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You are on page 1of 45

(EET3132)

Sl. Name Registration No. Signature

No.

1. SOUMYA RANJAN MOHAPATRA 1441014091

Lab Partners

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

AFD (EET3132) 2

1. Assignment 2.1

Design a first order highpass filter with a DC gain T(0)=0.3 and high

frequency gain T() = 1. The filter must have a zero on the negative real axis

at fz= -159 Hz.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of

pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response

of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

AFD (EET3132) 3

d. Compare the results obtained from MATLAB and Multisim. Comment

and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.

a.

Assuming both ideal and integrator model of opamp we need to design an amplifier with 14 dB

gain.

Under ideal condition V- = V1.

Thus KCL equations can be written as:

V

R3

V V V 0

V 2 = 1 +

R 2 R1+ X L

Taking the ideal condition:

(V2 Va)G2 = V0G3 + (Va V1)(G +SC)

V 2 G2 +V 0 G1 +V 0 SC

Va =

G1 +G2 +G3 +SC

V0

A=

V 1 a

V0 = A (V1 Va)

Now substituting Va in the above equation we have,

Signature of the Student Lab.: 2

AFD (EET3132) 4

V 2 G2+V 0 G1 +V 0 SC

V0 = (

A V 1

G1 +G2 +G3+ SC )

V

V 1 [ G1+ G2+G 3 + SC ][ 2 G2+ V 0 G 1 +V 0 SC ]

= G1 +G2 +G3 +SC

A

V 0 ( G 1+G2 +G3 + SC ) = A(V 1 [ G1+G 2+G 3 + SC ] V 2 G2V 0 G1V 0 SC)

A V 1 [ G 1 +G2 +G3+ SC ] V 2 G2

V 0=

G1+G2 +G 3 + SC+ A G1 + ASC

s+ w

T(s) =

s+ 3 w

Given fz = -159 Hz

1

T(s) = G

1+ 2

S C1

S C1

T(s) =

S C 1+G 2

S+ Z 1

Since we know that tf = k ( )

S+ P1

S C1 +G 1

T ( s )=

S ( C 1+G 2 ) +G 1 +G 2

S C1 +G1

T ( s )=

S C1 +G1 +G2

G1

=

(

C 1 S+

C1 )

G1+G 2

(

C 1 S+

C1 )

G1

T ( s )=

( S+

C1 )

G1 +G 2

( S+

C1 )

S+ Z 1

T ( s )=

S+ P1

Signature of the Student Lab.: 2

AFD (EET3132) 5

G1 1

Where Z 1= = = -159 Hz

C1 R1C1

1 1

+

G 1+G2 R 1 R 2 R1 + R2

P 1= = =

C1 C1 R1 R 2 C 1

1

=2 x 159 tim e1=1000 tim e1

R1C1

Let C1 = 10 F

1

R 1= 6

=100

10 x 10 x 1000

G1

For DC gain T ( 0) = = 0.3

G1 +G2

R2

0.3=

R 1 + R2

0.3 ( R1 + R2 )=R 2

0.7 R2=30

30

R 2= =42.857 .

0.7

On solving the above and substituting R1 = 100 , we get R2 = 42.857

Thus we get

G1+G2

P 1=

C1

1 1 1

P 1= ( +

C 1 R 1 R2 )

Now substituting all the values of C1 , R1 and R2 , we get P1 = -3333.34 Hz

s+1000

T ( s )=

s+3333.34

b.

clc

clear all

close all

AFD (EET3132) 6

s=tf('s')

num = [1 , 1000];

den = [1 , 3333.3411];

z = tf(num,den)

figure (1)

pzmap(z)

grid on

figure (2)

bode(z)

grid on

AFD (EET3132) 7

c.

AFD (EET3132) 8

AFD (EET3132) 9

d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results

that in MATLAB at -3db we get the frequency response of 3.33 kHz whereas in multisim

we get a frequency response of 482.7 Hz , hence the matlab results are much

predictable with the calculated values theoretically and the multisim results vary

slightly due to the errors in values of resistors and little variations of the DC gain of the

low pass filter circuit.

