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HAND OUTS OF SDH BASICS

[1] Introduction:

Telecommunication is a process of transmitting or receiving information over a distance by any electrical or electromagnetic medium. Telecommunication can be possible in 2 ways

  • 1. Analog Communication- signals that vary continuously amplitude and frequency are used in transmission media

  • 2. Digital Communication-signal is an electrical signal, which possesses two distinct states, on/off or positive/negative.

[2] Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH):

Traditional transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on multiplexing signals, which are Plesiochronous (running at almost the same speed). Various parts of the world use different PDH and multiplexing levels Indians followed the European hierarchy levels.

HAND OUTS OF SDH BASICS [1] Introduction: Telecommunication is a process of transmitting or receiving information

2.2 Limitations of PDH:

Figure1

Because of Plesiochronous transmission & bit interleave TDM at higher levels, mainly problem aroused that is

  • a. Problem of channel segregation: For adding/dropping of E1, requires demultiplexing and subsequent full multiplexing of signals.

  • b. Homogeneity of equipment: Equipment from different manufacturers cannot be interconnected

  • c. Limited functionality: don’t have capability to provide service automatically when there is connection failure.

[3] Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH):

Telecommunication Networking formulated by ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union for Telecommunication standards) solved all the problems which PDH faced by following ways

  • 1. SDH follows the Master-Slave clock technique with PLL (Phase Locked Loop) to synchronize the nodes.

  • 2. SDH provides mapping, MUXing (byte interleaved TDM) & framing to mainly carry PDH & Ethernet traffic to form STM frame.

  • 3. Overhead bytes ensure the management of payload & Pointers allow dynamic allocation of payload in STM frame with which justification can be done under specified limit.

  • 4. Automatic Protection Switching provide protection to traffic against the fiber cut & errors with the help of overhead bytes in SDH.

  • 5. Performance Monitoring & Alarms strengthens the SDH by giving sufficient indication using Overheads bytes against errors like equipment, operator & communication.

3.1

STM frame structure:

SDH does not multiplex in predefined steps; one unit is multiplexing all incoming links, adds overhead information and creates a synchronous transport module (STM).

The STM-1 frame is the basic transmission format for SDH. The frame lasts for 125µSec as depicted in Figure. The STM- n frame is arranged in matrix format and STM-1 frame structure is having 9 rows X 270 columns and hence has 2430 bytes within 125µSec, which forms line rate of 155Mbps(2430X64Kbps). Similarly the STM-N frame is formed, will be having 9 rows only but columns will be multiplied, which is nothing but column multiplexing and is as depicted.

3.1 STM frame structure: SDH does not multiplex in predefined steps; one unit is multiplexing all

The STM-n frames are transmitted in left-right and top-bottom manner, i.e. 1 st row is transmitted starting from 1x1 byte and continue upto 1x270 byte, then 2 nd row transmitted in same manner, 3 rd row,4 th row,…….7 th row.

3.1 STM frame structure: SDH does not multiplex in predefined steps; one unit is multiplexing all

At Network Node Interface, node derives timing information from the STM-n frames for network node synchronization so STM-n frame should have sufficient bit timing content (long sequence of 1 or 0 must be avoided). This is done by Frame synchronous scrambler, which generates alternate 1’s & 0’s.

Scrambling is performed on 1 st row of RSOH bytes, at transmitter side and will be de-scrambled at receiver after deriving the timing from it.

  • 3.2 Multiplexing Hierarchy:

The Multiplexing hierarchy caters both European & North American hierarchy

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3.3 Section Overhead bytes (SOH):

SOH information is added to the information payload to create an STM-N. There are two SOH viz RSOH & MSOH.

a. Regenerator section overhead (RSOH):

The Regenerator Section Overhead contains only the information required for the elements located at both ends of a

regenerator section. The section can be between two regenerators or regenerator & ADM etc.

A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
 

A1

A1

A1

A2

A2

A2

J0

   
                 

RSOH

B1

   

E1

   

F1

   

D1

   

D2

   

D3

   
                   
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2
 

B2

B2

B2

K1

   

K2

   
                 

MSOH

D4

   

D5

   

D6

   

D7

   

D8

   

D9

   

D10

   

D11

   

D12

   

S1

       

M1

E2

   

b. Multiplex section overhead (MSOH):

J1 B3 C2 G1 HOPOH F2 H4 F3 K3 N1
J1
B3
C2
G1
HOPOH
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

The MSOH contains the information required between the multiplex section termination equipment at each end of the

Multiplex section (that is, between consecutive network elements excluding the regenerators).

