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CHAPTER

7
Influences on marketing

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Factors influencing s
s
motivation
perception
Psychological factors
The personal
customer choice s learning characteristics of
s beliefs and attitudes individuals that influence
Factors outside the business environment their behaviour. These
s lifestyle
will often play an important role in the factors relate to the way
s personality and self-concept. people think and develop
success of an organisations marketing plan.
attitudes to certain
While the business has no direct control
over these factors, it is essential that the Motivation products.

business has a strong understanding of When consumers have decided to buy a


how such factors can influence the buying product, there is a belief within them that
behaviour of its customers. The four key they need the product. Various factors will
factors influencing consumer choice are have influenced this decision for the good
psychological, sociocultural, economic and to be thought of as a need. To understand
government. the motivational forces that cause
consumers to act on their perceived needs
Economic Sociocultural we can look to Abraham Maslows hierarchy
factors factors
of needs (Figure 7.2 on page 122).
Maslow, who was one of the worlds
leading psychologists, studied the forces
that motivate humans. He attempted to
explain why people have different needs
at different stages of their life. Maslow
believed that there is a hierarchy of needs,
the foundation of which are the basic needs
(such as food and shelter). People will
ensure their basic needs are met before
they seek to meet other needs, such as
education and love. If consumers are not
able to satisfy their basic needs, they will
not be motivated to satisfy other desires
Government Psychological within the hierarchy of needs.
factors factors
Figure 7.1 Factors influencing consumer choice. Perception
Perception is the opinion that a customer
Psychological factors has about a particular product. As
Psychological factors are the personal consumers vary, different people may
characteristics of an individual that perceive the same product in different
influence their behaviour. These factors ways. It could depend on the amount
relate to the way people think and of information gathered, the age of the
develop attitudes to certain products. consumer or cultural issues, such as
The psychological factors that influence the consumers ethnicity or religion. It
the different types of goods and services is important that businesses develop a
customers buy include:

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Harmony, unity, beauty,
Spiritual justice, goodness,
health desire to help others
and compassion

Meta (beyond) needs


Mental Intellectual needs
health

Social and
Basic needs
Emotional emotional needs,
health love and self-esteem

Survival: food Physical Clothing and


and shelter health security
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Figure 7.2 Maslows hierarchy of needs.

marketing campaign that promotes to vehicles market.


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As such, consumers
the targeted customer group a positive associate these products with images
image of the product an image that of prestige, quality and reliability.
the consumer relates to and identifies
with. This may include a focus on the
products quality or a promotion of
the products health benefits. Price is Since 2001, Aldi has been one of the fastest
becoming an increasingly important growing players within the Australian
influence on consumers perception of supermarket industry. Much of Aldis success
a product. Some consumers perceive has been attributed to its effective marketing
the quality, reliability and reputation of
campaign that heavily promotes the low price
a product to be reflected in its price.
of its products. Given this, some consumers
Leading European car manufacturers
believe that the pricing of Aldi products is
(such as Ferrari and Porsche) are priced
reflective of lower quality products.
at the higher end of the luxury motor

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Learning They include our ethnic or religious
beliefs and our political persuasions or
Learning describes the changes in an
attitudes towards social issues, such as the
individuals behaviour as a result of an
environment, animal cruelty or child labour.
experience. This experience could be the
A consumers attitude towards a particular
consumers use of a product, increased
product is clearly influenced by his or her
awareness of its features or learning about
broader beliefs and attitudes. Businesses
a friends perception of the product.
cannot always influence a consumers
Consumers learn from each purchase
beliefs and attitudes. Factors such as culture
they make. They determine the level of
or religion may prevent certain consumers
satisfaction they gain from using a product.
from buying particular products.
Consumers also decide whether they will
purchase that product again or make a
further purchase from the business where Lifestyle
the product was bought. Lifestyle is a significant influence on buyer
behaviour. People of similar age and
Beliefs and attitudes income will not always buy the same goods
and services. Leisure preferences, interests,
Our beliefs and attitudes are shaped by
attitudes and gender all influence a persons
our environment and life experiences.