2. Assignment 2.2

Design a circuit to realize the bilinear transfer function with a zero at fz= 830

Hz, a pole at fp= 13 kHzand a high frequency gain of 23 dB using an inverting

amplifier configuration.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of

pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response

of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

AFD (EET3132)

10

i. MATLAB Program

Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.

a.

AFD (EET3132)

11

V2 s+ z 1

T ( s )=

V1

=k ( )

s+ p1

AFD (EET3132)

12

V 2 Z 2 1

=

V 1 Z1

( 1+

1

A (s)

Z

( ))

1+ 2

Z1

Idealing A(s)

V 2 Y 2

We have =

V1 Y1

1

Z 1=R 1+

S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y 1 G1+ S C 1

T ( s )= =

Y2 G2 +S C2

G1

( )

S+

C1

T ( s )=

( )

C 1

C2 G

S+ 2

C2

C1 G1 1 G2 1

Where k = , Z 1= = and P 1= =

C2 C 1 R1 C1 C2 R2 C 2

Given gain = 23 dB.

20 log(x) = 23

20

x= 10 23 =14.125

Fz = 830 Hz.

Fp = 13 kHz.

T ( s )=14.125 ( s+s+13

0.83

)

b.

clc

clear all

close all

s=tf('s')

num = [1 , 0.83];

den = [1 , 13];

z = -14.125*tf(num,den)

figure (1)

pzmap(z)

grid on

figure (2)

Signature of the Student Lab.: 2

AFD (EET3132)

13

bode(z)

grid on

AFD (EET3132)

14

c.

(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT :

AFD (EET3132)

15

d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results

that in MATLAB at a gain of 20 dB we get a frequency of 12.9 Hz and in multisim at the

dc gain of 14.125 and and at same 20 dB frequency on ac Analyses we get the

frequency response to be 11.0656 Hz

AFD (EET3132)

16

3. Assignment 2.3

Design a circuit to realize the bilinear transfer function with a zero at fz= 830

Hz, a pole at fp= 13 kHz and a high frequency gain of 23 dB using an non-

inverting amplifier configuration.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of

pole and zero.

b. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response

of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

AFD (EET3132)

17

Ans.

a.

V2 s+ z 1

T ( s )=

V1

=k ( )

s+ p1

V2 Z

( ) 1

V1

= 1+ 2

Z1

(

1+

1

A ( s)

Idealing A(s)

( ))

Z

1+ 2

Z1

AFD (EET3132)

18

Z2

We have T ( s )=1+

Z1

1

Z 1=R 1+

S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y1 G +S C1

T ( s )=1+ =1+ 1

Y2 G2 + S C 2

G2 + S C2 +G1 + S C1

G2 + S C2

G

( 2+G1)+ S( C1 +C 2)

G2 + S C2

G

C

( 1+C 2 )+S

( 2+G1)

G2

(

(

C2

+S )

)

C 1+ C 2

C2

G2 +G1

( )

S+

C1 C 1 +C2

1+( ) C2 G

S+ 2

C2

C1

Where k = 1+

C2

AFD (EET3132)

19

G2 +G1 G2

Z 1= and P1=

C 1 +C2 C2

0.05(23)

k =10 =14.125

Fz = 230 Hz.

Fp = 13 kHz.

T ( s )=14.125 ( s+s+13

0.83

)

Z 1=0.83

P1=13

C 1 (n)

=14.125=K

C 2 (n)

To check whether our transfer function is an ideal bilinear transfer function or not , we

will test the conditions :

1. K1>0

14.125 1 > 0

13.125 > 0

From the 2nd condition , we can say that the system is not satisfying the perfect bilinear

transfer function condition. So we have to increase the value of k.

KZ1 P1 = 0

P1 13

k= = =15.663

Z 1 0.83

AFD (EET3132)

20

Y 1=S ( k 1 )P1=C 1+ s C 2

Y 2=S+ P1

Now equating the above equations we have

C1 = 0 & C1(n) = 14.663

1

=0

R 1(n)

R1 ( n )= p

Y 2=S+13=C1 ( n ) + S C2 ( n )

C1 ( n )=1

C2 ( n )=13

1

R2 ( n )=

13

Thus RS = 120 k.

