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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Performance Study of IC Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and Its Blend

Obtained from Waste Cooking Oil
Vadivel. N1 Hari Kumaar S. K2
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, India
Abstract The demand for alternate energy has increased engine.[5] production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by
which resulted in exploiting waste cooking oil (fried oil). This using acetic acid or water as a washing agents. The addition
fried oil is transesterified to biodiesel. By using microwave of washing agent does not affect the reaction productivity.
assisted conventional process transesterification is done. The This study focuses on the production of biodiesel
presence of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was confirmed from waste cooking oil by microwave assisted[6]
by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) analysis. transesterification reaction. The internal combustion engine
The peaks obtained around 1741cm-1 confirmed the presence was studied for its performance based on the combustion
of ester carbonyl bonds. The properties like fire point, flash characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a
point, density and viscosity were determined for biodiesel diesel engine fueled with a blended mixture of diesel and
and for blends (B10:D90 and B20:D80). The values obtained biodiesel in different ratio. The mixture of biodiesel and
suggested that the quality of the biodiesel was found to diesel was blended in 5% and 10% with No.2 Diesel fuel.
improve when it was blended with diesel. The blends were
used to study the performance and emission characteristics of II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
internal combustion engine. Pure diesel was used as
A. Biodiesel Production:
reference. The engine performance test including parameters
like brake power (BP), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), The waste cooking oil or the fried oil is collected from the
indicated thermal efficiency (ITE), mechanical efficiency nearby shops. The oil was palm oil by nature.Various
ME were determined and were found to increase with methods to produce biodiesel are conventional, microwave
increase in load. Emission characteristics like HC, NOX, CO, assisted and ultrasonic transesterification[7].
CO2 and SOX for pure diesel and for the blends are found. B. Microwave Assisted Transesterification Using Base
Overall, the performance of the IC engine was found to Catalyst:
improve when biodiesel was blended with diesel.
Key words: Microwave Assisted Transesterificatioin, Microwave is an electromagnetic wave with frequencies
Biodiesel, Engine Performance, Emission tests between 0.3 GHz and 300 GHz and is a form of energy that
resides fairly low in the electromagnetic spectrum. During
microwave irradiation, the bonds are neither formed nor
broken but the energy is rapidly transferred to the sample.
The increasing demand for energy and the pollution problems The microwave irradiation can be used as the heat source
caused by the use of fossil fuels has paved way for alternative during transesterification reaction because it accomplishes
fuels and renewable sources of energy. Biofuel is one of the the transesterification reactions in sec or min. In microwave
widely accepted and used fuel which is derived from biomass. assisted biodiesel production unit, 100ml of waste cooking
It is a non-toxic, biodegradable and eco-friendly fuel used in oil, alcohol and catalyst NaOH(1wt% concentration) were
diesel engines. Biodiesel does not contain any Sulphur or mixed of molar ratio 6:1 using suitable stirring device and
aromatic compounds and its combustion results in lower heated by the microwave heat source. The reactants are
emission of carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons and subjected to the microwave irradiation (with an output power
particulates. Feedstock for blended fuel include animal fats, of 800W) for 3mins. After that the products of the
waste cooking oil ,vegetable oils, soya bean, neem oil, transesterification were allowed to settle for phase separation.
jatropha, mustard, sunflower, palm oil, algae, etc. are used for The separation of the biodiesel and glycerin phase takes 30 to
the blended fuel production. The waste cooking oil can be 60 min. The crude biodiesel was subjected to water wash to
used as a effective source of biodiesel. The reuse of fried oil remove impurities and dried to remove the moisture content.
has hazardous health impacts. This fried oil can be collected The reaction time and setting time required for this method is
and transesterified to produce bio diesel[1]. Triglycerides are low and hence the production cost also reduces significantly.
esters of saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acids The fuel properties of The biodiesel produced by this method
with the trihydric alcohol glyceride, which can react with are similar to the biodiesel produced by conventional
alcohol in the presence of a catalyst in a process known as method[8].
transesterification to produce Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
(FAMEs) and glycerol[2]. This biodiesel can blended with
the diesel in various proportions to improve the properties of
the biodiesel and the performance test is carried for that
blends.[3] The types of transesterification are acid catalyzed,
base catalyzed, enzyme catalyzed transesterification [4]. An
experimental verification of combustion characteristics and
engine emissions of a diesel engine fueled with diesel and
treated waste cooking oil blends and given the feasibility of
using treated waste cooking oil biodiesel blend in a diesel