RSOH

Description

A1=F6 H

Indicates the beginning of the STM-N frame; The frame alignment word of an STM-N frame (N=1, 4,

A2=28 H

16, 64) is composed of 3XN A1 bytes followed by 3XN A2 bytes.

J0: RS

RS Trace byte is used to by section receiver to verify its continued connection to the intended

trace

transmitter. J0 byte transmitted as 16-byte code sent in 16 consecutive frames.

B1: BIP-8

This is a parity code (even parity), used to check for transmission errors over a RS. Its value is

calculated over all bits of the n th STM-1 frame and then placed in the B1 byte of (n+1) th STM-1 frame.

E1

 

F1

This byte is used as a local orderwire channel for voice communication in RS. This byte is reserved for user purposes

D1-D3–

RS Data Communication Channel bytes form a 192 Kbps message channel providing a message-based

  • DCC R

channel for Operations, Administration and Maintenance

MSOH

Description

B2: BIP-24

Error monitoring over MS & computed over STM frame excluding RSOH bytes.3XN B2 bytes in STM- N (N=1,4,16,64).

K1 & K2

Automatic Protection Switching (APS channel) K1 & K2 (b1-b5) bytes are allocated for APS signalling for the protection of the multiplex section. K2 (b6-b8) for communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI).

D4 -D12

MS Data Communications Channel bytes form a 576 kbps message channel from a central location for

  • DCC M

OAM information.

S1

 

M1

Bits 5 to 8 of byte S1 are allocated for synchronization status messages. The M1 byte is used for a MS layer remote error indication (MS-REI). Bits 2 to 8 of the M1 byte are

E2

used to carry the error count of the interleaved bit blocks that the MS BIP-24xN has detected. Local orderwire channel for voice communication in MS, E2 is sent in 4 consecutive frames to initiate the communication which includes segment no.(00-99) & orderwire no.(000-249).

3.4 Virtual Container Path-Overhead (POH):

Virtual container POH provides for integrity of communication between the point of assembly of a virtual container and its point of disassembly. Two categories of virtual container POH have been identified:

a. Higher order virtual container POH (VC-4/VC-3 POH):

VC-3 POH is added to either an assembly of TUG-2s or a C-3 to form a VC-3. VC-4 POH is added to either an assembly

of TUG-3s or a C-4 to form a VC-4. VC-3/VC-4 POH bytes are also termed as Higher Order POH (HOPOH) as HOPOH is added to the higher order VC’s only.

b. Lower order virtual container POH (VC-2/VC-1 POH):

The bytes V5, J2, N2 and K4 are allocated to the VC-2, VC-12 and VC-11 POH. The V5 byte is the

first byte of the multiframe and its position is indicated by the TU-2, TU-12 or TU-11 pointer.

HOPOH

Description

J1

Path access point identifier sends trace message either as 16byte or 64byte in consecutive frames.

B3: BIP-8

 

C2: Signal

B3 bytes checks the transmission error over HP. One byte is allocated to indicate the composition or the maintenance status of the VC-4Xc/VC-4/VC-3

label

like 00 (H) =Unequipped, 02 (H) =TUG structure--- FF (H) = No valid incoming signal(VC-AIS).

G1: Path

G1 byte is used to convey the path terminating status and performance back to the originating PTE.

status byte

4bits used as Path –REI that has 0-8 valid BIP violations; 1bit for HP-RDI, which acknowledgement for the AU-AIS.

F2 & F3

These bytes are allocated for user communication purposes between path elements and are payload

H4: Position

dependent. H4 byte provides a multi frame and sequence indicator for VC-3/4 generalized position indicator for

& Sequence

payloads. In the latter case, the content is payload specific (e.g., H4 can be used as a multiframe

Indicator

indicator for VC-2/1 payload). H4 byte can be 00,01,02 or 03 for VC-12 multiframe.

K3

APS signalling is provided in K3 bits 1-4, allocated for protection at the VC-4/3 path levels. K3 bits 5-8 are allocated for future use.

N1:

N1 byte is allocated to provide a Higher-Order Tandem Connection Monitoring (HO-TCM) function.

Network

At each node the B3 data is copied into N1 & sent and at next node B3 is compared with N1, if they

operator

don’t match the error is sent back to its previous node as REI, which goes till TC source (terminating

byte

node).