C1 ( n )=w s R s C 1

C 1(n )

C1 = =20 nF

ws Rs

C 2(n )

C2 = =1.4 nF

ws Rs

R1 = , R2 = 8.977k

b.

clc

clear all

close all

s=tf('s');

Signature of the Student Lab.: 2

AFD (EET3132)

21

num=[1 5215.04];

den=[1 81681.40];

T=15.663*tf(num,den);

figure(1)

pzplot(T)

grid on

figure(2)

bodeplot(T)

grid on

AFD (EET3132)

22

c.

AFD (EET3132)

23

AFD (EET3132)

24

AFD (EET3132)

25

AFD (EET3132)

26

d.

Signature of the Student Lab.: 2

AFD (EET3132)

27

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results

that in MATLAB at a gain of 20 dB we get a frequency of 1.3x10 4 Hz and in multisim

without voltage divider , when direct 10 V p-p is applied we get a frequency response of

20.5742 dB at a frequency of 10.69466 kHz and when voltage divider rule is applied ,

we get a frequency response of 31.4278 dB at 22.7362 kHz.

AFD (EET3132)

28

4. Assignment 2.4

Plot in Fig. 1.

a. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of

pole and zero.

of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

AFD (EET3132)

29

i. Multi Sim Circuit

and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.

V2 s+ z 1

a. T ( s )=

V1

=k

s+ p1 ( )

V2 Z

( ) 1

V1

= 1+ 2

Z1

1+

1

(

A ( s)

Idealing A(s)

Z

1+ 2

Z1 ( ))

Z2

We have T ( s )=1+

Z1

1

Z 1=R 1+

S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y1 G +S C1

T ( s )=1+ =1+ 1

Y2 G2 + S C 2

G2 + S C2 +G1 + S C1

G2 + S C2

AFD (EET3132)

30

G

( 2+G1)+ S( C1 +C 2)

G2 + S C2

G

C

( 1+C2 )+S

( 2+G1)

G2

(

( C2

+S )

)

C 1+ C 2

C2

G2 +G1

( )

S+

C1 C 1 +C2

( )

1+

C2 G

S+ 2

C2

C1

Where k = 1+

C2

G2 +G1 G2

Z 1= and P1=

C 1 +C2 C2

s + z1

T 1 ( s )=k ( )

s+ p 1

jw + z 1

T 1 ( jw )=k ( jw + p1 )

(1)

s + z2

T 2 ( s )=k ( )

s + p2

jw + z 2

T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw + p2 )

(2)

Now when T1 and T2 are taken together and the poles and zeros are taken common from

the equations 1 and 2 , then we get a final transfer function as .

Signature of the Student Lab.: 2

AFD (EET3132)

31

s+ z 1 s + z2

T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=k ( )( )

s + p1 s + p2

jw+ z 1 jw+ z2

T ( jw ) =T 1 ( jw ) .T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw+ p1 )( jw+ p 2 )

jw jw

( )( )

1+ 1+

Z1 Z2

T ( jw ) =k

jw jw

1+ 1+

P1 P2

Let k = 1

jw jw

( )( )

1+ 1+

103 104

T ( jw ) =1

jw jw

1+ 2 1+ 5

10 10

3 4

T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=1 ( s+10

s+10

2 )( s+ 10

s +10

5 )

s+ 103 s+10 4

T 1 ( s )= ( s+ 102 )

T 2 ( s)= (

s+ 105 )

Here we have C1 = 0.01F C2 = 0.01F

1 1

Z 1=10 3= Z 2=10 4=

R1C1 R2 C 2

1

Let R1 = 100k = R2C2 R1 = 10k , P1 = 105 =

1

R2C2

R2 = 1 M R2 = 1 k

b.

AFD (EET3132)

32

(i) MATLAB CODE :

clc

clear all

close all

s=tf('s')

num1 = [1 , 1000];

den1 = [1 , 100];

num2 = [1 , 10000];

den2 = [1 , 100000];

z1 = tf(num1 , den1);

z2 = tf(num2 , den2);

z = z1 * z2;

figure (1)

pzmap(z)

grid on

figure (2)

bode(z)

grid on

AFD (EET3132)

33

c.