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Performance Study of IC Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and Its Blend Obtained from Waste Cooking Oil
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/141)

C. Test Engine Where,

Cv = 43350 kJ/kg.
The four stroke single cylinder with direct injection system
5) Total Fuel Consumption(kg/hr):
as shown in fig.1 is used as a test engine.
TFC = (Vcc 3600 sp. gravity. Of fuel) / (t1000)
Vcc = 10 ml,
t Time taken for 10 ml of fuel consumption
6) Indicated Power (kW):
IP = Bp + Fp
Where, Fp = from graph.
7) Mechanical Efficiency (%):
mech = (BP) / (IP) 100%


A. Production And Characterization Of Biodiesel:
The waste cooking oil was collected from the near by shops
and it was subjected to microwave assisted conventional
transesterification to produce biodiesel. The presence of
methyl ester in the sample was confirmed by fourier
Fig. 1: Line diagram of experimental setup with Eddy transform infrared transesterification (FTIR). The presence of
Current Dynamometer with IC engine FAME layer in biodiesel was confirmed by FTIR analysis.
The intense peak located at 1742cm-1 corresponds to the
D. Smoke Meter carbonyl bond of ester group which confirms the presence of
The smoke meter used for analyzing the exhaust gas is I3sys. FAME in biodiesel. The best hit was found at 1742cm-1 and
It has the capaity to measure five exhaust gas emissions it corresponds to Methyl linoleate (C18:2) which was
namely CO2, CO, HC, SOX and NOX.CO and CO2 was determined from the FLUKA library.
measured in % of sample and HC, NOX were measured in
ppm. B. Property Analysis: The Flash Point And Fire Point Of:
B0 :63 and 72C
E. Estimation Of Viscosity: B10:71 and 82C
The viscosity (at 40C) of oil samples was measured using B20:68 and 76C
Redwood viscometer and expressed in cSt according to
ASTM D6751 (2003)standard. C. Performance Analysis:
The performance test was carried out for different blend ratio.
F. Estimation Of Flash Point And Fire Point: Initially the engine performance was taken for pure diesel
The flash point and fire point of the oil sample was measured which was considered as the base line reference and the
using Pensky Martin's open cup apparatus. different blends were tested in the engine.
G. Formulae Used:
1) Brake Power(Kw): LOAD Vs BTE
B.P = (2NL9.81LD)/ 60,000
Where, 40.0000 DIESEL+
N Speed of engine (rpm), 20%
L Load (kg), 30.0000 waste
LD Dynamometer arm length (92.5 mm). cooking

2) Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bar): 20.0000 oil

BMEP = (Bp 60) / (4 dc2 LS (N/n) biodiesel
No. of. Cylinder 100) 10.0000
dc - Cylinder diameter (0.080m)
0 20 40
Ls Stroke length (0.11 m) LOAD
n no. of. rev / cycle
Fig. 2: Load (kg) Vs Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
3) Specific Fuel Consumption(kg/kw hr):
(kg/kW hr)
BSFC = (360010fuel density)/ (Bp fuel flow 1000)
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) decreases
with increase in load. BSFC of biodiesel upto 20% is in same
Fuel flow Time taken for 10 ml fuel
range equal to diesel. BSFC increases at higher concentration
of biodiesel above 20%. BSFC decreases for WCO blend
Fuel density (Fd).
when compared with other blends.
4) Brake thermal efficiency (%):
BTE = (Bp 60,000 fuel flow) /
(100.06Fd Cv)

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Performance Study of IC Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and Its Blend Obtained from Waste Cooking Oil
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/141)

emission of Waste cooking oil biodiesel blends decreases

LOAD Vs BSFC with increase in biodiesel concentration.
0.4000 20%

0.2000 cooking
0 20 40
Fig. 3: Load (kg) Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency%
Brake thermal efficiency (BT) increases with
increase in load. BT of biodiesel upto 20% is in same range
equal to diesel. BT increases at higher concentration of
biodiesel in the blend due to increased combustion character. Fig. 6: Load (kg) Vs Carbon dioxide content (%)
BT for WCO blend is similar to diesel B0 blend. Carbon dioxide content (CO2) increases with
increase in load for diesel. CO2 emission of Waste cooking
LOAD Vs oil biodiesel blends decreases when compared to that of
diesel. CO2 emission of Waste cooking oil blends decreases
MECHANICAL with increase in biodiesel concentration.