Figure 7.3 High prices will discourage some consumers but will not be a concern for others.

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lifestyle. From a marketing perspective, it


is important that a business consider the
influence of lifestyle on the demand for its
product. The business should look beyond Australia, as a multicultural society,
specific target groups (such as consumers consists of consumers from a diverse
of a certain age and income level) and range of ethnic backgrounds. A
instead determine what sort of lifestyle their consumers ethnicity will influence many
target consumers will most likely have. of his or her consumption decisions.
A successful business will be aware of
Personality and self-concept and responsive to these influences.
The way we view ourselves and the way As an example, fast food restaurants
we respond to other peoples perception in Sydneys south-west, including
of us will influence the types of goods and KFC and McDonalds, have recently
services we purchase. The basis for this introduced a halal menu to cater for its
idea is that we buy products that often predominantly Islamic market. This has
reflect our personalities. For example, proven to be a very successful initiative
people who enjoy cafes, the theatre and from these businesses.
the opera, rather than nightclubs and
popular sporting events, will show little or
no interest in buying such clothing brands
Economic factors
as G Star Raw, Billabong and Roxy. They
A persons socioeconomic status is
are more likely to buy brands such as Polo
largely determined by the persons level
Ralph Lauren and Country Road.
of income, occupation and level of
educational attainment. Socioeconomic
Sociocultural factors status is a significant influence on the
Sociocultural influences on a customers types of goods and services a consumer
choices are those that come from the will buy. In marketing terms, people
customers society and culture. An example from a high socioeconomic background
of a sociocultural factor is a consumers come from the A demographic. They
place of residence. Culture can be are people who have a high income,
defined as an individuals values, beliefs are often university educated, are either
and customs. It influences almost every professionals or self-employed and are
aspect of human behaviour, including our willing to spend their income on goods
attitudes towards the various products that are perceived to be prestigious. In the
offered within the marketplace. Businesses majority of instances, the more income
have recognised the increasing importance an individual earns, the greater is the
of catering to the cultural beliefs and individuals ability to purchase goods
attitudes of particular groups within the and services from a wider price range.
community. This presents a business This allows them to seek products with
favourably in the community and allows superior quality, advanced features and a
it to expand its available market, both of more prestigious reputation. However, all
which will benefit the business. adults must devote part of their income to

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essential forms of expenditure. Essential
expenses could include costs related
Activity 7.1 Comprehension
to rearing children, paying a mortgage 1 Describe how an improvement in
loan and saving for future needs, such as economic conditions could influence
retirement. As such, high-income earners customers buying behaviour.
will not always be able to purchase
2 Examine the importance of
products aimed at their particular income
sociocultural factors in influencing
group. However, in comparison with a
customer choice.
low-income earner, a person with a high
income is more likely to be able to borrow
from financial institutions. Banks, credit implementation of the governments
unions and finance companies hold the fiscal and monetary polices and through
view that the ability of a person to repay microeconomic reform. Fiscal policy refers to
debt is significantly influenced by the the actions taken by the federal government
persons income. to influence economic activity through
the use of its Budget. This can impact, for
Government factors example, on the level of taxation consumers
pay in the form of income tax and the goods
While it mayBUSINESS
not appear to directly do so,
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the government is an important influence
and services tax (GST) on the purchase of
goods and services.
on the goods and services that consumers
Monetary policy is used by the Reserve
purchase. One of the key government factors
Bank of Australia to influence the level
influencing customer choice is the federal
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governments regulation of the economy.
interest rates. Interest rates are significant
This regulation takes place through the
in determining the level of expenditure
in the economy and the level of credit
that consumers and business will access.
Microeconomic reform has proven to
In 2009, the federal government be successful in encouraging greater
initiated an Economic Stimulus competition in the telecommunications,
Program to encourage consumer finance and airline industries. It has offered
spending during a strong phase of consumers greater product choice and
economic downturn. Many Australian lower prices.
taxpayers were sent one-off cheques Governments also play an important
of up to $900 to spend as they pleased. social role in influencing customers
Retailers such as Woolworths, Coles purchasing behaviour. Age restrictions on
and Harvey Norman all benefited the purchase of alcohol and tobacco and
from the stimulus as consumers censorship warnings on television programs
and films reflect the governments role
were responding to the payment by
in promoting social responsibility in the
increasing their spending.
community.

