 2) numbers were high ( Soil was
four harvest seasons at Elkana.

Table 2 Rootstock Average Ave yield Cum. Average Trunk

Average yield values, fruit mass and trunk circumferences for Alpine nectarines on seven rootstocks after four yield efficiency** yield fruit weight circ.
harvest seasons at Bufland, 2009 planting. (kg/tree) (kg/cm2) (t/ha) (g/fruit) (mm)***

Maridon 10.26 a 0.3898 ab 98.71 a 121.67 a 222.50 abc

Rootstock Average Ave yield Cum. Average Trunk
yield efficiency** yield fruit weight circ. Marianna 8.93 ab 0.3518 abc 74.61 b 102.63 ab 237.29 a
(kg/tree) (kg/cm2) (t/ha) (g/fruit) (mm)***
SAPO 778 8.68 abc 0.4259 ab 86.18 ab 93.33 b 221.63 abc
Flordaguard 3.86 a 0.1083 a 35.48 a 100.20 ab 249.7 a GF 677 8.65 abc 0.4450 a 86.91 ab 92.97 b 204.50 bc
Atlas 3.15 b 0.1019 ab 29.14 b 101.16 a 225.3 b Flordaguard 8.61 abc 0.3633 abc 82.64 ab 92.53 b 219.38 abc
Viking 3.13 b 0.1142 a 28.18 b 96.14 b 222.6 b Viking 8.19 abc 0.3333 bc 79.08 ab 97.13 ab 230.50 ab
SAPO 778 2.63 c 0.0852 b 24.29 b 98.48 ab 233.1 ab SAPO 778* 7.91 bc 0.2851 c 77.70 ab 85.00 b 235.71 ab
Kakamas* 2.33 c 0.1046 a 21.05 c 91.23 c 197.8 c Atlas 7.55 bc 0.3815 abc 71.75 b 86.78 b 196.88 c
Penta 0.89 d 0.0583 c 8.04 d 85.35 d 177.1 d Cadaman 7.24 bc 0.3258 bc 69.57 b 85.87 b 224.29 abc

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Tetra 0.77 d 0.0582 c 7.12 d 84.48 d 169.1 d Adara 6.79 c 0.3505 abc 65.70 b 78.03 b 210.86 abc
P (Anova) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 P (Anova) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001

Means within column marked with same letter (s) do not differ significantly at P=5% Means within column marked with same letter (s) do not differ significantly at P=5%
* seedling (others cuttings) * seedling (others cuttings)
** average yield over two harvesting seasons ** average yield over two harvesting seasons
*** trunk circumference during last year of measurement *** trunk circumference during last year of measurement

36 37
Table 4 Table 5
Average yield values, fruit mass and trunk circumferences for African Delight plum trees on 11 rootstocks after Ring and Spiral nematode numbers in root area of 11 rootstocks at Sonskyn for February 2012 and 2014.
four harvest seasons at Sonskyn.

Rootstock Average Average Average Yeild Trunk Rootstock Criconemoides Hellcotylenchus Criconemoides Hellcotylenchus
yield** yield** fruit weight Cum circ. xenoplax (Ring) (Spiral) xenoplax (Ring) (Spiral)
(kg/tree) (kg/cm2) (g/fruit) (t/ha) (mm)***
Chuche Picudo 1807 53 283 bc 0
GF 677 26.91 a 0.7206 a 96.13 ab 260.98 a 300.27 a
Marianna 863 43 2846 a 136
Cadaman 24.89 ab 0.6208 bc 98.60 a 241.36 ab 272.03 abcd
Cadaman 840 83 836 bc 326
Marianna 23.80 ab 0.5519 de 87.15 e 230.79 ab 291.04 ab
Atlas 743 73 460 bc 0
Viking 23.77 ab 0.6201 bc 90.98 cde 230.52 ab 276.64 abc
Flordaguard 693 70 300 bc 0
Atlas 23.42 ab 0.6487 b 96.17 ab 227.11 b 265.86 abcd
Maridon 400 437 1166 bc 430
Chuche Picudo 23.01 bc 0.6473 b 97.14 a 223.18 bc 259.97 abcd
SAPO 778 377 50 410 bc 0
Flordaguard 22.63 bcd 0.5909 bcd 94.81 abc 219.53 bc 254.52 bcd
GF 677 367 90 850 bc 0
SAPO 778 19.67 cde 0.5351 de 91.91 bcd 190.74 cd 238.03 cde
Tsukuba 5 337 156 1530 b 156
Maridon 19.20 de 0.5536 cde 86.94 e 181.53 d 227.71 de
SAPO seedling 130 57 170 c 0
SAPO 778* 17.51 e 0.5181 e 94.52 abc 169.81 d 201.80 e
Viking 110 133 130 c 0
Tsukuba 5 17.15 e 0.5640 cde 87.98 de 162.23 d 201.40 e
P (Anova) 0.062 0.2135 0.0088 0.2139
P (Anova) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
*nematodes soil, assessed in accordance with nemlab cc methods.
Means within column marked with same letter (s) do not differ significantly at P=5% Other nematodes analised, but only present in very low numbers: Pratylenchus (root-lesion), Meloidogne (root-knot), Xiphinema
* seedling (others cuttings) (dagger) and Paratrichodorus (stubby-root)
** average yield over two harvesting seasons
*** trunk circumference during last year of measurement

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

38 39
Conclusions Literature Cited
During 2013, Alpine nectarine trees in the 2008 planting at Bufland on SAS Institute, Inc. 2012. SAS Procedure Manual Version 9.3. SAS Institute Inc, SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North
Flordaguard, Cadaman and Atlas performed well in terms of yield, yield Carolina 27513.
efficiency and fruit weight. Trees in the 2009 planting on Flordaguard and Atlas Stassen, Piet and van Zyl, Ferdi. 2014. Higher density peach orchards according to the central leader concept.
also performed well for the three parameters in this sandy soil. In this low chilling SA Fruit Journal, 13(2), 48-50.
region trees on SAPO 778, Penta and Tetra are not well adapted. The effect of Stassen, Piet and van Zyl, Ferdi. 2014. Die back of stone fruit trees associated with wet weather conditions in the
rootstock/scion synchronisation is currently studied by Laura Allderman. Trees on Western Cape fruit regions. SA Fruit Journal, 13(3), 68-73.
Kakamas seedling do not perform well. Flordaguard rootstock performs at its best Stassen, P.J.C. 2011. Performance of nectarine rootstocks on different soil types. Acta Hort. 903 (1), 475-481.
in sandy soil conditions when budded with early, low chill cultivars. Stassen, P.J.C. and Reinten, E.Y. 2011. Performance of rootstocks for plums (Prunus salicina) on different soil
types. Acta Hort. 903 (1), 555-562.
Marianna is a very good host for ring nematodes. In sandy soil conditions and Reighard, G.L. and Loreti, F. 2008. Rootstock development. In: Desmond R. Layne and Daniele Bassi (eds).
where ring nematodes occur, Marianna is susceptible to bacterial canker. When CABI, Oxfordshire, UK. ISBN 978 1 84593 38
producers use this rootstock they must treat for ring nematodes before plant and
follow up within three years after plant. Fruit on Marianna where high numbers of
ring nematodes occur will be small. Marianna and Maridon (Maridon less prone
to ring and bacterial canker than Marianna) provide the lowest risk to soil where
soil saturation may occur especially in early spring or summer, but ridges will be
Iron-induced chlorosis of 'African
necessary. With good drainage and cut off furrows, SAPO 778 and Viking can
Delight' on SAPO 778 on the calcareous
also be used under the correct climatic conditions.
soil at Sonskyn. Results from Sonskyn
and other trials on high pH soils
For high pH soils the rootstocks GF 677, Cadaman, Viking and Atlas are
indicate that Flrodaguard, Kakamas
available. Garnem is currently under evaluation. GF 677, Cadaman and Garnem
seedling and SAPO 778 shows the
show less chlorosis than Atlas and Viking especially in very high pH soils (data
highest percentage chlorosis (80-100%
not given). SAPO 778, Flordaguard, Tsukuba 5 and Kakamas seedling cannot be
of total tree). Guardian, Viking and
planted in high pH soil. All that we know about ring nematodes status of rootstocks
Atlas between 20-40% and GF 677,
at this stage, is that Marianna maintain high numbers in the root zone, but none of
Garnem as well as Cadaman, between
6-20% depending on the amount of
the other rootstocks under evaluation free lime. Penta and Tetra are also
are resistant. sensitive especially in high free lime soils
The majority of new released
cultivars (locally bred) as well as
imported cultivars are not evaluated
on different rootstocks. Producers
must contact their consultant or the
writer of this article before a final
decision is made.

DFTS and THRIP are thanked for their
financial support. Co-operators and
personnel are thanked for assistance
and support. Floors Kotze, Kobus de

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Kock, Ria Rhode and Johny Daniels
for their help in data collecting.
Mardi Booyse for statistical analyses
and guidance.

Alpine rootstock trial at Bufland,

Mookgophong (cetral leader trees
4m x 1m)

40 41

Elise-Marie Steenkamp Elise-Marie Steenkamp

The advantages of blossom thinning have been known for many years. Mechanical thinning makes the
n Navorsingsprojek oor gebreekte in pruime deur
Early blossom removal allows the trees energy to be used only for the fruit thinning process more effective,
Dr. Mariana Jooste, navorser van die Departement
intended for harvest. because growers can now thin
Hortologie aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch en
during bloom time, accelerating
Imke Kritzinger, MSc student aan die department,
This increases the fruit size, improves return bloom and at the same time, follow-up hand thinning, said Prof
beloof om interessante data op te lewer wat
eliminates many hours of costly hand thinning. Technological advancements Theron. Locally the Darwin is used
produsente in die toekoms waarskynlik heelwat rande
have now made it possible to replace hand thinning quite successfully by stone fruit
kan spaar.
with mechanical thinning. growers, especially on nectarines.

Gebreekte pit is n toestand wat voorkom wanneer

Prof Karen Theron, Stellenbosch University horticultural researcher, is What we have seen so far, said
n gedeelte van die pit van die pruim afgebreek het
in charge of a programme evaluating the Darwin 300TM one such Prof Theron is that sometimes
binne-in die vrug. Dit is fataal vir ons uitvoermark,
mechanical thinning device, for South African conditions. This is the second the spindle takes out the whole
s Dr Jooste, en kan tot groot verliese ly vir ons
year that we have gathered data, said Prof Theron. Last year, we looked flower cluster. We have to find the
produsente. Wanneer meer as 10% van pruime in die
at Forelle and the effectiveness of mechanical thinning on the apple cultivar optimum spindle speed to reduce
karton gebreekte pit het, word dit afgemerk na klas
Cripps Pink. Prof Therons student, Deon Kirstein, is also evaluating the the aggressiveness of the thinning
2 vrugte. Baie van ons kultivars het die probleem en
BAUM mechanical thinner and a hand-held device. He will be testing process. Another factor to take
n groot deel van ons oes word hierdeur geaffekteer.
thinning effectiveness on two apple varieties, Fuji and Cripps Red. into consideration is the tractor
In die 2013-seisoen het produsente tussen R5 en R8
speed. The prescribed speed is
minder vir Klas II karton vrugte gekry, in vergelyking
Technically mechanical blossom thinning should save both time and money; 6km/h or higher; but we have
met Klas I karton.
and could enable the grower to experience a better crop and a higher profit. found that with our orchard floor
surface - 5km/h is the highest we
Laetitia, tans die grootste Suid-Afrikaanse
can go. Prof Theron said that they
pruimkultivar, loop veral erg deur onder gebreekte pit.
needed to gather another seasons
Dit is n groot kommer vir die bedryf, s Dr Jooste.
data before they can make accurate
Tans vermoed die navorsers dat oorsake hiervoor
gevind kan word in:
We need to compare the mechanical Mens kan gewoonlik nie van die Klimaatstoestande, veral lae nagtemperature in
thinning with hand thinning and buitekant af sien of n vrug gebreekte die periode net voor pitverharding;
chemical thinning. What I can say at Die Laetitia kultivar self wat n sagter pit het
pit het aldan nie. Net in baie erge
this stage is that the Darwin is only (waarskynlik omdat dit minder steenselle in die
suitable for specific hedge type gevalle kan mens van buite sien pit neerl) wat daartoe lei dat enigiets wat
training systems. wanneer die vrug misvorm is, en vruggroei stimuleer die pit laat breek.

dan kan dit op die paklyn verwyder

Doel van Navorsing:
word. Dis nie goed vir die beeld

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Another problem is that sometimes Die navorsers het tans drie proewe wat op gebreekte
the machine removes the whole van ons bedryf nie. Vanuit n pit gefokus is. Met die eerste proef, wat in boorde in
flower cluster, which leads the tree to Robertson en Stellenbosch gedoen word, fokus hulle
gesondheidsoogpunt kan ons nie op area- en klimaatsfaktore om te probeer bepaal
compensate by setting more fruit in
Spindle speed these long rubbery The Darwin thinning machine is each remaining cluster. toelaat dat verbruikers n gebreekte pit wanneer gebreekte pit gebeur, enof ons reeds vroeg in
extensions rotate at top speed imported from Germany. insluk of daarop byt nie. die seisoen (voor pitverharding) dit kan voorspel. Die
brushing against the trees to do navorsers het tien temperatuuropnemers (loggers) in
the blossom thinning. die verskillende boorde geplaas wat die temperatuur

42 43
en relatiewe humiditeit in die
boorde meet tot einde Januarie
wanneer Letitia geoes word.