50 20% waste
0 cooking oil
0 10 20 30 biodiesel
10% waste
Fig. 4: Load (kg) Vs Mechanical Efficiency (%) oil
Mechanical Efficiency (Mech) increases with
increase in load. Mech of biodiesel upto 20% is in same
range equal to diesel. Mech decreases at higher
concentration of biodiesel above 20%. Mech is less for
WCO blend when compared to other blends. Fig. 7: Load (kg) Vs Hydrocarbon content (ppm)
For diesel Hydrocarbon content (HC) decreases with
D. Emission characteristics:
increase in load. HC emission of Waste cooking oil blends
The emission test is carried for pure diesel and also for decreases when compared to that of diesel. HC emission of
different blend proportions. The emission values are given in Waste cooking oil biodiesel blends decreases with increase in
ppm. biodiesel concentration.

Fig. 5: Load (kg) Vs Carbon monoxide content (%) Fig. 8: Load (kg) Vs Oxides of Nitrogen content (ppm)
Carbon monoxide content (CO) decreases with Oxides of Nitrogen content (NOX) increases with
increase in load. CO emission of Waste cooking oil biodiesel increase in load. NOX emission of Waste cooking oil
blends decreases when compared to that of diesel. CO biodiesel blends increases heavily when compared to that of
diesel due to high oxygen content in biodiesel. NOX emission

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Performance Study of IC Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and Its Blend Obtained from Waste Cooking Oil
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/141)

of Waste cooking oil blends increases with increase in biodiesel from waste cooking oil, Vol.No:88 Pg.No:
biodiesel concentration. 2130-2134.
[9] Talebian- Kiakallaieh, A, Amin, N.A.S, Zarei, A and
IV. CONCLUSION Jaliliannosratic,H., 2013, Biodiesel Production from
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) has been increased High free fatty acid waste cooking oil by solid acid
for B10 and B20 blends for high load when compared with catalyst, Process system Engineering (PSE Asia),
diesel (B0 Blend). Mechanical Efficiency (MECH) has Vol.No:6, Pg.No:25-27.
been increased for WCO B20 Blend and MECH for B10 [10] Fangrui Maa, Milford A. Hannab, Biodiesel production:
blend is comparatively same when compared with diesel (B0 a review1 F. Ma, M.A. Hanna / Bioresource Technology
Blend). 70 (1999) 1-15
Carbon monoxide content in the emission for B10 [11] A. Abu-Jraia, Jehad A. Yaminb, Alaa H. Al-Muhtasebc,
and B20 blend has been reduced for high load when Muhanned A. Hararah, Combustion characteristics and
compared with diesel (B0 Blend). Carbon dioxide content in engine emissions of a diesel engine fueled with diesel
the emission of B20 blend has been reduced for high load and treated waste cooking oil blends Chemical
when compared with diesel (B0 Blend). Hydrocarbon content Engineering Journal 172 (2011) 129136
in the emission of B20 blend has been reduced by and also [12] Ozar Can, Combustion characteristics, Performance and
for B10 blend when compared with diesel (B0 Blend). Oxides exhaust emission of diesel engine fuelled with waste
of Nitrogen contents in the emission of B20 blend has been cooking oil biodiesel mixture, Energy Conservation and
increased for high load when compared with diesel (B0 Management 87 (2014) 676-686.
Blend). Increase in biodiesel content in diesel shows slighter [13] A.A.Abuhabaya, J.D. Feldhouse and D.R.Brown,
reduction in performance parameters and better emission Evaluation of properties and use of waste vegetable oil,
characteristics except NOX content. Diesel-Waste cooking pure vegetable oil and Standard diesel as used in a
oil biodiesel blend shows better result in Brake specific fuel compression ignition engine, School of computing and
consumption and Brake thermal efficiency alone, other engineering researchers Conference, University of
characteristics are lower when compared to biodiesel blends Huddersfield, Dec 2010.
but little higher than diesel. Biodiesel up to 20% blend with
diesel shows nearly equal performance characteristics and
enhanced emission characteristics compared with diesel. So
B20 blend could be used as a commercial applicant.

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