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Government controls business behaviour
through the Competition and Consumer
Act 2010 (Cth). This legislation attempts
to promote fair and competitive behaviour
in the marketplace. While all levels of
government acknowledge that businesses
need to seek to be profitable for their
owners and shareholders, the government
also accepts that businesses should conduct
themselves in a way that does not take
advantage of consumers through misleading
and deceptive behaviour.

Deceptive and misleading


Figure 7.4 Microeconomic reform has been successful in encouraging
greater competition in the airline industry. advertising
Advertising is one of the most powerful
Consumer laws and effective methods of promotion.
It takes the business and its products
It is widely recognised that a successful directly to the consumer. Because of its
business is one that looks beyond profit benefits, some businesses will attempt
maximisation and is able to develop to use advertising in a way that is unfair,
a motivated, positive workforce while deceptive and misleading to the consumer.
adopting ethical and legally correct Examples of deceptive and misleading
practices through all operations of the advertising under the Competition and
organisation. Marketing is an important Consumer Act include:
role in any business. It is the function that
s giving misleading information about a
takes a product to the consumer. Given
products features, content or place of
the significance of the marketing function,
manufacturer
some businesses may attempt to develop
s overstating the benefits that a product
practices that take advantage of consumers
will provide to the consumer
trust and good faith in the organisation
s offering discounts and special offers that
and its products. Businesses now operate
do not, in fact, exist
within a legislative framework outlining the
s using bait and switch advertising, which
responsibilities of businesses in relation to
promotes a product that is heavily
the field of marketing.
discounted even though the business
has very limited supplies or no stock at
Role of consumer laws all. When the consumer comes into the
Consumer protection in Australia is the store and expresses an interest in buying
domain of state governments. Under the the product, the salesperson will attempt
Constitution, the state governments have to switch the consumers interest to a
responsibility for developing laws that more profitable item.
protect the interests of consumers within the While the Competition and Consumer
business environment. The Commonwealth Act seeks to discourage businesses from

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unfair, deceptive and misleading behaviour, electrical products and home appliances. Price discrimination
consumers are responsible for reporting Warranties can be a very powerful marketing A business giving
such cases. tool for a business to attract customers. preference to some
When purchasing a product, the consumer retailers by providing
Activity 7.2 Comprehension expects that the business will fulfil its legal
them with stock at lower
prices than is offered to
obligation to provide a good or service the retailers competitors.
1 Explain why deceptive and misleading that is consistent with the description given
advertising is considered to be Implied warranty
and is in full working order. Regardless of
unethical. Regardless of whether
whether the product is carrying a warranty,
2 Deduce whether it should be the role a product is carrying
a business must, by law, either refund a
of the consumer to be more careful a warranty, a business
clients money or offer an exchange of the
when making commercial decisions. must, by law, either
good should the good be recognised to have refund a clients money
been faulty at the time of leaving the store. or offer an exchange of
This is why all products are said to have an the good should the good
Price discrimination implied warranty. By administering this be recognised to have
legislation, the state government seeks to been faulty at the time of
Price discrimination refers to the process
leaving the store.
of a business giving preference to some retail ensure consumers rights are protected.
stores by providing them with stock at lower
prices than is offered to the competitors of Resale price maintenance
those retailers. The competitors are being Businesses will often seek to balance the
discriminated against by being forced to pay competing goals of profit maximisation
a higher price for a product that is identical with a competitive pricing strategy. Under
to one the other retailers are receiving at the Competition and Consumer Act, a
a discounted rate. The Competition and manufacturer cannot refuse to sell goods
Consumer Act aims to discourage price to a retailer who decides not to sell the
discrimination in the business environment. good at the price that is suggested by the
It is uncompetitive and can often manufacturer. Businesses may be offered
disadvantage smaller businesses that have suggested prices at which to sell a good.
less influence in the marketplace. The Act As consumers we see this in stores as the
does, however, allow businesses to provide recommended retail price. Some businesses
different prices to different stores for choose to go below this recommended
identical goods should one business order price. A manufacturer cannot discriminate
a bulk quantity. This is a method by which against stores for selling at a price that is
business can engage in price discrimination lower than it has recommended.
and are legally able to do so.
Activity 7.3 Comprehension
Implied conditions
1 Define what is meant by resale price
and warranties
maintenance.
A good way for a business to show its
2 Identify two examples of how a
faith in the products it sells is to offer a
business may engage in deceptive and
warranty to consumers. Most businesses
misleading advertising.
offer a warranty of at least 12 months for