Imke hou die temperatuur fyn dop

en drie weke na volblom begin sy
vrugmonsters in elke boord neem.
Wanneer die vrugte groot genoeg
is (ertjiekorrelgrootte), word hulle
deursnitte en lengtes vergelyk en
in die laboratorium gedissekteer.
Verder word die vars en dro
massas met mekaar vergelyk. Ons
probeer die groeitempo voorspel
deur te soek vir korrelasies met
temperatuur, s Dr Jooste.
Ons verloor ontsaglik baie geld Dr. Mariana Jooste en Imke Kritzinger besig om loggers in die boord te hang. pit minder steenselle het. Die vleis van die vrug groei te vining terwyl die pit
nog te sag is. Die vrugvleis trek dan letterllik die pit uitmekaar. Dit gebeur
wanneer ons vrugte afgemerk word, en dit sal veral nuttig wees vir produsente as ons vroeg in die seisoen al kan
vroeg in die seisoen. Ongeveer 40 60 dae na volblom dan sit jy reeds
voorspel wat die voorkoms van gebreekte pit gaan wees, s Dr Jooste. Met die tweede proef word gekyk of die
met gebreekte pit. Die pit breek aan die stingelent kant weens versnelde
defek verminder kan word deur verskillende grond-en blaarspuite te gebruik om die selwande te versterk en/of
meer elasties te maak. In die derde proef word 3D CT-skandering gebruik om pit-en vruggroei van die Laetitia en
die Songold kultivars met mekaar te vergelyk en te probeer vasstel hoekom gebreekte pit voorkom.
By kultivars wat nie-vatbaar is vir gebreekte pit nie, vind groei in alle rigtings
meer eweredig plaas. Op hierdie stadium lyk dit of veral lae nagtemperature
Bevindinge voor pitverharding lengtegroei bevoordeel, en dus ook gebreekte pit. Volgens
Sekere kultivars is meer vatbaar vir gebreekte pit as ander. Met die CT-skandering kan die navorsers in 3D
Mariana word vruggroeiwyse en digtheid van die pit deur gene bepaal.
verskillende kultivars se vrugontwikkeling sien en vergelyk. So word die digtheid van die pit oor die hele seisoen
Ons sal kultivars moet teel wat nie hierdie eienskappe het nie.
gemeet, terwyl verandering en groei gemonitor word. Wat ons tot nou toe sien, is dat Laetitia (wat meer vatbaar
is vir gebreekte pit) se pit minder dig is as di van Songold (wat nie-vatbaar is nie). Die vermoede is dat die sagter
Die navorsers het kalsiumspuite gebruik met die hoop om die pit sterker
So lyk die loggers wat in die boord
te maak. Die kalsium spuit het egter die gebreekte pit betekenisvol erger
gehang word. Die temperatuuropnemer
gemaak, waarskynlik omdat dit die selwande te rigied gemaak het. Omdat
word deur n harde, plastiekomhulsel
die pit nie oral gelyk hard word nie kan die deel naaste aan die stingel (wat
laaste verhard) nie weerstand bied teen die groeikrag van die vrug nie en
dan breek die pit.

Silikaat is gespuit om selwande meer elasties te maak hoe meer elasties

die selwande hoe meer kan hulle mee gee en minder geaffekteer word deur
die trekkrag van lengtegroei. Die pit sal dan n bietjie kan meegee sonder
om te breek.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Hoewel Dr Jooste nie wil spekuleer oor moontlike oplossings nie, meen sy
dat mens waarskynlik na die teelprogram moet gaan kyk, en hopenlik die
bestaande kultivar kan versterk deur n spuitmiddel, maar daarvoor is nog
navorsing nodig.

44 45

In the case of the Zephyr in the 2011/2012 season, the time to thin by Plums
Karen Theron1, Gielie de Villiers1 hand was more reduced the higher the rotor speed. This negative linear The time required to hand thin
and Wiehann Steyn1,2 trend was also observed in the yield per tree in the 2011/2012 season. was not significantly reduced
The yield per tree was consistently reduced and resulted in an average in the case of Laetitia for the
1Dept. Horticultural Science reduction of 21% in the 2011/2012 season and 27% in the 2012/2013 2011/2012 season, although
Stellenbosch University season. This reduction in yield was not significant in the 2011/2012 the number of fruitlets removed
2HORTGRO Science season in the case of Summer Fire, but a significant average reduction of showed an average reduction of
25% was found in the 2012/2013 season. In the case of Royal Sun the 42%. For African Rose the time
Darwin 300TM bloom thinning resulted in an average reduction of 18% required to hand thin was reduced
in yield per tree and the hand bloom thinned control in a 7% reduction in by 25%. The yield efficiency
the yield per tree. This reduction in yield resulted in an increase in fruit per tree was not significantly
size during both seasons in the case of Zephyr and Summer Fire. For reduced in Laetitia and African
The Darwin 300 in a Royal Sun
the Royal Sun the increase in fruit size was the same for the mechanical Rose. Bloom thinning significantly
nectarine orchard. In action on the left
thinning and hand bloom thinned control. In the case of Zephyr the total increased fruit sizes in Laetitia
and after passing through the first part of
(Fig. 1) soluble solids were increased in both seasons, but not in Summer Fire and African Rose. There were
the row on the right.
and Royal Sun. During the 2011/2012 season no negative effects were no negative effects on the fruit
Why did we do the work? manufacturer recommends. Tractor found in Zephyr fruit, but in the 2012/2013 season the percentage of quality of Laetitia and African
Producing fruit of the appropriate size and high quality is of the utmost speed should preferably be 6 km fruit cracking and split pit was significantly increased by all three machine Rose. The consistent reduction in
importance to realize a profit in the fruit industry. This can be achieved h-1 or faster but in the orchards treatments. Negative effects on fruit quality were not observed in Royal the time required for hand thinning
through bloom or fruitlet thinning to reduce the number of fruit left on the we used the orchard floor was Sun or in Summer Fire. will result in the reduction in the
tree. The cost of production is rising and labour cost forms a large part of too uneven for such high speeds. cost associated with hand thinning
the total production cost. Thinning of stone fruit is labour intensive and time We compared rotor speeds of and therefore production while
consuming and therefore the benefit in fruit size is not always realised to the 200, 220 and 240 r.p.m. in the increase in fruit size could
extent one hopes for. We therefore need an alternative to hand thinning. the nectarine orchards to hand increase the marketable yield.
Two alternatives are chemical and mechanical thinning. Chemical thinners thinning, while in the more difficult This potential increase in income
are not routinely used in stone fruit as it is in pome fruit production. We will to thin plum orchards, we used together with the reduction in cost
report on research on chemical thinning of plums in a later issue of SAFJ. rotor speeds of 220, 250 and associated with hand thinning and
280 r.p.m. production could result in increases
What did we do? in profit.
The Darwin 300TM (Fruit TecMaschinenbau; was What did we find?
evaluated as a mechanical alternative to hand thinning (Fig. 1). The Nectarines
machine was developed in Germany for bloom thinning in organic apple The time required to hand thin
orchards. The machine is mounted on a tractor with a 3-point hitch, fork in the case of Zephyr, was
mount or a bolt-on mount and has a 3 m vertical spindle (2 and 2.5 m reduced by an average 43% in
spindle heights are also available). The spindle can be tilted 30 in either the 2011/2012 season and 33%

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

direction from the centre. Attached to the spindle are a total of 36 steel in the 2012/2013 season. In the
plates that secure 648 plastic cords measuring 50 cm each. The spindle case of Summer Fire, the time
is driven by the hydraulic system of the tractor and can be regulated by required was reduced by 32%
adjustments to the control valve situated on the tractor. Intensity of thinning in the 2011/2012 season and
can be adjusted by changing the rotational speed of the spindle, the speed 35% in the 2012/2013 season. Alternatives to the Darwin are the
of the tractor or the arrangement of the plastic cords. The machine thins For the Royal Sun this reduction BAUM or Bonner thinning machine
flowers during bloom, before fruitlet thinning by hand is performed. We was 44%, compared to 34% for (left) or the hand-held Bloom Bandit
kept the tractor speed constant at 4.8 km h-1, which is slower than the the hand bloom thinned control. (right).

46 47

What were the most important problems encountered using the Darwin 300?
Compiled by HORTGRO Science Team
Orchard surface floor uneven resulting in machine tilting into or out of tree row;
High and/or wide ridged bankies need special adjustment to the machine on the tractor;
Trees too high, therefore machine does not thin upper canopy;
It has been almost five years since The goals were to inspire industry to utilise more
Trees need to be trained to a hedge-type system;
HORTGRO Science challenged
Trees not trained to a narrow hedge will be thinned more in the outer canopy than the inner canopy; dwarfing rootstocks thereby taking orchard
the industry through their Orchard
No scaffold branches should protrude into the tractor alley;
of the Future (OoF) project to efficiencies to the next level and to create demo sites
No lose wires, ropes and tags should be present in trees that could get entangled in spindle;
come up with orchard designs that where growers, technical advisors and researchers
Overhead wires or irrigation pipes should be high enough to allow machine to pass underneath.
were outside of the box thus
could learn and experiment together.
challenging normal convention.
Conclusion The challenge was taken up by
The Darwin 300 successfully reduced the number In conclusion, mechanical thinning of nectarines and the Fruitways, Two-a-Day and
of fruitlets that remained on nectarine and plum plums with the Darwin 300 has potential to reduce Dutoit Agri groups and OoFs were one pick and no sorting are
trees. It did not always result in a similar reduction hand thinning, but it is important to not over thin trees planted at Graymead, Oak Valley definite possibilities. Stephen said in a recent interview that
in hand thinning time due to the ladder effect The with too high rotor speeds as it can reduce yield, and Paardekloof. In February this Much less training and one of the goals of the OoF is to increase
time required to move ladders and to climb up and increase fruit size too much and lead to fruit cracking and year the OoF committee gathered pruning is required. commercial bottom line for commercial
down ladders is not reduced by the machine and still split pit. Damage to the trees was limited and no disease in Grabouw, to review and plan With hindsight, we would orchards. We do this by focussing on
remains as a large component of hand thinning time. infections were found. Alternatives to the Darwin are the next phase of the OoF project. have planted trees closer four objectives:
This could be reduced by using a platform to do hand the BAUM or Bonner thinning machine that has three We share their exciting findings in the row (1 m vs 1.2 m).
thinning. The severity of bloom thinning is dependant separate rotors that can be adjusted independently or
This would have facilitated
on the spindle rotation speed and needs to be adjusted the hand-held Bloom Bandit that can be operated from Fruitways a spindle tree shape with Earlier production of quality
and determined for each orchard/cultivar as over- a back-pack battery or from the hydraulic system on a The Fruitways OoF at Graymead soft, short bearing branches fruit;
thinning can occur resulting in yield reduction, but an platform (Fig. 2). We have not evaluated these latter was planted in 2011 to Fuji and rather than stronger, solaxe- Improve picking productivity;
increase in fruit size. As with any method of thinning, machines in stone fruit orchards. Royal Gala on M9 rootstock type branches. Reduce costs, by reducing
the right balance needs to be found. at a spacing of 3.5 x 1.2 m. With hindsight, it was a tree manipulation, tree
Tobie van Rooyen, Techways mistake not to bend down training, and pruning; and
Manager, and Stephen Rabe, bearing branches during the To improve on-tree pack-out.
Director of Production, Fruitways 1st season.
Farming and HORTGRO Science Much more attention should We are also aiming to get more
advisory board chairman, are the be paid to support structures uniformity throughout the orchard
custodians of this project. when planting on M9 and and we are achieving this with the
other dwarfing rootstocks. M9 rootstock, Rabe said. We
These trees allocate energy are also looking at improving soil
Tobie shared the following key learnings: to fruit growth rather than health, as well as reducing our
tree structure. Hence, the carbon footprint.
grower should provide the (watch the interview with Stephen here:
Provided we do everything )
supporting structure.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

right, we can farm on M9 in
Tree size at planting is
South Africa. Oak valley
extremely important early
Fruit quality (size and red Graeme Krige, Technical Advisor at
cropping and timely filling
colour) on M9 is excellent. Two-A-Day, and Ernst Heydenrych,
of the allotted space is
Royal Gala did not show General Manager of the fruit
absolutely dependent on
more sunburn than in division at Oak Valley, are the
planting a well-hardened,
standard orchards. custodians of the Two-a-Day OoF.
large (>1.8 m) nursery tree.
Due to the great fruit quality,
48 49
Field day sites
Share results