 

LOPOH

Description

V5

i) 2 bits allocated for error performance monitoring where BIP-2 scheme is used which includes POH bytes, but excludes V1, V2, V3, and V4. ii) 1bit as REI that has 2 valid BIP violations. iii) 3bits for signal label, 000=Unequipped, 001=equipped-non-specific, all other values are used by new equipment to indicate specific mapping.

J2

 

N2

Lower order path trace. N2 byte is allocated to provide a tandem connection monitoring (TCM) function that works similar to N1, along with V5.

K4

1bit for as extended signal label which works along with signal label of V5 and 2bits as APS signalling for protection at lower order path level.

3.5 Pointers:

SDH provides payload pointers to permit differences in the phase and frequency of the virtual containers (VC-N) with respect to the STM-N frame. Lower-order pointers are also provided to permit phase differences between VC-1/VC-2 and the higher-order VC-3/VC-4. On a frame-by-frame basis, the payload pointer indicates the offset between the VC payload and the STM-N frame by identifying the location of the first byte of the VC in the payload. In other words, the VC is allowed to “float” within the STM-N frame capacity.

Pointer operation carried out with H1, H2 & H3 bytes in AU & TU-3 pointers and

Pointer operation carried out with H1, H2 & H3 bytes in AU & TU-3 pointers and V1, V2 & V3 that works analogous to H1, H2 & H3 respectively in TU-2/TU-1 pointers. Byte explanation is as depicted in Figure11. The figure shows the byte arrangements for AU-4 &

3xAU-3 (due to multiplexing 3xAU-3 to map into AUG-1). 3xH3 bytes (AU-4)/1xH3 byte each in 3AU-3/3TU- 3/1xV3byte(TU-2/TU-1) is used for buffering of payloads in negative pointer justification & equivalent number of bytes after H3/V3 byte are used for stuffing in positive justification. There are different pointer values for different pointer that is explained in Table.

Pointer Pointer type value Description AU-4 0-782 VC-4 has 2349bytes to be allocated pointer values with
Pointer
Pointer
type
value
Description
AU-4
0-782
VC-4 has 2349bytes to be allocated pointer values with 10bit(1024) so 2349/3=783,3byte
each 1 pointer value.
AU-3
0-782
TU-3
0-764
VC-3 is783bytes, which is possible with 783 pointer values.
VC-3 (AU-4 map) has 765 bytes so 765pointer values.
TU-n
Lower order VC will be structured in multiframe format, in which 4 frames of VC-n are
formed by adding 4 POH bytes (V5, J2, N2, K4), with each of POH byte there will be
pointer bytes (V1, V2, V3, V4 respectively) added which indicates location of V5 to form
TU-n as depicted in Figure below.
TU-2
0-427
4X107byte(VC-2)=428.
TU-12
0-139
4X35byte(VC-12)=140.
TU-11
0-103
4X26byte(VC-11)=104.
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After the pointer value assignment, the hierarchy should be able to process the data even in case of clock difference between the nodes, which can be because of jitter & wander and in all cases the hierarchy does the justification. For performing the justification First byte of the payload should be allocated from 4 th row, immediately after H3 bytes and they can float anywhere in frame there after. Pointer justification occurs when the sending SDH NE’s timing is different than the receiving SDH NE’s timing. There are 2 types of justification possible depending upon the clock frequency.

  • a. Positive Pointer Justification (PPJ):

If the frame rate of the VC-n is too slow with respect to that of the AUG-N, then the alignment of the VC-n must periodically slip back in time, where there are 2 nodes (NE1 & NE2) in network, VC-n data rate of NE1 is 782bytes/sec

& AUG-n data rate of NE2 is 783bytes/sec(reference clock recovered) with respective number of pointers. Because of the difference in clock rate, when NE1 sends only 782bytes, which will fill the NE2 buffer with leaving 1byte empty (1 pointer no information is present) and the pointer is pointing to the 1 st position, this is where positive pointer justification is used. Pointer value is showing the false pointer value where as actual data starts from 2 nd position, so for that stuffing byte is added at 1 st position (doesn’t contribute for payload) & pointer incremented from position 1(dotted arrow) to 2(where actual data starts). This is Positive Pointer Justification (PPJ). PPJ operation is carried out in 4 consecutive frames. Frame-n Start of VC-n, where clock is recovered from incoming bits & set as reference. Frame (n+1) Pointer initialization, payload slipped back because clock difference. Frame (n+2) Pointer value I bits inverted to have 5bit majority voting at receiver & stuffing bytes added after 3H3 bytes. Frame (n+3) Pointer value incremented by 1.