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What are misleading advertising and selling practices?
Any kind of conduct or behaviour that could give practices, when buying or acquiring an interest in
consumers the wrong impression may potentially land (section 30).
breach the Act. It doesnt matter whether the Example: An agent misrepresents fixtures to
representation is deliberate or accidental. What does be included with rural land, the position of a
matter is the impression that is left in the mind of the beachfront lot or suitability for strata conversion.
customer. Various sections of Part V of the Act target s "USINESSES MUST NOT ENGAGE IN CONDUCT THAT
specific types of trader behaviour: misleads or is likely to mislead people about
s ! BUSINESS MUST HAVE reasonable grounds the details of possible employment (section 31).
when predicting future events. Businesses should Example: An educational institution offering
consider, or adequately address, the range of scholarships via paid training courses when, in
uncertainties and variables involved (section 4). fact, applicants are required to pay a substantial
Example: An oven retailer falsely stating that their fee, there is no employment provided and the
ovens were risk free as they could be returned scholarships dont exist.
within 12 months if the buyer was not satisfied. s )F A SELLER MAKES A representation about part
s #OMMERCIAL CONDUCT MUST NOT mislead or of the cost of goods or services it must also
deceive, or be likely to mislead or deceive. specify the cash price of those goods or
This is a very broad provision (section 18). services (section 48).
Example: A fruit juice producer representing a Example: A used car dealer advertising the price
product as being 100% cranberry juice, when the of a car as periodic repayments without stating
product is 50% orange juice. the actual cash price of the vehicle.
Example: A company representing that an s "USINESSES MUST NOT ENGAGE IN CONDUCT THAT
international calling card has no fees, other than misleads or is likely to mislead the public
timed call charges, when in fact other fees are about the characteristics, suitability or quantity
charged. of services (section 34).
s "USINESSES MUST NOT MAKE false or misleading Example: An allergy treatment company stating
representations about the characteristics of that it can cure or eliminate virtually all allergies
goods or services, including sponsorship, price, or allergic reactions when the company actually
place of origin, guarantees, availability of spare cant do this.
parts and the buyers need for goods (section 29). s 4HE !#, PROHIBITS false or misleading conduct
Example: A car company misrepresenting that a in connection with work at home schemes, or
car has five doors when it actually has three. other business schemes requiring investment and/
Example: A seller claiming that a product with or labour by participants (section 37).
significant imported components is Australian Example: A person being misled about the
made. profitability of a worm farm investment scheme.
s "USINESSES MUST NOT ENGAGE IN false or Example: A company misrepresenting the level of
misleading conduct, or in certain other business available to drivers.