Graeme Krige shared the key findings of Trial / demo Willie Kotze shared their lessons learnt:
this OoF: Focus on blocks researchs
future needs to orchard
The MM109 rootstock and
Nets are currently the most SAAPPA
Orchard of the future M9 interstem combination
effective method of sunburn is very dwarfing in
control in Granny Smith the sandy soils at the
orchards. Paardekloof site.
The first harvest has not Site, soil and scion growth
been completed, but early characteristics should all
Creat learning
observations show excellent Benchmark be taken into account with
Explore new
fruit size on the G222 GS options Orchard Data planning of orchards on
trees. Other production dwarfing rootstocks.
indices will be measured Planting good quality
at harvest. nursery trees is of extreme
Nursery tree quality is of importance. Stephen Rabe, Agricultural Director of Fruitways at the Fruitways OoF.
extreme importance when Do not crop too early if the Current OoF Orchards at a glance
establishing any new orchard. trees have not filled their
Under the shade nets the allotted space. Group Two-A-Day Techways Dutoit Group
GS trees on G222 were Less labour and tree (Oak Valley) (Fruitways) (Paardekloof)
more vigorous than initially training are required on
expected. One should not mature trees. However, Project Leader G krige T v Rooyen W Kotze
draw conclusions without a young trees required a E heydenrych S Rabe C Oliver
decent control, but I believe it is fair to say that lot of attention to keep
G222 is slightly less dwarfing than M9. Cultivar Granny Smith Fuji Kiku Rosy Glow
the branch angles open
Many of the trees on G222 snapped off at the Royal Gala
and to reduce vigour,
graft union during the season. The problem was especially on a basal Rootstock (G222) M9 MM109
observed on both GS and Rosy Glow trees and is dominant cultivar such as M9 interstem
possibly indicative of a degree of incompatibility. It Rosy Glow.
is very important to provide support for these trees Spacing (m) 3.5 x 1.2 3.5 x 1.2 3.5 x 1.25
Sunburn remains a major
throughout the life of the orchard. concern and shade net Trees/ha 2381 2381 2286
Enclosing the whole orchard with nets changes might be required to
the whole environment. We observed damage on Height (m) 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.8
reduce the severity.
the foliage caused by looper moth larvae (Cleora A strong trellis system Training System Solaxe Spindle on Solaxe
tulbaghata). This culprit was identified by Matthew with good anchorage is Sud-Tirol type 5-wire support
Addison and is not a common pest on apples in required to assist in leader system

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

the EGVV. Hence, it seems that nets may affect the growth and to support the
pest and disease composition. crop load. Key questions Profitably Mechanization M9/MM9 at
farming GS. M9 at high high density.
Paardekloof Management density. Adressing basal
Willie Kotze, Dutoit Agri Research and Development under nets. dominance.
Dwarfing CG
Manager, and Charl Olivier, Paardekloof Estate
rootstock at high
Manager, are currently in charge of the Du Toit Agri OoF.
Willie Kotze in the OoF at Oak Valley. density.

50 51

Achievement of OoF goals

(2008 2014) Elise-Marie Steenkamp
Focus on future needs. The OoF programme has been informing and shaping research strategy. The research Vir Gerrit van der Merwe is
that was funded and conducted by HORTGRO Science is aimed at the needs of the OoF. akademiese tekste al lank vergete,
Create learning at different levels. The OoF programme have yielded annual articles published in the SAFJ. Maar hierdie is gn gewone boer nie. Die 24-jarige
want deesdae swoeg en sweet
Presentations have been presented at the HORTGRO Science Technical Symposium. Lessons learnt are being Mot soos sy vriende hom noem, het onlangs sy
recorded and various video clips were made available via HORTGRO Science website and Facebook page. hy in die Afrika son, as jong MScAgric graad met lof aan die Departement Hortologie
Field day sites. Various field days have been held with good participation. vrugteprodusent. Binne-in hom is daar aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch verwerf. Sover
Trial/demo blocks. Lessons from these blocks have provided major impetus to the objective of shifting bekend het Gerrit die hoogste punt nog vir n M-studie
groot vrede, want hy doen waarvan
industry to more dwarfing rootstocks. in Hortologie gekry, naamlik 84%. In sy navorsing het
Benchmark orchard data. The OoF provides the industry with long term data and research results. hy al van skooldae af droom om op hy oessisteme en werkerplatforms vir Suid-Afrikaanse
Fonteintjie te boer, en boonop is die omstandighede in die sagtevrugte-bedryf ondersoek.
Future of the OoF programme
eerste helfte van sy eerste oesseisoen
Existing OoF orchards will continue. Aanvanklik s Gerrit sou hy direk na die voltooiing van
Existing orchards that address specific questions (e.g. Whether to trunk, renew or not?) will be invited into al amper agter die rug. sy BScAgric na die familieplaas, Fonteintjie, terugkeer,
the programme. maar tydens n naweek-snoeiprakties is die akademiese
Creating a Super Block. The OoF committee will scope a new OoF orchard that, that will be: future saadjie om verder te studeer, geplant. Ek het uit pure
orientated and address a number of cross-cutting innovations. belangstelling by die HORTGRO Science-projek betrokke
geraak. My doelwit was nooit om n M-graad te doen
Watch Hugh Campbell, HORTGRO Science General Manager, and Wiehann Steyn, HORTGRO Science Crop Production Manager, nie, maar siende dat Fonteintjie self met vrae oor die
in conversation about the OoF programme, here: verbetering van die produktiwiteit en effektiwiteit van
arbeid worstel, kon ek my ouers oorreed om my nog n
verdere 2 jaar op Stellenbosch te laat deurbring. Ek is nie
spyt nie - dit was n lekker projek en ek het elke oomblik
daarvan geniet.

Gerrit, n boorling van die Koue Bokkeveld, het

aanvanklik Stellenbosch toe gekom om n ingenieur te
word. Na twee weke het hy egter geweet di veld is nie
vir hom nie, en het hy tot groot vreugde van pa, Thinus,
en ma, Etta, na landbou oorgeslaan. Ten spyte van die
baie spanning in die landboubedryf is
Gerrit optimisties.

Van my vriende s ek is naef, en daar l verseker interessante

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

tye en uitdagings voor. Maar dinge is aant gebeur, veral in ons
Witzenberg-streek Ek glo mens moet dit wat oor jou pad kom
hanteer en sien watter rol jy kan speel.

Gerrit glo produsente kan sukses behaal as hulle

met dit wat hulle het, so goed as moontlik woeker.
Geluk is om te boer ... Gerrit van der Merwe. Outomatisering gaan nie kitsoplossings bring nie.

52 53
Daar is altyd n menskomponent by landbou en boordbeplanning arbeidsproduktiwiteit, asook die effektiwiteit van chemiese toedienings, aansienlik verhoog.
arbeidsverhoudinge gaan altyd belangrik wees veral Hier gaan die rol van dwergende onderstamme baie belangrik wees. Die Orchard of the Future (OoF) komitee
in Suid-Afrika, s hy. As mens die mens raaksien, en van HORTGRO Science is reeds druk besig aan die beplan aan sulke futuristiese boorde.
werksbevrediging het, dan kom motivering. Mens moet
positief bly. Gerrit het tydens sy studie reeds verskeie lesings in die bedryf gelewer - selfs voor 350 produsente en
tegniese adviseurs tydens die 2013 HORTGRO Science simposium.Hy is ook deur die subtropiese en wyn-
Die Hoekom van die projek bedrywe uitgenooi om van sy resultate aan te bied.
HORTGRO Science beoog om Gerrit se navorsing met produsente te deel in n reeks van artikels wat oor die
Daar is verskeie opinies in die bedryf oor die moontlike loop van die volgende jaar in die SAFJ gepubliseer gaan word.
voordele van oessisteme en werkerplatforms wat
gebaseer is op besoeke van produsente en tegniese
adviseurs aan meer gemeganiseerde bedrywe in Projekinligting:
Europa en die VSA. Die wydverspreide arbeidsonrus
in November 2012 in die Wes-Kaap, en die Werkers tydens blomuitdunning van nektariens by Excelsior Titel: Die gebruik van oessisteme en werkerplatforms in die Suid-Afrikaanse sagtevrugte-bedryf.
gepaardgaande verhoging van die minimum loon, het (Dutoit Agric) in die Nuy-vallei, Worcester.
die dringendheid van so n projek beklemtoon en die Studieperiode: 2013 en 2014. (Graad toegeken: Maart 2015)
navorsing het onder heelwat meer verwagtinge, druk en
belangstelling as n tipiese MSc projek verloop. Studieleiers: Prof. Wiehann Steyn, Prof. Karen Theron (Dept Hortologie) en Dr Jan Lombard
(Dept Landbou-Ekonomie).
Daar is ook kommer oor die veiligheid van werkers oesproduktiwiteit deur middel van meganisasie,
op lere en die beskikbaarheid van gewillige werkers blyk nie n moontlikheid te wees in die nabye Die lede van die projek-werkgroep was: Wiehann Steyn, Karen Theron, Jan Lombard, Daniel Havenga
om swaar lere in n boord rond te dra. Binne toekoms nie. (Dutoit Agri), Ernst Heydenrych (Oak Valley Estate), Willie Kotze (voorheen HORTGRO Science, tans Dutoit
hierdie konteks het die Suid-Afrikaanse Appel en Die navorsing het wel op die potensile Agri), Daan Brink (Two-a-Day), Nico Gericke (Southtrade), Thomas Babl (Lindenhof), Hannes Laubscher
Peer Produsente vereniging (SAAPPA) HORTGRO toenames in oesproduktiwiteit gedui, wat (Dutoit Agri), Anton Muller (KROMCO).
Science versoek om n bedryf-wye projek te loods wat verkry word met meer doeltreffende bestuur
oessisteme en werkerplatforms in Suid-Afrika ondersoek. en implementering van huidige stelsels.
Gerrit se studie was die eerste van sy soort in die Die verbou, en meer spesifiek die oes van
Suid-Afrikaanse sagtevrugtebedryf. Vir die doel van die sagtevrugte vir die varsproduktemark, sal
studie het HORTGRO Science die Hermes Tecno L waarskynlik n arbeidsintensiewe proses bly.
oessisteem bekom, tesame met sisteme wat geleen is Produsente sal daarby baat om aandag te gee
van Southtrade en sommige wat in privaat besit is. aan die opleiding, motivering en bevrediging
van werkers, saam met die gebruik van nuwe
Die doel van die studie was: tegnologie soos werkerplatforms.
Om te bepaal of oessisteme en werkerplatforms Die studie is bemoeilik deur die onbekendheid
produksiekostes kan verminder, van produsente en werkers met oessisteme en
Of dit vrugte-oes kwaliteit en winsgrense vir werkerplatforms, en Gerrit moes die heeltyd
vrugteprodusente kan verhoog. bewus wees van n wye reeks faktore wat
Veranderinge te identifiseer wat die Suid- die geldigheid van sy resultate sou kon
Afrikaanse vrugtebedryf sal moet maak, benvloed, s Prof. Wiehann Steyn, Gerrit
om outomatisering van vrugteboorde te se studieleier.
Die gebruikspotensiaal van die sisteme Prof. Wiehann Steyn:
in verskillende boorde en in verskillende Amper die grootste waarde van Gerrit se navorsing l
boordbestuurpraktyke is ook ondersoek.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

in wat ons geleer het oor ons boorde se tekortkominge
ten opsigte van arbeidsproduktiwiteit en effektiwiteit.
Die resultaat: Ons arbeid is nie noodwendig so onproduktief as
Die gebruik van werkerplatforms het wel wat algemeen aanvaar en altyd voorgehou word
werkers se produktiwiteit vir sekere boord-take nie. Dit is eerder n geval dat ons boorde oor die
verhoog, maar n beduidende toename in algemeen arbeidsonvriendelik is ons kan deur Outomatisering bring nie kitsoplossings nie . . . daar is altyd n menskomponent.