NE2

NE1

NE1

1

 

1

 

1q1

1 1q1

2

2

3

3

|

4

|

|

|

|

|

|

 
  • 780 |

 

781

781

VC-n

782

AUG-n

 
  • 782 783

 
  • b. Negative Pointer Justification (NPJ):

After the pointer value assignment, the hierarchy should be able to process the data even in

If the frame rate of the VC-n is too fast with respect to that of the AUG-N, then the alignment of the VC-n must periodically be advanced in time, where VC-n data rate is 784bytes/sec and AUG-n data rate of adjacent node is

783bytes/sec (reference clock recovered). When NE1 sends the data all 783 positions (50-783 in n th frame to 49 shown in figure) of NE2 are filled with data sent by NE1, even then 1 byte is remaining which has to be accommodated in frame of NE2, this is done by vacating the H3H3H3 bytes, because of which payload is moved in that place and the remaining data is included within payload by decrementing the pointer from 50 to 49.NPJ operation is carried out in 4 consecutive frames. It is similar to PPJ till frame (n+1), Frame (n+2) Pointer value D bits inverted to have 5bit majority voting at receiver & Buffering is done in H3 bytes where payload data is loaded (which is extra in VC-n) Frame (n+3) Pointer value decremented by 1.

VC-

1 49 50 1q1 51 2 52 3 | 4 | 783 782 | 783 |
1
49
50
1q1
51
2
52
3
|
4
|
783
782
|
783
|
0
|
1
782
|
n(NE1)
AUG-n(NE2)
783
48
784
49

[4] Automatic Protection Switching (APS):

Protection is required for the traffic against 3 conditions Signal Degrade (SD), Signal Failure (SF) and fiber cut. When first 2 conditions occur the traffic quality will be lost and in the later case traffic itself will be lost. So there was service level agreement done between service provider & customer, according to which 99.999% of the time connection should be available and this is possible only by Automatic Protection Switching. APS can be classified in general as

i. 1+1 protection scheme/Dedicated protection scheme

The simplest of all the forms is the 1+1 type of protection. Each working line (port or path) is protected by one dedicated protection line (port or path). Protection line is redundant line dedicated for the working line. Traffic is taken through both working line & protection line simultaneously and at the far end traffic will be selected by switch depending upon the healthiness of the traffic. The switch over is triggered by a defect such as fiber cut, SF or SD. When

working line is on the toss, traffic will be selected from the protection line. The main disadvantage of the 1+1 is high bandwidth redundancy but 1+1 is faster than any of the protection-switching scheme.

ii. 1:1 protection scheme/Shared protection scheme

1:1 in general can be called as 1:N; in 1:1 protection for each of the working line (which can be either port or path) there

will be a corresponding protection line. There will be 2 types of traffics identified for catering it, high priority traffic & low priority traffic (Not supported in Tejas products). High priority traffic will be catered in the working line and low priority traffic will be taken through protection line. When the working line goes on the toss, traffic has to be catered through protection line where low priority traffic is present, which will be pre-empted from protection line for serving the high priority traffic. In 1:N there will be N working line, which are getting protected by 1 protection line through which low priority traffic is catered and the switching occurs depending upon the priority given to the working line and low priority traffic will be given least priority. Above said 2 protection schemes can be discussed in detail based on network topology, which are

4.1. Linear protection scheme:

1+1 & 1:N protection switching scheme when deployed in linear network will be termed as linear protection switching scheme. a.1+1 MSP:

1+1 protection scheme in linear network are termed as 1+1 MSP as each section in our Tejas optical network is MS. depicts the normal operation of the 1+1 MSP, where communication needs to establish between 2 NE’s A & B.