AFD (EET3132)

34

(i) MULTISIM CIRCUIT:

AFD (EET3132)

35

AFD (EET3132)

36

d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results

that in MATLAB at a gain of absolute value of 0.77 on the both the sides of frequency

response curve we get a frequency of 1.5x10 4 and 16.8 Hz respectively and in multisim

we get a frequency response of 15.49 and 16.01 Hz at -3dB frequency drop on the both

sides of the frequency response curve.

5. Assignment 2.5

Plot in Fig. 2.

AFD (EET3132)

37

b. Derive the expression for the transfer function T(s) using the location of

pole and zero.

c. Using MATLAB generate the pole-zero plot and the frequency response

of the corresponding transfer function T(s).

i. MATLAB Program

Multisim and perform an AC analysis of the same.

AFD (EET3132)

38

ii. Frequency Response

and arrive at a suitable conclusion.

Ans.

V2 s+ z 1

a. T ( s )=

V1

=k

s+ p1 ( )

V2 Z

( ) 1

V1

= 1+ 2

Z1

1+ (

1

A ( s)

Idealing A(s)

Z

1+ 2

Z1 ( ))

Z2

We have T ( s )=1+

Z1

1

Z 1=R 1+

S C1

Y 1=G1 +S C1

Similarly ,

Y 2=G 2 + S C2

Y1 G +S C1

T ( s )=1+ =1+ 1

Y2 G2 + S C 2

G2 + S C2 +G1 + S C1

G2 + S C2

G

( 2+G1)+S(C1 +C 2)

G 2 + S C2

AFD (EET3132)

39

G

C

( 1+C 2 )+S

( 2+G 1)

G2

(

( C2

+S )

)

C 1+ C 2

C2

G2 +G1

( )

S+

C1 C 1 +C2

( )

1+

C2 G

S+ 2

C2

C1

Where k = 1+

C2

G2 +G1 G2

Z 1= and P1=

C 1 +C2 C2

s + z1

T 1 ( s )=k ( )

s+ p 1

jw + z 1

T 1 ( jw )=k ( jw + p1 )

(1)

s + z2

T 2 ( s )=k ( )

s + p2

jw + z 2

T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw + p2 )

(2)

Now when T1 and T2 are taken together and the poles and zeros are taken common

from the equations 1 and 2 , then we get a final transfer function as .

s+ z 1 s + z2

T ( s )=T 1 ( s ) . T 2 (s)=k ( )( )

s + p1 s + p2

AFD (EET3132)

40

jw+ z 1 jw+ z2

T ( jw ) =T 1 ( jw ) .T 2 ( jw )=k ( jw+ p1 )( jw+ p 2 )

jw jw

( )( )

1+ 1+

Z1 Z2

T ( jw ) =k

jw jw

1+ 1+

P1 P2

Let k = 1

jw jw

( )( )

1+ 1+

100 400

T ( jw ) =1

jw jw

1+ 1+

200 200

s+200 s +200 )

)(

T 1 ( s )= ( s+s+ 100

200 )2T (s)=(

s+ 400

s +200 )

1 1

Z 1=100= Z 2=400=

R1C1 R2 C 2

Let R1 = 1M R1 = 250k

1

P1 = 200 = R2C2 P1 = 200 =

1

R2C2

R2 = 500 k R2 = 500 k

Gain = 1

AFD (EET3132)

41

b.

clc

clear all

close all

s=tf('s')

num1 = [1 , 100];

den1 = [1 , 200];

num2 = [1 , 400];

den2 = [1 , 200];

z1 = tf(num1 , den1);

z2 = tf(num2 , den2);

z = z1 * z2;

figure (1)

pzmap(z)

grid on

figure (2)

bode(z)

grid on

AFD (EET3132)

42

AFD (EET3132)

43

c.

AFD (EET3132)

44

AFD (EET3132)

45

d.

Hence we arrived at the conclusion after verifying the MATLAB and multisim results

that in MATLAB at a gain of absolute value of 1.0688 on the both the sides of frequency

response curve we get a frequency of 8.555 and 117.9 Hz respectively and in multisim

we get a frequency response of 77.0615 and 13.2360 Hz at 1.0775 and 1.0769

frequency drop on the both sides of the frequency response curve.

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