54 55

6-BA applied two weeks after full bloom resulted in an for fruit size. Return bloom was counted on two
increase in fruit size in the pear cultivars Spadona scaffold branches.
and Coscia in Israel (Stern and Flaishman, 2003). In
Spadona, 6-BA increased fruit size without causing Second set of trials:
a dramatic thinning effect (Flaishman et al., 2001), Using one site in the EGVV and two sites in Ceres,
which suggests that the increase in fruit size can be the following treatments were applied on both
attributed mainly to a direct effect on an increased rate Forelle and Abate Fetel:
of cell division in the fruit cortex (Stern and Flaishman, 1. Control
2003). In Coscia however, the increase in large 2. 6-BA (500 ml MaxCel.100 L-1 water), 30
fruit was accompanied by a heavy thinning effect. d.a.f.b. water at 1000 L per ha
Therefore the increase was possibly achieved in two 3. 6-BA (500 ml MaxCel.100 L-1 water), 50
ways; directly through cell division and indirectly d.a.f.b. at 1000 L per ha
through thinning indicating that cultivars respond 4. 6-BA (500 ml MaxCel.100 L-1 water), 30
differently to the same treatment (Stern and Flaishman, and 50 d.a.f.b. at 1000 L per ha
2003). Forelle and Abate Fetel are two of the most
profitable pear cultivars planted in South Africa. It Treatments were randomised in 10 blocks with 20
however, remains a challenge to consistently achieve trees per treatment plot of which three trees in the
high yields and good fruit size. The objective of this middle of the plot were striped-picked into a picking
project was to evaluate the use of 6-BA to increase fruit bin and transported to the pack house. These bins
size by stimulating cell division as well as extending were sorted using a sample grader. Application
the cell division stage of fruit growth. was done with a trailed axial fan mist blower.
Why did we do the work? During the 2009/2010 season, the site in EGVV
Karen Theron1, Carlien Dreyer1,2, Daan Brink2,3 and Wiehann Fruit size is an important marketing and quality What did we do? was compromised when the farm sprayed the whole
Steyn1,3 parameter and has a significant effect on the economic Two sets of statistical trials were done. The first set orchard with 6-BA at 30 DAFB as a standard orchard
value of fruit. There are two commercial practices by Carlien Dreyer, MScAgric student of Karen Theron practice. The trial was adapted by applying an extra
1Dept. Horticultural Science, Stellenbosch University commonly applied to enlarge fruit; one is the indirect at Dept. of Horticultural Science, while working at 70 DAFB treatment.
2Two-a-Day Technical Department, Grabouw method of thinning flowers or fruitlets to reduce Two-A-Day and the second set by Daan Brink, then
3HORTGRO Science competition between fruit for assimilates, resulting researcher at HORTGRO Science together with
in larger fruit; the second method directly enhances Wiehann Steyn.
fruit size by stimulating and extending cell division
during the early period of fruit growth, e.g. through First set of trials:
the application of synthetic cytokinins. There are two The following two treatments were evaluated on
distinct stages in pear fruit growth: Stage I, the first 42 Forelle and Abate Fetel in the Elgin area over
to 56 days of development, which is the cell division two seasons:
period and is followed by stage II, the cell enlargement 1. Control

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

period that continues until harvest. The application of 2. 6-BA (500 ml MaxCel.100 L-1 water), 30 and
synthetic cytokinins are therefore believed to enhance 50 d.a.f.b. at 1000 L per ha
fruit size by stimulating and possibly extending the
cell division period in fruit when applied at the correct Ten single tree plots were used in a randomised
stage of fruit growth. An example of such a cytokinin is complete block design. 6-BA application was done
6-benzyladenine (6-BA) sold as MaxCel (Philagro SA using a motorised Stihl back-pack sprayer. All
(Pty) Ltd, Somerset West, South Africa) or Exilis (Villa fruit were harvested during commercial harvest to
Crop Protection (Pty) Ltd, Wellington, South Africa). determine yield per tree while a sample was analysed

56 57
Fig 1: Effect of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) application Fig. 2. Effect of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) Fig. 3. Effect of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) Fig. 5. Effect of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA)
to Forelle and Abate Fetel trees at 30 and 50 application to Forelle and Abate Fetel trees at application 2009/2010 to Forelle and Abate application 2010/2011 to Forelle and Abate
d.a.f.b. on average fruit weight. Application was 30 and 50 d.a.f.b. on return bloom percentage Fetel trees in EGVV at 30, 50 and 70 d.a.f.b. on Fetel trees in EGVV at 30 and 50 d.a.f.b. on
repeated on the same trees for two seasons. the following season. average fruit weight. ns = non-significant. average fruit weight. ns = non-significant.

200 25 180 180

a a a 160 ns 160
a a ns
160 20 a
a 140 ns 140
120 120
a a 15 a
a ns
120 a
a a 100 100
100 a
80 80
80 10
a 60 60
40 5 40 40

20 20 20
0 0 0 0
(g) Forelle Forelle Abata Fetel Abata Fetel % Forelle Forelle Abata Fetel Abata Fetel (g) Forelle Abata Fetel (g) Forelle Abata Fetel
2010/11 2011/12 2010/11 2011/12 2010/11 2011/12 2010/11 2011/12 2009/10 2009/10 2010/11 2010/11

Control 2x 6-BA Control 2x 6-BA 6-BA 30dafb 6-BA 30+50 dafb Control 6-BA 30 dafb
6-BA 30+70 dafb 6-BA 30+50+70 dafb 6-BA 50 dafb 6-BA 30+50 dafb

What did we find? Fig. 4. Effect of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) Fig. 6. Effect of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA)
First set of trials: application 2009/2010 to Forelle and Abate application 2009/2010 to Forelle and Abate
Fetel trees in Ceres at 30 and 50 d.a.f.b. on Fetel trees in Ceres at 30 and 50 d.a.f.b. on
6-BA applied at 30 and 50 d.a.f.b. did not increase Fetel cannot be increased by foliar application of this
average fruit weight. ns = non-significant. return bloom percentage the following season.
average fruit size of Forelle or Abate Fetel in the cytokinin even when up to three applications were made.
two seasons it was evaluated (Fig. 1). It also had no However return bloom was improved significantly on a
200 18
significant effect on yield or return bloom (Fig. 2). both cultivars in Ceres in 2009/2010. Schalk Reynolds ns
180 16 a
of Philagro SA has also confirmed that 6-BA does not
increase fruit size Philagro does not recommend the 160 14 b
Second set of trials: b ab
140 b b
use of 6-BA for this purpose but two applications could ns 12 b
Even with three applications of 6-BA in the EGVV in
improve return bloom. We did not assess the effect of 120
2009/2010, fruit size of Forelle and Abate Fetel 10
6-BA in a tank mix with other chemicals. 100
was not increased (Fig. 3). Also in the Ceres area this 8
was the case (Fig. 4) as well as in the 2010/2011
References 60
season in the EGVV (Fig. 5) and on Forelle in Ceres
Flaishman, M., Shargal, A. and Stern, R.A. 40 4
(data not shown). During the 2009/2010 season an
2001. The synthetic cytokinin CPPU increases 2
increase in return bloom was observed in the Ceres 20
fruit size and yield of Spadona and Coscia
area following the two 6-BA applications in both 0 0
pear (Pyrus communis L.). J. Hort. Sci. Biotech.
Forelle and Abate Fetel (Fig. 6). The return bloom in (g) Forelle Abata Fetel % Forelle Abata Fetel
76: 145-149.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

EGVV was not assessed. 2009/10 2009/10 2009/10 2009/10
Stern, R.A. and Flaishman, M.A. 2003.
Benzyladenine effects of fruit size, fruit thinning
Conclusions Control 6-BA 30 dafb Control 6-BA 30 dafb
and return yield of Spadona and Coscia pear.
6-BA was extensively tested in these trials and from our 6-BA 50 dafb 6-BA 30+50 dafb 6-BA 50 dafb 6-BA 30+50 dafb
Scientia Hort. 98: 499-504.
results it is clear that fruit size in Forelle and Abate

58 59

Why is nursery tree quality shoot/root ratio, root quality, Plants always try to balance their foliage and root systems in accordance further aggravate the problem
so important? -quantity and -morphology, with growing conditions. Hence, a tree growing in a poor soil will aim and disease predisposition may
Depending on fruit type, a tree size, bud quality and to invest proportionately more growth in the root system so to better mine occur. Dehydration during storage,
Karen Theron1,2 and Wiehann Steyn1,2 deciduous fruit grower makes an physical injury. minerals. After transplant in an orchard, the first aim of the fruit tree is chemical damage such as fertiliser
estimated investment of between R to re-establish a balance in accordance with the new environment and burn, replant disease and pruning
1Dept. Horticultural Science 282 000 and R 202 000 per ha Shoot/root ratio this will generally entail that root growth is favoured at the expense of the root system or forcing it to fit
Stellenbosch University when establishing a new orchard A prolonged establishment shoot growth. Water stress due to poor irrigation after transplanting will a too small planting hole will all
2HORTGRO Science (Table 1). Even without royalties, period, i.e. the period between aggravate transplant shock and
the plant material contributes transplant and growth resumption, negatively affect tree performance.
30 to 22% to the establishment is often observed and aptly Often either growing conditions
cost. It is therefore of paramount named transplant shock. This is or management practices in the
This is the first of a
importance that newly planted trees increased when root volume is not nursery preferentially favour the
series of three articles establish themselves and grow to in balance with the shoot volume growth of aboveground organs, for
on nursery tree quality. their full potential from the start. of a nursery tree and is caused by example densely spaced nursery
With optimal growth the allocated a reduction in root volume during trees (Fig. 1) grown under high
The series will address tree lifting or conditions in the
tree space will quickly be filled and fertilisation and irrigation regimes
the following aspects: trees come into bearing earlier. nursery leading to imbalanced display a high shoot/root ratio,
physical, physiological This will result in early break-even growth. Shoot growth in spring is which can be further exacerbated
and optimal return on investment. retarded due to fewer hormones by the loss of roots during lifting
and phytosanitary produced by the roots and less and handling between the nursery
characteristics and The physical or external quality absorption of water and nutrients. and the planting in the orchard.
follows on a presentation of nursery trees plays a huge role Therefore, although good bud
in how successfully trees establish break often occurs, vigorous Root quantity, quality and
on nursery tree quality themselves. These attributes include shoot growth is not guaranteed. morphology
presented at the 2015 Fig. 1 - Densely spaced pear nursery trees. Photo: Karen Theron Transplant ease has been linked
Table 1 to root morphology and the rate
Estimated costs (R) per ha to establish new deciduous fruit orchards. Pome of root regeneration. Root system
symposium. morphology is a good predictor
fruit planted at 1650 trees per ha and stone fruit at 1250 trees per ha.
Summarised from Key Deciduous Fruit Statistics 2014, HORTGRO. of transplant success. Species with
fibrous root systems are easier to
transplant than those with coarse
Item Apple Pears Plums Nectarines root systems, a function of the
Peach number of root tips available for
rapid regeneration. The latter
Plant material (Excl. royalties) 81840 70967 38050 45863 being essential for the survival
and establishment of transplanted
Infrastructure and soil preparation 132 375 130844 137 051 97 392 trees since a large proportion of

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

the transplanted root system is lost
Fertiliser herbicides pesticides & fungicides 9733 9 471 9 101 8 528
through death and decomposition
General costs 4 588 4 606 3 640 3 848 soon after transplanting. The
number and length of first order
Overhead costs 53 450 52 998 49 542 46 442 laterals (Fig. 2) affect root growth
capacity as they form the framework
TOTAL 281 994 268 886 237 384 202 073 for the new root network.
Fig. 2 - Abate Fetel on BA 29 rootstock. Photo: Karen Theron

60 61
The quality of the rootstock material used in the nursery Bud quality
influences the development of the root system, e.g. After transplanting nursery trees into an orchard, new growth has to occur from both the terminal and lateral
if an apple rootstock layer only has one or two roots buds. The extent to which these buds are developed prior to lifting plays a role in how vigorous the new growth
rather than 6 or 7 this will negatively influence the will be. When discussing tree bud quality one needs to understand the process of bud development. Once the
root morphology of the nursery tree (Fig. 3). Also the tree stops elongation growth in the nursery the terminal bud starts to develop. At first the little leaf primordia (8 - 9)
physiological status of the tree, i.e. reserve status will that are present around the apical meristem will be transformed into bud scales. These will cover and protect the
influence root growth but this aspect will be discussed bud content through winter. The apical meristem however continues to form more leaf primordia which will then
in a second article in this series on nursery tree quality. be the new leaves that grow out of the bud in spring. These leaf primordia develop at a rate of one per week as
long as temperatures are moderate and irradiance is high. This means that approximately 6-7 weeks are needed
Tree size and type to develop a good terminal bud. In this period during autumn, the buds are in a state we call paradormancy, also
Nursery trees are classified in size categories using known as correlative inhibition and defoliation of trees could lead to bud break (except of course if the trees
trunk diameter just above the graft union. In South are kept ecodormant by low temperatures in the field or in a cold room) . We can illustrate this period as shown
Africa trees are classified as follows: Tall Large 15 in Fig. 4.
mm+ and >1.8 m; Large 15 mm+ and <1.8 m; First
size 12-15 mm; Medium 10 -12 mm; Standard 8
-10 mm and Small 7 mm. Pome fruit producers have (a) (b) (c)
a choice between one-year-old (smaller categories)
Shoot growth Paradormancy Endodormancy Shoot growth
and two-year-old trees (larger categories). We found
better budbreak and total new shoot growth on larger
Bud break End of Bud break
two-year-old trees while higher mortality has also been shoot growth
observed in smaller trees. Large trees generally fill their
allotted space earlier. Large trees however often suffer Fig. 4. The progression of growth phases of a nursery tree from bud break in spring (a) active shoot growth, growth cessation in
more transplant shock due to a higher shoot/root ratio autumn, (b) paradormancy and then the entry into (c) endodormancy (true dormancy). During (a) optimal tree height (<1.8 m)
and proportionately greater root loss during lifting. In is developed while during (b) bud development, hardening-off, reserve build-up, root development and secondary trunk growth
takes place.
Fig. 3 - Variation in root quality of stone fruit nursery
trees. Photo: Piet Stassen