VC- 1 49 50 1q1 51 2 52 3 | 4 | 783 782 | 783

1+1 MSP is port level protection scheme where traffic catered in one port called as Working port (3-1 or 4-1) as depicted will be protected by Protecting port (3-2 or 4-2). Each port will be having Tx. & Rx fiber which will be connected to its adjacent port to Rx. & Tx. respectively, which will be either Working Path (WP) if its for working port & Protecting Path(PP) if its for protecting port. Both WP & PP will be carrying the signal simultaneously and at the far end the traffic

will be selected by switch depending upon healthiness of the traffic, in normal case it will be from working path and switching to protecting path occurs when SD, SF & fiber cut is observed on working path which are traffic affecting. For example if single fiber cut occurs in WP, then selector switch in A will be switched from WP to PP (ie. Only affected direction of traffic will be switched over to PP) and traffic will be undisturbed. This type of switching is called as Unidirectional Switching.

will be selected by switch depending upon healthiness of the traffic, in normal case it will

On single fiber cut if both direction of traffic is switched over from WP to PP then it will be called as Bi-directional switching. User can configure both switching types. 1+1 MSP can also be configured by user as Revertive or Non-Revertive protection, when provisioned as Revertive protection, after WP is repaired back, switching takes place PP to WP and traffic will be selected from WP but after Wait-To-Restore (WTR variable from 5-12min which is user configurable) time is elapsed which ensures proper splicing in WP. If Non-Revertive protection is provisioned then traffic will not be switched back from PP to WP even if the WP is repaired completely, until user forcefully switches the traffic using external commands.

4.2Ring protection scheme:

Ring network is made up of ADM and any traffic added can reach to its destination in 2 ways, which can be useful in

APS. There are 2 types of protection switching schemes.

a. Sub Network Connection Protection (SNCP):

Sub Network Connection Protection (SNCP) or Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR)(in SONET terminology) is dedicated protection scheme, which gives path level protection for each traffic and traffic will be flowing in both WP & PP simultaneously. The SNCP has to be provisioned at terminating nodes, for each traffic individually Destination Work (DW), Destination Protect (DP) and Source Work (SW), Source Protect (SP) has to be specified as depicted in Figure18.Consider communication is needed between A & D and the HP or LP will be as shown from A to D in 2 ways, one is selected as Working HP/LP (WP) (for this traffic) and another one selected as Protecting HP/LP (PP) (for this traffic). Whenever the WP is on the toss its PP will protect the traffic and corresponding switching occurs at far end. PP is dedicated to WP for individual traffic, like this 63 E1 can be protected in STM-1 node, each having different WP and PP.

will be selected by switch depending upon healthiness of the traffic, in normal case it will

SNCP has to be provisioned only in terminating nodes and PTXC has to be provisioned in intermediate nodes. SNCP is necessarily follows Unidirectional switching only as the protection directly provided for the traffic separately and if traffic flowing from 3-1 to 4-1 is affected then traffic will be received from 5-2 in PP. Traffic is still received in A from 3-1 through WP only. If both direction traffic is affected in WP then both direction traffic will switch over to PP. SNCP also

can have both Revertive & Non-Revertive protection. Tandem SNCP is another application of SNCP where single fiber cut in N rings can be protected simultaneously for which can be simulated using 4-way XC. SNCP protection can’t be provisioned in the presence of MSP or MSSP protection.

b. Multiplex Section Shared Protection (MS-SP):

MS-SP ring is also called as Bi-directional Line Switched Ring (BLSR) in SONET terms, which is ring network application of 1:1 protection switching scheme There are types of rings

i. MS-SP 2F ring:

MS-SP-2Fiber ring will be having 2 fibers with bandwidth divided for the working traffic & protecting traffic, for example in STM-N ring having 6 nodes, communication needs to be carried out between NE A & D. In MS-SP ring within every port each fiber is divided as working traffic & protecting traffic of N/2 capacity each (i.e. in each fiber AU4 1-8 will be working traffic & AU4 9-16 will be protecting traffic). Working traffic of one direction say from A to B in AU4 1-8 is protected by protecting traffic in opposite direction from B to A in AU4 9-16. The protection process is explained with example as depicted in Figure if Multiplex Section between B & C is affected then all other Multiplex Sections in ring will share their bandwidth to protect the traffic because of which it’s named as MS-Shared Protection. When the traffic between B & C is affected the traffic will reach from A to B in AU4#1(working traffic) then at B, RING SWITCHING takes place where traffic will be switched from AU4#1 to AU4#9(protecting traffic) and will go back from B to A. The traffic will reach the node C in AU4#9 only then traffic will be switched back to AU4#1 as the MS between B & C was on the toss so traffic got protected by other MS. After traffic reached the C another ring switch takes place where traffic will be switch back to AU4#1(working traffic) then will reach the destination D in AU4#1only.Similarly the opposite direction traffic also will be protected in Ring switching. As name suggests this follows only Bi-directional switching and MS-SP 2F can’t be Non-Revertive at all, as main advantage of Non-Revertive protection is to avoid the fiber ageing when it is heavily loaded, keeping another path idle. Only disadvantage of the MS-SP 2F is that maximum bandwidth utilization is STM-N/2 capacity, which was overcome by MS-SP 4F. Tejas products do not support MS-SP 4F for now.