Source: Australian Competition & Consumer Commission, Advertising and selling

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Ethical aspects the market share of a business. Given this,
businesses spend considerable amounts of
of marketing money each year on promotional campaigns.
Marketers are expected in engage in fair
Ethics are a fundamental aspect of a
and honest behaviour when developing
successful business. They represent actions
a marketing campaign. It is expected that
taken by businesses to act as responsible
when promotional material is distributed,
corporate citizens within the community.
this material represents information that
Ethics are the cornerstone on which all
is truthful, accurate and in good taste.
responsible businesses are established.
Failure to do this may result in a breach of
Ethics in marketing refers to a combination
the Competition and Consumer Act. The
of broad principles that establish standards
Competition and Consumer Act prohibits
of behaviour and guidelines for people
a corporation from supplying consumer
working across the marketing industry.
goods that do not comply with prescribed
They are not enforceable through law and
product safety standards.
rely on the goodwill of all stakeholders in
Working alongside the legislative
the business process to work successfully.
framework is also the Advertising
Federation of Australia (AFA). This is the
Truth, accuracy and good
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taste in advertising
peak body representing companies in
advertising and marketing communications.
A marketing campaign is established to AFA seeks to promote best practice in
promote consumer awareness and interest advertising by members of the industry.
in a particular product. It is also designed
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This also includes compliance with the
to increase a products sale and increase codes and laws that affect advertising. The
Advertising Federation of Australia is also
referred to as The Communications Council.

In 2009, companies such as Wesfarmers (Coles, Target, Bunnings Warehouse, Kmart),


Woolworths (Woolworths, Big W, Dick Smith), Harvey Norman, Telstra, Commonwealth
Bank, Optus and Westpac spent a combined total of more than $1 billion on advertising
alone across all forms of media. This is a considerable cost to each business and given the
amount of funds allocated to only part of the selling process, management of the business
do seek strong returns.

Figure 7.5 Major advertisers in the Australian market.

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The Communications Council code of ethics
1 Stand up for what you believe is 6 Give clients your best advice, without
right. Be open-minded and receptive. If fear or favour. Act in your clients best
SOMETHINGS WRONG TRY TO RESOLVE IT ,ET A interests. Tell them what they need to know,
well-informed conscience be your guide. not what you think they want to hear.

2 Honour all agreements. Agreements are 7 Look after you colleagues. Responsibility
expressions of trust. Honour all promises IS A TWO WAY STREET ,OOK FOR THE BEST IN ONE
written or spoken to clients, colleagues and ANOTHER ACKNOWLEDGE IT AND REWARD IT ,EAVE
suppliers. Respect confidentiality. room for fun, family and friends.

3 Dont break the law. Dont bend the 8 Compete fairly. Be honest in commenting
law. Think beyond legal argument to moral on competitors and our industry. No dirty
argument the spirit of the law. Dont stretch tricks in new business. No misrepresentation
the truth. Dont look for loopholes. of the capabilities of you business.

4 Respect all people. No stereotypes 9 Think before you act. The best decisions
please. Individuals should be understood, not are informed decisions. Think before you act.
portrayed in a way that could bring disrespect. Will this action connect with your personal
Use humour, but avoid cheap shots. sense of what is right or wrong?

5 Strive for excellence in everything 10 Be honest. This can be tough. Be honest


you do. Create an open, trusting without being brutal. Be true to yourself.
environment with colleagues, clients and Recognise the trust placed in you, your
suppliers. Raise the standards of creativity and company and the marketing communications
professionalism. industry, then act accordingly.