addition larger trees are often produced by forcing During paradormancy the tree not only develops breaking applications in spring. We will discuss the
nursery growth until very late in autumn resulting in the terminal and lateral buds, but also hardens physiological quality of nursery trees in the next paper.
trees with weaker physiological quality (See second off in preparation for winter and the entrance into
paper in this series). endodormancy. During this phase of paradormancy Physical damage and trueness-to-type
Whether branched trees are better than unbranched the tree also further develops the root system and It is obvious that physical damage caused to the tree
whips will not be discussed in this paper, but see the builds up reserves, especially the carbohydrate during the production of the trees or during lifting and
following paper for more information related to and nitrogen reserves it needs for growth after handling could negatively affect tree performance
tree type: transplanting in spring. This period of 6-7 weeks after planting and may provide entry points for
during which the nursery trees are in paradormancy disease organisms.
Theron, K.I., Steyn, W.J. and Jacobs, G. 2000. is therefore very important in determining final
Induction of proleptic shoot formation on pome fruit physical tree quality. Chemical or manual defoliation In addition it is of paramount importance that both the
nursery trees. Acta Hort. 514:235-243. of trees during this period can be very detrimental scion and rootstock are true-to-type and that all trees
to tree growth in spring. Unhardened shoots within bundles are of the same physical quality.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

may be damaged by low temperatures and rest

62 63

In Itali weet die ouens nie waarvan ek praat as n gesonder boom wat beter presteer. Voorlopige
Elise-Marie Steenkamp ek na aalwurms wat by ons n groot probleem is - navorsing op nuwe onderstamme soos Garnem,
Onderstamstories - Dr. Piet Stassen (Onafhanklike navorser)
verwys nie, s Dr Stassen. Gardian en Penta, beloof om binnekort genoeg
Tydens die Steenvrugte Velddag wat op resultate te lewer om sinvolle aanbevelings te
Veral in die Bergrivier-gebiede waar produsente maak, s Piet. Produsente moet besef dat foute wat
5 Junie op die plase Oudewagendrift n Suksesvolle boord begin by die regte onderstam geneig is om ou wingerdgrond vir vrugteverbouing met bostamme gemaak word nie sommer deur n
en Excelsior, in die Overhex by en hoewel die gewilde Kakamas en Marianna te verruil, kry mens veral letselaalwurm probleme. onderstam reggemaak kan word nie. Maar die regte
wyd gebruik word, is daar deesdae heelwat ander Klein vrugte is maar een van die gevolge van onderstam kan wel die bostam help om beter aan
Worcester gehou is, het drie kundiges
onderstamme waarvan produsente moet kennis dra, aalwurmskade. Ons grondteksture wissel ook te pas en derhalwe drag en vruggrootte verbeter.
raad gegee oor die vestiging van s Dr. Piet Stassen, spesialistuinboukundige. geweldig, van arm sandgronde ( tot 90% sand Onnodige chemiese behandelings kan ook deur die
steenvrugteboorde. fraksie) tot hor potensiaal grond (20 40% slik en regte onderstam uitgeskakel word, wat n impak op
Om suksesvolle vrugteverbouing te bewerkstellig klei). Ho watertafels, wat aan die voet van berge kostes het.
het mens n geskikte bostam nodig en sekere en in laagliggende gebiede voorkom, veroorsaak
onderstamme kan help om bostamme beter te laat veral dreineringsprobleme. Die opname van yster n Volgens Piet bly kloononderstamme die ideaal
aanpas en presteer. probleem in gronde met vry kalk en dit veroorsaak maar produsente moet seker maak dat klone goeie
ysterchlorose met gepaardgaande produksie en wortelstelsels het wanneer hulle dit van kwekerye koop
Volgens Piet, wat al dekades lank navorsing doen oor vrugkwaliteit verliese. Bostamme se groei neem en die grond waarin kwekers saailinge plant geskik
onderstamme, duur die evaluering van onderstamme verskillende tye in aanvang in reaksie op die aantal is en dat die bome aan alle vereistes voldoen vir
minstens 5 oesseisoene, voordat sinvolle aanbevelings koue-eenhede wat in verskillende produksie-areas uitplanting.
gemaak kan word. Piet evalueer tans onderstamme akkumuleer. Indien n lae koue-behoefte bostam op
vir appelkose, perskes, nektariens en pruime op n n ho koue-behoefte onderstam gent word, mag die Ons moet meer innoverend raak met
totaal van 12 persele versprei oor bykans al ons bostam, indien die bome in n vroe area geplant is, voortplantingsmetodes. Mikro-oorplantings word
verbouingsareas en in n verskeidenheid gronde wat wakker word alvorens die onderstam al gereed is. meestal oorsee gedoen - dit betaal en werk beter.

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

tipies is van dit waarmee produsente te doene kry. Nie alle onderstamme hanteer aalwurms, vry kalk, By die Landbounavorsingsraad is verskeie proewe
verskillende grondteksture, en seisoenale nat voete aan die gang om onderstamme te teel wat bestand
Aspekte soos grondtekstuur, klimaat, die voorkoms van ewe goed nie. is teen ringaalwurm. Die volgende stap is om hierdie
aalwurms, grond pH en watertafels moet alles in ag onderstamme in die veld te kry en daar te toets.
geneem word wanneer onderstamprestasie beoordeel Die korrekte onderstam keuse lei tot meer, en beter Volgens Piet sal hulle binne drie jaar n ideale prentjie
word. Suid-Afrika se unieke klimaat beteken ook dat vrugte. Veral vruggrootte word benvloed deur h met gedetailleerde integrasie van alle inligting en
onderstamnavorsing wat oorsee gedoen word, dikwels onderstamme, aangesien verskillende onderstamme data oor al die nuwe steenvrugteonderstamme wat
nie geskik is vir Suid-Afrikaanse produsente nie. met die ontwikkeling van bostamme sinchroniseer vir beskikbaar is.

64 65
Onderstam feite: temperatuur toeneem. Wanneer temperature Maar weereens moet produsente seker maak
Onderstamme kan die groeikrag van bostamme Die klimaat, die tipe grond en die tipe gewas is alles onder 15C daal, gaan daar niks aan nie. dat hulle weet wat hul doen anders moet
verhoog faktore wat ingedagte gehou moet word, by die opstel Dieselfde geld vir mikrobe-aktiwiteit. Wanneer hul hulp kry. Deklae kan grond in die lente
Onderstamme met n geskikte koue-behoefte kan van so n bestuursplan. die temperatuur onder 20C daal, neem nog kouer maak en die grond langer nat laat
sinchronisasie van groei-aktiwiteit tussen onder- aktiwiteit af; hor temperatuur (250C optimaal bly veral van belang by vroe kultivars.
en bostam verbeter. Wat grond betref moet tekstuur, die ligging van die vir mikrobes) verbeter aktiwiteit in die grond. Onthou ook dat deklae lei tot die ontwikkeling
Onderstamme dra by tot vrugbaarheid, landskap en rigtingsorintasie in ag geneem word. Dis Mikrobes is betrokke by n groot aantal van die van n mat van vlak voedingswortels. Hierdie
produktiwiteit, drag effektiwiteit en vruggrootte hierdie basiese vergete aspekte van vrugteproduksie biochemiese reaksies tussen die wortels en die wortels moet gedurende die seisoen beskerm
Onderstamme kan immuniteit, weerstand of wat bepaal hoe bemesting en besproeiing toegepas grondsisteem en is dus nodig om n gesonde, en onderhou word en het dus n impak op jou
toleransie teen skadelike aalwurms bied word. Natuurlik is die gewas self ook belangrik of dit lewendige sisteem te handhaaf. besproeiinskedulering.
Onderstamme kan aanpassing by verskillende n vroe of laat kultivar is. Byvoorbeeld, vroe kultivars
grondteksture bewerkstellig moet in die warm areas van die landskap gevestig Die lengte van die groeiseisoen bepaal Wanneer dit by kunsmis kom vra mense altyd
Onderstamme het n impak op die word, daar waar ons die 1ste wortelgroei kan die aantal, grootte en die tye van kunsmis of mengsels beter is as enkelvoudige produkte.
verdraagsaamheid teenoor ho watertafels verwag. Die belangrikste is om jou beplanning aan te toedienings. Indien dit nie reg bestuur word nie, Daar is nie noodwendig n regte of verkeerde
seisoenale nat voete pas by die terroir wat jy het dan kan jy keuses maak sal vrugkwaliteit benadeel word. Dit is anders vir antwoord nie. Mengsels bestuur makliker, maar
Onderstamme kan ysterchlorose in ho pH, oor die bestuur van die gewas. vroe as vir laat kultivars. Omdat die voor oes dan moet die mengsel se formulasie gebasseer
kalkhoudende gronde verminder of uitskakel. groeiseisoen vir vroe kultivars so kort is, is na- wees op grondontledings en die plant se
Volgens Bennie is daar n paar bestuurbare oes bemesting baie belangrik en moet dit goed behoefte. Enkelvoudige produkte is moontlik
Kyk uit vir Piet se reeks artikels in die volgende paar komponente waaraan produsente aandag bestuur word sodat die nodige reserwes vir die goedkoper, maar vra meer bestuursinsette om
uitgawes van die Sagtevrugte Joernaal waarin hy behoort te gee, wanneer hulle bemesting en volgende seisoen opgebou kan word. die korrekte toedining te verseker.
onderstamme in meer detail gaan bespreek. besproeiingsprogramme ontwikkel:
Seisoenale aanpassings moet gemaak word. Dink mooi oor wanneer dit sinvol is om Plante het n konstante opname van al die
Byvoorbeeld, as die lente vanjaar nat en koud kunsmis te gee. Kunsmistoedienings voordat voedingselemente reg deur die seisoen.
is - kan dro produkte eerder vir die aanvangs- grondtemperature bokant 150C gestyg het, is Aanvanklik word die voedingstowwe benodig vir
bemesting gekies word, en besproeiing ingekort nie sinvol nie. Daar is geen wortelaktiwiteit nie, wortel- en lootgroei, en dan vir die grootmaak
Bennie Diedericks (Resalt) word. In drupstelsels is dit nie altyd moontlik nie, en dit help nie om die grondsisteem met kunsmis van die oes. Daar is nerens n groot opname
en moet die minimum water gebruik word om te oorlaai nie. Blaarvoedings speel n belangrike piek van n bepaalde element nie. Dit help
die bemesting in die grond te kry. Die belangrike rol in die bemestingsprogram van vroe kultivars byvoorbeeld nie om die sisteem met groot
punt om te onthou is dat nat gronde kouer is as in die groei-fase voordat die grondtemperature hoeveelhede Kalium laat in die seisoen te
dro gronde, en wortelgroei dus later sal begin. tot bokant 150C gestyg het. oordonder indien K-bemesting vroeg in die
Hoe gemaak met bemesting en besproeiing Jou keuse van hoe en wat jy bemes gaan afhang seisoen afgeskeep, of reeds goed voorsien is nie.
van steenvrugte? van die seisoen. En moenie van na-oes bemesting vergeet nie. Konstante gebalanseerde voeding reg deur die
Tye het verander; die game het verander. Ons moet Bestuur dit reg. Vroer eerder as later. Vir die seisoen, gebasseer op die plant-grond-interaksie
aanpas. Grondtekstuur gaan bepaal hoeveel kos en meeste kultivars moet die na-oes bemesting teen gee die beste resultate.
water jy op n keer kan gee; moenie bang wees middel Maart reeds toegedien wees.
Dit was die kern van Bennie Diedericks se boodskap om gereeld kos te gee nie. Te klein toedienings is Maak in-seisoen aanpassings op grond van
aan steenvrugte produsente. Hy het veral klem gel op egter ook nie gewens nie, aangesien die nodige Operd walle (bankies) is iets wat baie die groeikrag van die bome en monitor die
die uitdagings wat al die nuwe kultivars tesame met voedingstofkonsentrasies nie in die grond geskep moeilikheid kan gee as dit verkeerd gemaak en effektiwiteit van jou program deur gereelde
die veranderende klimaatstoestande aan bemesting- en word nie bestuur word. Dit word gebruik om gronddiepte grond- en blaarmonsters. Daar is baie
besproeiingsprogramme stel. te verbeter en/of om vroegheid te skep. Die wal tegnologiese hulpmiddels tot die produsent se
Worteldiepte en verspreiding: (drupsones) maak word gouer droog as die ondergrond en is dus beskikking, laat dit vir jou werk en maak moeite
Jy kan nie net meer jou standaard program toepas seker hoe diep en waar jou wortels regtig is warmer wat lei tot vinnger wortelgroei. Korrekte om die data wat jy het te verstaan, en korrek
soos wat jy al die jare gedoen het nie. Jy moet kyk moet nie net skat of die rekenaar blindelings besproeiingskedulering in die vroe seisoen is aan te wend.
na die interaksies tussen grond en klimaat, en die glo nie sodat jy seker maak jou drupsones dus uiters belangrik. Slegs die operdwal moet

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

behoefte/groeiwyse van die spesifieke kultivar. is effektief. Onthou, bemesting kan nooit meer benat word, aangesien die ondergrond steeds Skakel vir Bennie by 082452 7263 of e-pos na
Grondtemperatuur moet veral meer aandag kry. effektief as jou besproeiing wees nie. Sorg dus versadig is met winterwater. Oorbesproeiing sal
dat jou skedulerig optimaal is, indien nie, mors voedigstowwe uitloog en grondtemperature
Wanneer mens n ordentlike bemesting en jy kos, water en geld. weer verlaag.
besproeiingsprogram vir jou boord saamstel, is die
beplanningtyd die belangrikste investering wat jy kan Grondtemperatuur het n impak op wortelgroei n Deklaag vol organiese materiaal is n
maak, s Bennie. en mikrobe-aktiwiteit. Wortelgroei neem toe soos belangrike komponent van grondgesondheid.