can have both Revertive & Non-Revertive protection . Tandem SNCP is another application of SNCP where

Figure 1

can have both Revertive & Non-Revertive protection . Tandem SNCP is another application of SNCP where

Figure 2

There can be maximum of 16 NE’s (0-15) in a ring because every NE is given Node ID for which 4 bits reserved in K1&

K2 byte. Provisioning needs to be done at every NE giving East/West chassis-slot-port, ring ID, node ID and ring map.

ii. MS-SP 4F ring:

MS-SP 4F ring require four fibers for each span of the ring. Working and protection traffic are carried over different fibers: two NE’s transmitting in opposite directions carry the working traffic while two NE’s, also transmitting in

opposite directions, carry the protection traffic. This permits the bi-directional transport of working traffic. MS-SP 4F rings support RING SWITCHING as a protection switch, as well as SPAN SWITCHING, though not concurrently. Multiple span switches can coexist on the ring since only the protection channels along one span are used for each span switch. Certain multiple failures can be fully protected using span switching. MS-SP 4F can support only Bi-directional switching and it supports both Revertive & Non-Revertive protection.

4.3 External Commands: External commands enable the user to have control over routing of the traffic

4.3 External Commands:

External commands enable the user to have control over routing of the traffic whenever application arises. There are 4

external commands whose priority is given by 4bits of K1 byte.

  • a. Clear/Release: clears all external commands applied on any port, which is having the highest priority.

  • b. Lock Out of Protection (LOP): when maintenance operation has to be carried on the PP, in which case if WP goes on

the toss traffic continuously tries to acquire the PP and selector switch keeps on switching between WP & PP. To avoid this loop LOP is given so that PP is locked & no traffic will be allowed to go through PP.

  • c. Forced Switch: Work or Protect: Forcefully switches traffic to intended path; it can be Forced Switch to Work or

Forced Switch to Protect. The switching takes place regardless of condition of the path to which it is switching to because SF/SD are of lower priority compared to this command.

  • d. Manual Switch: work or Protect: is similar to Forced switch but main difference is while switching traffic, condition

of path is checked as SF/SD are of higher priority. Hence whenever Manual switch to work is given and WP is having

SF/SD then switching doesn’t take place. Following table illustrates the different types of protection switching schemes.

Protection

Topology

Uni-Directional / Bi-

Revertive

/

Shared / Dedicated

Switching Time

Schemes

Directional

Non-Revertive

1+1 MSP

Linear

Uni / Bi-Directional

Revertive

/

Dedicated

Low

(Port protection)

Non-Revertive

1+1 SNCP

Ring

Uni-Directional

Revertive

/

Dedicated

Low

(Path protection)

(UPSR)

Non-Revertive

MSSP2F

Ring

Bi-Directional

Revertive

Shared

Switching time is

(Line protection)

(BLSR)

more

MSSP4F

Ring

Bi-Directional

Revertive

/

Shared

Switching time is

(Line protection)

(BLSR)

Non-Revertive

more

1:N

Linear

NA

Revertive/Non

Shared

Switching time is

(Card protection)

Revertive

more

[5] Synchronization:

Synchronization is required to enable service providers to transport bits of information within and across network without losing any bits, which can be due to mis-timing (phase variation) inside transmission equipment when data is regenerated. When mistiming becomes large, errors are produced and the system can become unusable. Even at low values of mis-timing (phase variation), sensitivity to amplitude and phase variations is increased and performance suffers. There are 2 types of phase variation Jitter & Wander. Jitter is a short-term variation of the digital signal from its ideal position in time and its frequency is >10Hz.

Wander is long-term variation of the digital signals from its ideal position and its frequency is

Wander is long-term variation of the digital signals from its ideal position and its frequency is <10Hz.

Synchronization is attained in the SDH using Master-Slave clock technique along with Phase Locked Loop (PLL), which is performed by Synchronous Status Message (SSM) state machine.