66 67
wanneer die ordentlik gedoen moet dienooreenkomstig ontwerp s ons 50 bome per pakkie en hou
word, altyd die moeite werd. word. Leiergroei moet genoeg daarby.
ondersteuning kry sodat blare Maak jou gate groot genoeg en
Stutstelsels/nette en vrugte voldoende lig kan kry, diep genoeg, maar verseker dat
Die volgende deel van beplanning het en sodat boomhoogte so vinnig jou entlas bo die grond is. En plant
te make met hoe jy jou jong boompies moontlik bereik word. Maak tog asseblief met n waterkar
Vestiging van n nuwe boord gaan oplei en ondersteun. Op sekere ook seker dat jou ankers stewig maak seker jou nuwe boompies
Hannes Laubscher (Dutoit Agri) goed kan mens geld spaar, maar is. Moenie kortpaaie vat nie; n kry die regte hoeveelheid water.
stutstelses en nette, is nie deel hiervan opleistelsel moet staan vir die Plant vroeg genoeg sodat jy die
So jy wil n nuwe steenvrugteboord nie, s Laubscher. leeftyd van die boord. Sorg dat voordeel van winterren kan h.
Van links na regs: Hannes Laubscher, Charl Stander, Bennie Diedericks en
vestig? Hannes Laubscher verduidelik jou paal diep genoeg in die grond
Dr Piet Stassen.
hoe gemaak en watter huiswerk jy geplant word en dat hy nie bo die Moet jy iets in die plantgat
moet doen. Neem in ag dat hierdie strukture grond op die bankie staan nie. gooi? Dis n vraag wat
om die 80-20- beginsel toe te pas - 80% tyd aan beplanning en 20% aan
vir minstens 25 jaar moet staan en Hannes baie hoor.
uitvoering s Hannes. So doen jou huiswerk goed.
Koste van nuwe goedkoop koop is duur koop. Watter Boomkwaliteit Wees versigtig, s hy. Indien jy lae
aanplantings strukture jy uiteindelik gaan gebruik Wat onderstamme betref glo risiko benadering volg - gooi eerder
Grondkartering, voorbereiding
Wanneer n produsent besluit om hang van jou boordomgewing se Hannes moet jy hou by wat werk. niks in die gat nie, gooi eerder bo
Een van die eerste stappe is om te weet wat in jou grond aangaan. Hier
n nuwe boord te vestig, staar spesifieke mikroklimaat af. Volgens Mens kan nie n onderstam op. Produsente maak dikwels groot
baat dit om grondkundiges in te kry om volledige grondopnames en
mens jouself maklik vas teen Laubscher raak natuurlike hulpbronne, vervang nie. As hy daar is, is hy foute met toevoegings in plantgate
analises te doen, s Hannes. Sorg dat jy n 50 m x 50 m gedetailleerde
al die kostes en sien sommige soos houtpale, al hoe duurder en word daar. As jy n fout gemaak het en gooi sommer enigiets van
grondkaart saamstel, met volledige blokuitleg en n besproeiingskaart.
kernaspekte van boordbeplanning sementpale, al hoe gewilder. Veral in gaan jy die boord moet uithaal en hoendermis tot kompos in die gat.
Maak seker van alle fisiese en chemiese beperkings in jou grond.
oor die hoof. Die koste van n Europa het hulle baie sukses hiermee. oorplant. En dit is groot skade. Dit kan die wortels brand en ernstig
nuwe boord, sonder nette is in Koop die beste bome wat jy kan beskadig. Mens moet 100% seker
die omtrek van R300,000 kry want kwaliteit verseker sukses. wees dat jy nie die wortels gaan
Waar gaan jy jou nuwe boord vestig? Is dit op n skoon stuk nuwe grond
R350,000/ ha. Wat nette betref moet mens die Hier haal Laubscher Greg Reighard seer maak nie.
of een wat voorheen iets gedra het. Indien die stuk grond voorheen beplant
voordeel van nette opweeg van die Universiteit van South
was gaan dit n massiewe verskil aan jou beplanning maak. Maak seker
Ho digtheidsaanplanting is teenoor die koste. Mens kyk na n Carolina aan: Good trees alone Laastens s Hannes is dit baie
wat die gewasse of plante was wat voorheen op die stuk grond gestaan het.
natuurlik die nuwe gonswoord, koste van ongeveer R180,000 cannot assure a good orchard, but goed om te sorg vir n deklaag om
wanneer mens van nuwe 200 000/ ha. As jou boord bad trees almost always assure a jong bome. Met n deklaag word
Wanneer daar aanhoudend op dieselfde stuk grond verbou word, vind n
boorde praat, s Hannes, gereeld blootgestel word aan hale bad orchard. wisselinge in grondtemperatuur,
opbou van parasitiese nematodes en ander grondsiektes plaas. Die enigste
maar voor mens nog daar kom of ysren is dit n moet, hoewel grondvog en onkruid beheer.
uitweg om jou grond weer skoon te kry, is deur te berook. Uiteindelik
moet mens fyn aandag gee daar ook ander voordele van nette Bly in kommunikasie met jou En doen tog moeite en installeer
bespaar beroking produksietyd en verseker optimale wortelgroei.
aan die beplanningsfase van is. Volgens Hannes kan jy binne kweker, s Laubscher. Weet grondvogmeters aangesien
boordontwikkeling. Dit is by verre 4/5 jaar jou uitgawe verhaal. wanneer jou bome reg gaan mens geneig is om jongbome te
Volgens Hannes gee produsente hopeloos te min aandag aan grondkwaliteit
die belangrikste stadium van n wees. Neem lae kouebehoeftes in oorbesproei. Hou fyn boek van jou
wat allerlei herplantings probleme veroorsaak.
boord en ons is geneig om nie Volgens Hannes raak opleistelsels ag. Doen alles om herplantskok jongboomvoedingsprogram - om
genoeg aandag hieraan te skenk al hoe belangriker veral as mens te beperk. Wees voorbereid met maksimum groei in eerste blad

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

Indien jy gaan berook kry kundiges in om te help. Besluit waarmee en met
nie. Die gevaar veral met die nuwe met ho digtheids aanplantings genoeg RAS84 en bestel dit betyds; te kry.
watter middel jy gaan berook. Maak seker die beroking is effektief en jy
ho digtheid steenvrugteboorde is soos met van die nuwe pruim n paar seisoene gelede was alles
maak alles dood wat jy moet. Vir effektiewe beroking moet mens verskeie
dat mens groot geld insteek en jy kultivars begin boer. Nuwe opgekoop en kon ouens dit nie
eienskappe van grond in ag neem: grondvogstatus, grondtemperatuur,
wil so vinnig moontlik opbrengs generasie pruime dra tot 50/60 in die hande kry nie. Maak seker
grondtekstuur (hoeveel kluite is daar), diepte, wydte, die plastiek waarmee
op jou belegging h. Dis belangrik ton per hektaar so jou opleistelsel hoe mens dit toedien. Gewoonlik
jy die berookte grond mee moet toemaak. Volgens Hannes is beroking,

68 69






Research has shown that some fungicide applications

William Machardy Department of Biological Sciences, can be omitted with a low probability of scab buildup
The crop protection aspects dealt University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA in an orchard identified as low-risk for scab buildup
with in the Tech book includes articles based on an assessment of foliar scab the previous
Saskia Von Dietz & Cheryl Lennox Department of Plant autumn (MacHardy, 2000). Ascospores are the main
on nematodes and apple scab. Both
Pathology, Stellenbosch University & Fruit and Postharvest or sole inoculum causing primary infections when
subjects have and are receiving Research Programme, Department of Plant Pathology, tree growth resumes in early spring, and the autumn
attention with respect to industry Stellenbosch University, Private Bag XI, Matieland 7602, assessment forecasts the next seasons potential
South Africa ascospore dose (PAD), i.e., ascospores per meter
funded research.
square orchard floor (Gadoury and MacHardy, 1986).
The PAD forecasted for nine New Hampshire orchards
In 1980, Dr. Wolfe Schwabe, employed by the Fruit in 1983 calculated from an assessment of foliar scab
and Fruit Technology Research Institute, proposed a the previous autumn ranged from 25 to over one
The development of the entomopathogenic nematode
warning service for apple scab (Table 1) based on his million (Table 2). Recent investigations indicate that a
(EPN) research has an interesting history. Dr Antoinette
extensive research on apple scab (Schwabe, 1980). similar wide range of PAD occurs in South Africa (Von
Malan initiated the research in 2007 by suggesting that
If put into practice, the warning service programme Diest, Meitz-Hopkins, and Lennox, 2013; Saskia von
a survey of South African EPNs be carried out as very
would have been one of the most advanced Diest, personal communication).
little was known about local EPN species. The results
worldwide. Dr. Schwabe also stressed that research
of the survey indicated that there were a number of Matthew Addison
on apple scab should be continued indefinitely, but a The wide range of PAD forecasts raised the question
indigenous EPNs in a variety of habitats. The decision active research field. Thanks to Dr Wolf Schwabe, one warning service was not formed, and after 1980 only does an orchard with a very low PAD, less than 500,
was taken to develop local EPN species for use as of the pioneers of applied apple scab research, the one article on apple scab research conducted in South for example, require the traditional fungicide schedule
biological control agents. The nematodes attack insects local industry has been able to integrate apple scab Africa has been published in a refereed scientific that protects the trees during all infection periods
by entering the insect, releasing a bacteria in the insect management. journal. Dr. Schwabe expected that his programme throughout the growing season. Research to test this
that effectively digests it. The nematodes then reproduce
would (a) reduce the total number of fungicide idea resulted in a sequential sampling chart (Fig.
within the now moribund insect and eventually thousands
applications, (b) increase the efficiency of fungicide 1), based on an autumn assessment of foliar scab,
of juvenile nematodes emerge from the insect. The Recently, industry funding allowed for research on the use by timing fungicide applications to the occurrence that identifies orchards in which fungicide can be
juveniles then set about finding insects to infest. The non-chemical control of apple scab and related issues. The work of infection periods and (c) eliminate heavy losses to reduced with low-risk of scab buildup. This procedure,
industry funded research has allowed for the evaluation involved evaluation of various methods of reducing apple scab scab that occur sporadically (Schwabe, 1980), but combined with a model to estimate the cumulative
of local EPN species against a number of orchard pests. inoculum pressure in orchards. without a warning service and continued research, percentage of matured ascospores throughout the
The nematodes have been found to be effective against
several important components of the proposed primary scab season (Gadoury and MacHardy,
pests such as mealybug, codling moth and false codling
warning service were not put into practice (Table 1). 1982), increases fungicide efficiency by tailoring
moth. Ongoing research includes work on EPNs as These methods included leaf removal and the treatment each orchards fungicide programme to the orchards
biological control agents of fruit flies and banded of leaves in orchards. The results of this study were Most significantly missing in current South African scab level of scab-risk. This programme is comparable
fruit weevil. very encouraging in that the disease pressure in treated management programmes is component 2 (determine to what may have been achieved if research on
orchards was significantly reduced by non-chemical an infection potential value (based on scab incidence) Components 2 and 3 in Dr. Schwabes proposed
Developing efficient culture methods and ways of

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

means. The development of more integrated and at the end of the growing season) and component 3 warning system had been pursued.
formulating the cultured nematodes is also receiving sustainable management methods for apple scab (combine the infection potential value and ascospore
attention and has attracted significant external funding. are seen as a priority. The management of fungicide discharge pattern to indicate the infection pressure that Thus, without further research, applying fungicide
The research programme has been very productive resistance is also vital in the effective management of will be the basis for recommending appropriate control has remained the sole tactic for controlling scab in
with numerous scientific articles being published and a this disease. The articles included in the book report measures during the ascospore discharge season). most orchards, fungicide efficiency has not increased
number of post-graduate students being involved. the above research and give an idea of how we can These two components are noteworthy because they significantly (although the system for collecting weather
The integrated control of apple scab in orchards is an integrate apple scab management further. have the potential to increase fungicide efficiency, as data and notifying clients of infection conditions has
explained below. improved in consultant programmes), and heavy losses

71 72
Table 1. Eight components of a warning Grower pest management decisions are educated Figure 2. Hypothetical pathway to achieve pest management
Eight components of a Scab warning South Africa Scab Managementscab service to manage apple scab proposed guesses based on experience. For example, scheduling goals set by the apple industry.
service proposed by Dr. Schwabe Program, 20122 by Dr. Schwabe in 1980 and their fungicide applications to insure that apple leaves
in 19801 inclusion in South African scab and fruit are always protected with fungicide during Apple Industry Committee1 sets goal:
management programmes in 2012. all infection periods is an educated guess based on Develop procedure to forecast ascospore dose
Laboratory tests in different apple Performed in some areas by Bekker experiences in which the percent scabbed fruit was
growing areas to determine Wessels and Dr Wolf Schwabe. Table 2. Forecasts of potential ascospore unacceptable when only one primary infection period
ascospore discharge pattern in dose in nine New Hampshire orchards Research projects selected and funded
had been left unprotected. Growers assume that the
different apple growing areas. in 1982-1983 (Gadoury and percent scabbed fruit will always be too high if a
MacHardy, 1986) fungicide spray is missed, especially if it occurs during
In each orchard, determine an Not included. Warning Service
infection potential value (based Orchard PAD the primary infection period. However, as explained Apple IPM Specialist (plant pathologist)
on scab incidence) at end of above, research has shown that fungicide can be oversees programme to achieve the goal
III-B 25
growing season. XII 132 reduced with a low probability of scab buildup in an
V 212 orchard identified as low-risk for scab buildup. Thus,
In each orchard, combine infection Not included. another way to think of IPM is that IPM reduces the University Honors, IPM Specialist
III-A 412 Graduate and applied research
potential value and ascospore
VIII 533 risk factor in making decisions by replacing educated Postdoctoral research
discharge pattern to indicate the
VII 3,442 guesses with predicted probability based on research.
infection pressure that will be the
basis for recommending appropriate IV-B 37,269
control measures during ascospore IV-A 44,544 Table 3 lists the eight IPM principles an EU Procedure Development
discharge season. VI 1,505,027 Commission identified as guidelines for developing an
IPM programme and gives an example of how each
due to scab still occur sporadically. Consultants incorporate Procedure added
Gather weather information Growers who subscribe to Hortec principal was incorporated into the New Hampshire
(preferably electronically) daily to can access a daily or weekly What does this tell us? It tells us new procedure into to warning service
scab management programme. Features of IPM their scab management scab management
determine infection periods and fusi infection indices based on that without continued research and
that guided the development of scab management programmes programme
forward to a central point to make prevailing weather conditions and a warning service or some other
programmes in New England (USA), and benefits of
available to growers. when leaf and fruit tissue infrastructure, the improvements in
IPM programmes developed overseas are listed in
are most susceptible. scab management Dr. Schwabe
Tables 4 and 5, respectively. Warning Service Activities2
envisioned are unlikely to occur.
Specific protocol for protective and Customized fungicide spray How can the South Africa scab
curative programmes based on programmes are prepared
management programme achieve the
Infrastructures for transferring research
infection potential (high or low). by consultants, but fungicide Clients adopt new Producers (not clients of
goals envisioned by Dr. Schwabe? into practice procedure consultants) adopt new
applications are not based on the Growers are often understandably skeptical when procedure
infection potential (see no. 2 and 3). The answer may be found in scab a change in their scab management programme is
management programmes
Regular orchard inspections during developed overseas since the early recommended, especially if they are satisfied with their 1 Committee composed of a representative of the Warning
Some growers have trained
entire growing season. 1980s through an integrated pest present programme. Thus, the apple industry may set Service, SU Plant Pathology Department, FruitGro Science,
monitors who weekly inspect
fruit and leaves according to an management (IPM) approach. producers, consultants and the apple industry charged with
assessment system. Fig 1. Sequential sampling graph to identify an setting pest management goals, setting research priorities
orchards level of scab-risk. and securing funds.
Growers must be equipped to treat
IPM approach to scab
Growers who do not have enough 2 Workshops, demonstrations, publications (Apple IPM Guide,
their orchards within a relatively tractors to treat their orchards within management
100 pest fact sheet), farm visits, electronic messaging.
short period (within two days two days sometimes only cover IPM originated with entomologists
if possible) for best efficiency in the 1950s, but it was not until 90 High-Risk: Full Fungicide Schedule
orchards they feel have the highest goals to improve scab management, and research
based on the warning service risk of scab buildup. the early 1980s that apple scab 80 may achieve these goals, but without an infrastructure,
announcements. research focused on developing scab 70 i.e., an organization or individuals with responsibilities
management programmes based on 60 for helping growers put a new technique or strategy
Reliable general weather forecasting There are enough weather stations 50
IPM principles. IPM differs from the 50 into practice, a new technique or strategy may not be
service for apple growing areas in and around the growing regions,

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

traditional approach to controlling adopted by producers, even if it has the potential to
to make the warning service more but they could be used more 40
effective. scab in that its goal is to manage increase fungicide efficiency, reduce the number of
efficiently. 30
the pathogen at acceptable levels plin
g fungicide applications, or lower scab management
through multiple tactics in a way that
20 Sam
ntinue costs. Figure 2 diagrams a hypothetical pathway
reinforces their efficacy rather than 10 Co Low-Risk: Reduce Fungicide for South Africa that interrelates infrastructure and
attempting to eliminate (eradicate) 0 research in a way that has successfully increased
10 20 30 40 50 60
scab with repeated applications of acceptance of a new technique or strategy in
Trees examined (10 shoots per tree)
fungicide. programmes overseas.

73 74
Table 3. The eight general principles for
programmes. Research presented reduce the ascospore dose that
IPM principles Application in New Hampshire IPM identified by an EU commission
at International meetings and causes primary infections by 85% Figure 3. The percent
scab management programme to develop guidance for establishing
conferences such as the European (Figure 3) (Sutton et al., 2000). This reduction in ascospores from
IPM principles and examples of how leaves shredded in autumn,
Workshop on Pome Fruit Diseases, will reduce the amount of primary
Measures for Chemical and mechanical sanitation practices each principle is included in an apple spring or autumn and spring
prevention and/or aimed specifically at reducing the overwintering sponsored by the International scab a similar percentage, but it will
scab programme developed in New in a three-year study in
suppression of harmful population of the fungal pathogen causing Organization for Biological Control not, by itself, result in less fungicide
Hampshire (USA). New Hampshire.
organisms apple scab. (IOBC), held every three years being recommended to control scab.
and entomologists at state has introduced new practices and For that to occur, the goal must be
Tools for monitoring. Electronic weather station collects weather data 100
universities with extension provided new knowledge and broadened to integrate the new
needed to compute infection periods. responsibilities and applied ideas that have led to collaborative sanitation practice with a strategy
research programmes that include activities and, ultimately, to improved to reduce fungicide (MacHardy, 75
Threshold values as An autumn scab assessment action threshold
technicians to assist them with scab management programmes. In 1996). This will require greater
basis for decision- identifies an orchards level of scab-risk, a
orchard and laboratory research 2014, this IOBC workshop will be involvement of university research 50
making. warning threshold alerts the producer in autumn
to prepare for the fungicide strategy (high- studies. Success of the Extension held in South Africa. and, ultimately, a more complex
risk/low-risk) identified by the autumn scab programmes in advancing apple infrastructure along the lines of the 25
assessment, and a summer action threshold scab management programmes South Africa infrastructure Extension Service discussed above.
provides guidelines for ending fungicide is attributed in large part to South Africas geographical Developing an action threshold
applications after the primary scab season has regional meetings such as the based on an assessment of scab-risk
isolation from other important %
ended (in development). Autumn Spring Autumn
annual New England Apple Pest apple producing countries and adapting practices developed
& Spring
Management Conference and to severely restricts the collaborations overseas to accommodate changes
Non-chemical methods Mechanical sanitation: shredding the leaf litter
collaborative research projects. that have been so successful in climate in South Africa are
preferred. to reduce the overwintering population of the
The 255-page New England Tree overseas. What this means is examples of goals that will require a are particularly relevant to the
Fruit Guide, updated each year, that the development of complex complex infrastructure. development of an apple IPM
Target-specificity and Postharvest application of urea and in-season is a product of the 74 previous infrastructures and collaborative programme: growers need
minimization of side fungicide applications target the pathogen. annual conferences and a Cornell activities must occur among the Summary to (1) focus on innovativeness
effects University Cooperative Extension apple regions in South Africa. This The South Africa scab management and productivity (2) introduce
publication. Features of IPM that is seen as further justification for programme has not kept pace technology that will result in a
Reduction of use Autumn and summer action thresholds eliminate guided the development of the a warning service charged with with programmes overseas that reduction in unit costs, and (3)
(fungicide) to unnecessary fungicide targeted specifically for scab management programme overseeing the development of have evolved since 1980 through improve quality control. Technology
necessary levels. scab.
in New Hampshire (USA) are an IPM-based scab management an IPM approach. The success of that increases the efficiency of pest
presented in Table 3. A current programme. these programmes is attributed management practices has the
Application of anti- Only protectants and other fungicides not
resistant strategies associated with development of resistance are regional research project is titled, to continued research to meet potential to reduce fruit production
recommended. Towards Sustainable Disease The complexity of a research-to- short- and long-term goals and an costs and improve fruit quality, i.e.,
Management in Northeastern practice infrastructure determines advisory or Extension service to the percentage of high quality fruit
Records, monitoring, All chemical application data and cultural Apples Using Risk Forecasts and the goals set by the apple industry: help growers incorporate the new free of pest damage.
documentation and practices needed to evaluate a scab Cultural Controls. features into their programmes.
the more limited the infrastructure,
check of success. management programme are recorded.
the more limited the goals and Benefits seen in these programmess Procedures, strategies, models, and
Example 2: Western potential changes in the scab are listed in Table 4. Not having other features of the IPM-based
European countries management programme. If, for a research programme or overseas programmes have been
Successful overseas Each country has an infrastructure example, a goal is to develop warning service in South Africa published in scientific journals
infrastructures for transferring research into a sanitation procedure such as helps explain why South Africas and bulletins, so one approach to
There are many examples of a country, region or state with an practice, but several new mulching the leaf litter to reduce programme has remained relatively move the SA programme forward
infrastructure that has successfully facilitated the acceptance of new techniques and the most advanced the overwintering population of unchanged since the early 1980s. is to identify components of these
procedures, but major advances in scab management have often come scab management programmes can the apple scab pathogen, the Several conclusions of a subsector programmes that will be most
be credited to an informal group

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

about through collaborative efforts among countries, regions, or states, as procedure can be developed study on deciduous fruit in beneficial to SA growers and the
explained in the following two examples. comprised of private consultants, in a graduate research project, South Africa commissioned by apple industry, test and adapt them
advisory personnel and researchers and an orchard demonstration the Department of Agriculture to South Africa climate and orchard
Example 1: New England states in the northeastern USA from several mostly Western and presentation at a producer published in 2007 (Anonymous, characteristics through continued
The six New England states have a mix of Extension Service personnel European countries that meets workshop may be enough to 2007), intended to apply to all research, and lastly help insure the
with responsibilities for transferring research into practice: fruit IPM annually to discuss their apple convince growers to use the relationships within the supply train new techniques and strategies are
specialists, county Extension agricultural agents, and plant pathologists scab research and management procedure. The procedure may in the deciduous fruit subsector, accepted by growers and become