6.1 SSM state machine:

SSM state machine present in every NE will synchronize all NE in network.

.
.

SSM state machine nominates the clocks through 3 interfaces

  • i. Optical interface (STM ports),

ii. Electrical interface (E1/DS1 interface) iii. BITS (clock/data) (external reference signal) Every NE will be having multiple of interfaces representing different clocks SSM will lock to the particular clock depending upon the provisioning done by the user in synchronization configuration in NES. A Nominated clock signal can be either in “Signal Fail” or “No Signal Fail State”. If Signal Fail is present on nominated clock, it will not be considered for timing reference clock selection process until and unless it is overridden by an external command. The following Alarms are considered for declaring/clearing a signal fail: LOS, LOF and AIS. User can configure following parameters, which is applied to the SSM for synchronization.

  • a. Priority: Priority of the nominated clock can have range of 0-8. Valid priorities can range from 1-8. “1” is the highest

priority and “8” is the lowest. More than one clock can have the same priority. A “0” Priority, which is also the initial default, indicates that this clock should not be considered for selecting the timing reference.

  • b. QL mode: The quality of a clock is automatically detected in case of STM clocks from their S1 byte.

The user can configure the QL label of the BITS/PDH clocks manually. When a PDH/BITS clock is nominated, it comes up with an “INVALID” Quality Label. There are mainly 3 quality levels of clock.

  • i. Primary Reference Clock (PRC): G.811

 

S1: 1234

Description

 
  • a. Accuracy of clock is 10 –11 (10pico second deviation/sec.).

 

0000

Quality Unknown

  • b. Stratum 1 clock derived from GPS satellite, Cesium clock.

0010

PRC

ii. Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU): G.812

 

0100

SSU-A

  • a. Accuracy of the clock is 1.6X10 -8 (0.016 Sec deviation/sec).

 

1000

SSU-B

  • b. Stratum

2

clock

derived

from

Quartz

crystal

oscillator

Table 7

1011

SEC

iii. SDH Equipment Clock (SEC): G.813

   
  • a. Accuracy 4.6X10 -6

 

1111

DNU

  • b. Stratum 3 clock derived from Quartz crystal oscillator.

 

When all quality of clocks are mixed together maximum number of clocks to be used is given by G.803 series; according to which Maximum number of SEC's between 2 SSUs: < 20 Maximum number of SSU's in a chain: < 10 Maximum number of SEC's in a chain: 60.

  • i. QL Disable:

Nominated clock input QL is not considered for clock selection. In this mode, clock with high priority will be selected.

The next highest priority clock gets selected as the secondary reference.

ii. QL Enable:

Nominated clock input QL is considered for clock selection. In this mode clock with better QL is selected. In case of two

or more having the QL label the user configured priorities are used to break the deadlock.

  • c. Output QL mode:

Depending on NE configuration (SONET/SDH) and Output QL mode.

The following is the list of options available to the user for configuring the output Quality mode:

  • i. Auto: SSM will send quality level/label of the selected clock as NE Quality to all interfaces connected to NE.

ii. Manual: SSM will send user (operator) specified value as NE Quality to all interfaces connected to NE Note: Irrespective of the Output QL Mode, a DNU/DUS is sent on the selected clock interface and its MSP mate port, if any.

  • a. SETG (Synchronous Equipment Timing Generation) status:

The SETG status is the indicator of what state the SSM module is in. It has the following states:

i. Free Running: PLL becomes an open loop system. The output frequency cannot be tracked to the nominated clock or no external clock is nominated or in holdover mode for more than 24 hours. ii. Holdover: Timing reference on all nominated clocks failed. or PPM offset on selected clock is high (> +/- 17 PPM). iii. Lock: Derives timing from the nominated clock source. The node also shows which timing source it is deriving its reference from by indicating a “*” against the Timing reference which is current reference clock.

  • b. Alarms:

SM provides following Alarms to indicates the current status of SSM

  • i. Timing reference failed: nominated clock source has LOS, LOF or AIS or if the Primary or the Secondary clock PPM offset is higher than +/- 17 PPM.

ii. System clock in holdover mode: This alarm is raised in the following scenarios.

  • a. Current selected clock received signal fail and no other nominated clock is available for timing reference.

  • b. Current selected clock PPM offset crosses +/-17PPM

iii. Timing generation entry free run: This alarm will be generated when

  • a. No clock is nominated for timing reference.

  • b. Internal clock is selected as reference clock.