75 76
Benefit of IPM programmes
developed overseas.
Increase fungicide efficiency.
Reduction or elimination of issues
relate to pesticide residue.
Increased cost-effectiveness of
management practices.
Lower risk of severe scab
Less harm to the environment. What is apple scab and how is it controlled?
Reduced health risks to growers Apple scab is a fungal disease on apples which causes dark, velvety
Dr Saskia von Diest, Prof William
and workers. lesions on fruit surfaces, making fruit unmarketable on the fresh
MacHardy and Dr Cheryl Lennox
Less public concern about pest fruit market and reduces the profitability of the harvest. If no control
and pesticide-related practices. measures are taken and if weather conditions are favourable for disease
Increased customer satisfaction. development, the entire harvests quality may be lost to this disease. The
economic impact of this disease is also due to the cost of control measures are effective in reducing scab
References implemented. Apple producers spray 6-18 sprays per season and yet levels in South African apple
Gadoury, D. M. and MacHardy, W. some farmers still lose their exportable harvest to scab. orchards. A commercial-scale pilot
E. 1986. Forecasting ascospore dose study in 2010 tested six different
of Venturia inaequalis in commercial The fungus (Venturia inaequalis) that causes scab survives winter mainly sanitation treatments in reducing
apple orchards. Phytopathology in infected, fallen apple leaves. Pseudothecia (fruiting bodies) form on scab levels in the orchard in the
76:112-118. leaves shortly after leaf drop in the previous season. Ascospores inside following season: leaf removal,
Participants at the IOBC WPRS workshop on pome fruit diseases help in Gadoury, D. M. and MacHardy, W. the pseudothecia ripen in early spring and summer and are released leaf shredding, urea sprays, leaf
Stellenbosch in November. From left to right. Prof Bill MacHardy (Biological Sciences E. 1982. A model to estimate the
between green-tip and full bloom, when leaves have had enough rain or shredding with urea sprays, a
Department, University of New Hampshire), Karen Munhuweyi (Department maturity of ascospores of Venturia
irrigation water. Scab lesions formed by ascospores produce conidia, positive control using a full fungicide
inaequalis. Phytopathology 72:901-
of Food Science, Stellenbosch University), Nokwazi Mbili (ARC Infruitec - or conidiospores, which cause secondary infections during spring and spray schedule and a negative
Nietvoorbij) and Hugh Campbell (HORTGRO Science). summer. Scab is a polycyclic disease, so a small number of spores in the control using no control methods.
MacHardy, W. E. 2000. Action
thresholds for managing apple beginning of the season can cause an epidemic later in the season if no Results from this study revealed
standard practice through the activities of a warning service established scab with fungicides and sanitation. control measures are taken. Therefore, the risk of disease, and the speed that leaf shredding was the most
along the lines of the overseas examples presented above. However, this IOBC/WPRS Bull. 23(7):123-131. with which the disease spreads, is directly dependent on the number effective in reducing scab in the
will not come about quickly or easily or without the support of growers Schwbe, W. F. S. 1980. of ascospores present during the infection period in spring. Sanitation following season.
and private consultants and continual financial support from government Sutton, D. K., MacHardy, W. E., and reduces the number of ascospores present in the orchard during spring.
Lord, W. 2000. Effects of shredding
programmes, nonprofit companies, and charitable foundations in addition In 2011, 2012 and 2013, leaf
or treating apple leaf litter with
to financial commitment from the apple industry. Currently, our apple industry uses only chemical fungicides to control shredding with no fungicide sprays
urea on ascospore dose of Venturia
inaequalis and disease buildup. Plant scab and, usually, fungicide sprays applied in early spring are effective in was tested against a non-sprayed,
Features of IPM that guided development of scab mangaement progrmme Dis. 84:1319-1326. controlling scab. However, if a producer cannot spray on time, or spray non-shredded negative control and
recommended for New England growers. Von Diest, SG, Meitz-Hopkins, J, and coverage in an orchard isnt sufficient, the new leaves are not protected a positive control that followed a
Lennox, CL. 2013.Pseudothecial and against infection. Regular losses have been incurred in various apple- commercial fungicide programme
ascal density constants of Venturia growing regions in the Western Cape over the past few years, despite over four years, and also against
The goal of IPM is to make informed decisions leading to results that
inaequalis for a warm winter intensive fungicide programmes being applied. The rising cost of fungicide a combined treatment of a
meet economic, environmental, and social objectives.
region and a cold winter region in applications, the risk of fungicide resistance development, the effect of commercial fungicide programme
Integration applies to combining multiple tactics in a way that the Western Cape. Abstract. 48th
reinforces their efficacy. climate change on rain patterns during the season and the increasing with leaf shredding over three
Congress of the Southern African
It involves pest identification, awareness of pest biology, and accurate demand for lower or no residues on fruit in markets prompted the need years. Fungicide sprays in the
Society for Plant Pathology, Bela-
for alternative management strategies for scab. In 2010, Dr Saskia von negative control and leaf-shredding

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

knowledge of pest population levels, and brings them together into an Bela, South Africa 20-24 January
overall Management plan. 2013. Diest started researching integrated scab management strategies for her treatments were withheld until
It anticipates the development of pest populations, and selects a combination Masters project at Stellenbosch University, which was upgraded to a PhD fruit-set in each year. Two treatment
of biological, cultural and chemical strategies to prevent pest populations project in 2012. replicates were applied in a
from reaching damaging levels. randomized block design in each of
Adapted from Scab Management in Apple Pear, Research to Practice Manual, Research into an integrated management strategy two orchards. Scab incidence and
June 2001, Agriculture Victoria Services, Australia, and the 2011 New England Pest for scab severity on fruit and leaves were
One objective of this study was to evaluate which sanitation strategies assessed weekly from green-tip until
Management Guide.

77 78
fruit-set in the following spring.
Data pooled over the three years showed that Fig 1. Three years of scab incidence data on KEER APPELSKURF
fruit and leaves in treatments: Positive Control
reductions in fruit scab incidence, fruit scab severity and
(PC, conventional fungicide spray schedule
leaf scab severity (51, 55, and 39%, respectively, P
applied throughout the season), Leaf-shredding
< 0.05) and leaf scab incidence (33%, P < 0.1) were in autumn with a fungicide spray schedule
significantly lower in the leaf shredding than in the applied (LS+PC), Leaf-shredding alone (LS) and
negative control (Fig 1). This is the first study to evaluate a Negative Control (No shredding or funcigide
the effect of leaf shredding in South African orchards, sprays. Means with the same letter are not
and results indicate that this treatment is highly effective. significantly different (P < 0.05).

Using leaf-shredding in South African 40 Suid-Afrikaanse appelprodusente ly

orchards 35 jaarliks groot finansile- en oesverliese
Leaf shredding is significantly effective as a post-
harvest sanitation treatment in lowering fruit and leaf
30 weens appelskurf wat as een van die
scab. However, the efficacy of this treatment varies 25 mees vernietigende vrugtesiektes in die
and relies on many factors. wreld beskou word.

Timing of leaf shredding is very important, because 15

pseudothecia form within a month after leaf-drop, 10

so the longer the amount of time between leaf-drop Julia Meitz-Hopkins PhD Department of Plant Pathology,
5 SU
and leaf shredding, the greater the opportunity
for pseudothecial formation on fallen leaves. Leaf 0
shredding can only prevent pseudothecia from % PC LS+PC LS NC
forming; it cannot destroy them because they are too Daar is egter hoop vir appelboere danksy n studie Sy voeg by dat boordsanitasie (bv. blaarverwydering
small. Delayed leaf-drop, especially in warm winter Fruit Leaf deur navorsers van dr Cheryl Lennox se Vrug- en Na- of -versnippering) ook gedurende herfs help om
regions (e.g. Elgin), means that leaves fall for up oespatologiegroep in die Departement Plantpatologie die aantal swamspore op blare wat afgeval het te
to two months. Results from this study suggest that aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch (US). verminder. Dit is hierdie swamspore wat gedurende
shredding more than once over this leaf-drop period number of spores present in the orchard was still die lente in die lug versprei en appelskurf veroorsaak,
will increase efficacy of leaf shredding. There is high, despite application of a rigorous spray schedule Die resultate van hul studie oor appelskurf is onlangs in s Meitz-Hopkins.
also a limited number of dry periods in autumn and in spring. die European Journal of Plant Pathology gepubliseer.
winter long enough for leaves to dry and be shredded Die beheer van appelskurf deur sodanige
properly, so farmers need to be willing and able to Fungicides are effective in preventing or stopping n Lid van die navorsingsgroep, doktorale student bykomende kulturele praktyke kan n doeltreffende
shred leaves when its dry, within a month after leaves infections, but a small percentage of ascospores that Saskia von Diest, het probeer vasstel wat die beste behandelingsopsie wees in Suid-Afrika waar
have fallen. land on a susceptible leaf or fruit will survive and can manier is om appelskurf te beheer. Di siekte word swamdoders meestal regdeur die appelseisoen gebruik
infect. This percentage may be quite large, depending deur n swam (algemeen bekend as Fusi) veroorsaak word. Indien swamdoders te dikwels gebruik word,
Ridges, rocky soils and pruning material on orchard on how many were produced in the scabbed, fallen en manifesteer as grys-bruin of donker skurf op kan die swam wat appelskurf veroorsaak
floors, and poorly managed weeds and tall grass in leaves. Sanitation reduces the number of ascospores appelblare en appels. weerstandig word.
the tractor drive row, can mean that certain machines produced in the leaf litter and, as a result, reduces
may not be able to shred all the apple leaves properly. the percentage of scabbed fruit. There are limitations Nog n lid van die groep, dr Julia Meitz-Hopkins, het Meitz-Hopkins s dit is belangrik om appelskurf te
Larger pieces of shredded leaves degrade more slowly to leaf shredding, but not all the leaf litter need n molekulre metode ontwikkel om te bepaal hoeveel voorkom omdat n totale appel-oes verlore kan wees
and offer more space on which pseudothecia can necessarily be shredded. If, for example, only 75% swamspore op n gegewe tydstip in appelboorde veral as duur spuitprogramme nie werk nie.
form. Developing shredding machines better suited for of leaves were shredded in autumn, then 50% fewer aanwesig is. Op die manier wou sy vasstel tot watter
South Africa orchards would increase the efficacy of

Hortgro Science Tech Book 2015

ascospores are produced. That translates to a 50% mate boordsanitasie (die verwydering van blare Sy wys ook daarop dat infeksie die opbrengs, kwaliteit
leaf shredding. reduction in the percentage of ascospore infections wat afgeval het en op die boordvloer l) tot die en die opbergbaarheid van appels sowel as die
that can occur in an orchard that received a full vermindering van swamspore bydra. groeikrag van appelbome nadelig benvloed.
Is leaf shredding worth doing? fungicide program, which would reduce scabbed fruit
There have been reports of severe scab damage at by 50% too. Thus, 2% unmarketable, scabbed fruit Ons het gevind die verwydering van blare verminder Meitz-Hopkins s ten einde die doeltreffendheid
harvest in some regions in the last few years, after without sanitation would be 1% with sanitation. Is the die aantal spore wat tot appelskurf gedurende die van blaarverwydering te bepaal het hulle groot
numerous rain events after withholding periods for value of 1% of your crop greater than the low cost of lente lei en verlaag ook die kanse op primre infeksie spoorstrikke in die middel van elke sanitasie-area van
fungicide applications started. This means that the leaf shredding? op blare, s Meitz-Hopkins. n appelboord (een waar blare verwyder is en een

79 80
wamspore bydra. gedurende die lente swamspore op die wyse ook die implementering van boordsanitasie
die verwydering van versamel. aan om appelskurf se impak te verlaag.
al spore
durende versprei het.Nota:
Dit hetDie
metnavorsing is finan-
die voorspelde risiko van
ook die infeksie ooreengestem, voegdeur
siel ondersteun Meitz-Hopkins
HORT- by.
ksie op GRO Science, die Nasionale Na-
s. Sy s hulle het weerdata verkry
vorsingstigting vanaf
(THRIP) en die
die iLeaf-
ordsani- weerstasie, n gentegreerde weerdata interpretasie-
Claude Leon-stigting.
sagteware vir die landbou- en besproeiingsindustrie.
ering of
u-rende Verwysing: Meitz-Hopkins, JC;
Meitz-Hopkins meen hul metode bevestig die gebruik
l swam- Von Diest, SG; Koopman, TA; Bah-
van die huidige Suid-Afrikaanse
ramisharif, A; Lennox, CL appelskurf-infeksie-
(2014). A Refer t
al het te risiko modelmethod
en beveel ook die implementering van
to monitor airborne Venturia
e swam- boordsanitasie aan ascospores
inaequalis om appelskurf se impak te verlaag.
using volumetric
ie lente Nota: Die navorsing is finansiel
spore traps and quantitativeondersteun
PCR, Eu- deur
pelskurf HORTGRO ropean
Science, dieofNasionale
Journal Navorsingstigting
Plant Pathology 149
pkins. (THRIP)en die Claude Leon-stigting.
(3): 527-541. Metaso
Reg. No
waar blare op die grond gelaat is) geplaas en vir vyf Registe
weke gedurende die lente swamspore op die wyse Tel: 031
Meitz-Hopkins, JC; Von Diest, SG; Koopman, TA;
Bahramisharif, A; Lennox, CL (2014). A method to
Sy voeg by dat hulle n kwantitatiewe metode
monitor airborne Venturia inaequalis ascospores using
gebruik het om die aantal spore inn monster
volumetric spore traps and quantitative PCR, European
wat daagliks geneem is te bepaal.
Journal of Plant Pathology 149 (3): 527-541.
Ons het ook die resultate van die aantal spore wat op
sekere tye versamel is vergelyk met voorspelde risikos Kontakbesonderhede:
vir appelskurf-infeksie wat met behulp van weerdata Julia Meitz-Hopkins, PhD
verkry is. Twee verskillende modelle uit onderskeidelik Department of Plant Pathology
Suid-Afrika en die Verenigde State van Amerika is Stellenbosch University
hiervoor gebruik. Matieland X1, Stellenbosch 7602
Tel. 021 8084121; 0826665040;
Tydens die proeftydperk het ons spore gevind wat Fax. 0218085649
aan die begin van die blomtyperk in die boord Email:


Please contact us if you have comments or questions Physical Address:

about research management in the SA deciduous
fruit industry. Off ice 4, Block 6 Wintergrain Building
Welgevallen Experimental Farm, Suidwal Street
Telephone: Stellenbosch, 7600

+27 (0)21 870 2900