Source: www.communicationscouncil.org.au/public/content/viewCategory.aspx?id=593

does this promote the business and/or its


Ethical Issue product, but it also encourages the media
Should fast food restaurants be allowed
to facilitate debate regarding the nature
to make use of logos endorsing their of the advertisement. This debate serves
business as healthy? What impressions only to generate further publicity for the
does this give of the businesss menu business. Publicity that would normally
across the board? costs thousands and thousands of dollars.
The concept of taste in advertising
Brand awareness is a key component is subject to considerable debate. An
of a businesss marketing strategy. It allows individuals image of one advertisement
the business and its product to become may differ from that of another individual.
known. Some organisations, however, will United Colors of Bennetton is a leading
seek to implement strategies that create fashion house across the world. It, however,
some degree of controversy. Not only uses somewhat controversial advertisements

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The question of truth and accuracy in advertising does create considerable debate.
In 2007, McDonalds Australia paid $330 000 per year for the right to use the Heart
Foundation logo across a range of its Healthy Choices. These menus were tested
according to strict guidelines established by the Heart Foundation. The Heart
Foundation is one of Australias most trusted health and lifestyle logos. Given this, the
decision is place the tick on various McDonalds products raised considerable debate.
Commentators suggested that this would give the impression that McDonalds is
healthy, rather than suggesting specific menu items only fit that criterion. McDonalds
use of this logo remains as it attempts to develop a healthier menu, seeking to attract
children, mothers and other weight-conscious individuals. The business now labels the
nutritional content of each of its items.

to promote social issues, while at that the Products that may


same time selling its brand name. damage health
Do you consider the following
The nature of Australian businesses is
advertisement as good taste?
guided by government policies that seek to
encourage competition in the marketplace.
Competition benefits businesses through
increased product innovation, improved
manufacturing techniques and greater
workplace efficiency. A key benefit is also
in providing consumers with choice.
The federal and state governments
have sought to restrict the provision of
various goods and services that may act as
a health detriment to the consumer, without
applying a ban on their sale.
These goods and services are often
referred to as sin goods, because, in
essence, they are bad for us. Examples
Ethics in advertising is outlined in
include: the sale of cigarettes and alcohol,
the Australian Association of National
restrictions on tobacco sponsorship and
Advertisers. Their Code of Ethics outlines
entries into casinos (refer to Table 7.1 on
key principles to be followed in the process
page 134).
of developing advertisements (as outlined
in the table on page 133).

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Figure 7.6 Domestic violence is a serious issue that requires education and awareness in all countries.
Should victims of this horrible crime be used to endorse a clothing company and their fashion?
Source: www.adpunch.org/entry/united-colors-of-benetton-colors-of-domestic-violence

Engaging in fair Australian Competition and


competition Consumer Commission
Businesses across Australia operate in highly The Australian Competition and Consumer
competitive environments, with considerable Commission (ACCC) was formed in
amounts of money spent each year in order 1995 and has as its primary role the
to increase sales and market share. Given administration and enforcement of the
this, some businesses do attempt to engage Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)
in behaviour that is either legally or ethically and the Prices Surveillance Act 1983 (Cth).
unfair to their competitors. The ACCC attempts to regulate the level of
From a legal perspective, it is the role of competition within a range of industries. It
the Australian Competition and Consumer aims to promote fair and ethical behaviour
Commission to regulate business behaviour. by businesses towards their competitors
Common practices of unfair competitive and allows businesses to lodge complaints
behaviour include: against competitors regarding behaviour
s price-fixing between two or more major that they deem to be unfair and against
competitors in the market with the aim the Acts. The ACCC is also able to penalise
of reducing competition businesses that engage in deceptive and
s long-term loss leader pricing strategy misleading conduct and those that engage
by undercutting smaller competitors in price-fixing with their competitors. Price-
in the short term, forcing the smaller fixing occurs when two or more business
business to engage in a price war. competitors combine to set a high price
s misleading advertising regarding the within the market. It reduces the level of
products of a competitor. competition within the market.

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Section 2 of the Australian Association
of National Advertisers code of ethics
2.1 Advertising or Marketing Communications 2.5 Advertising or Marketing Communications
shall not portray people or depict material in shall only use language which is appropriate
a way which discriminates against or vilifies in the circumstances and strong or obscene
a person or section of the community on language shall be avoided.
account of race, ethnicity, nationality, sex,
2.6 Advertising or Marketing Communications
age, sexual preference, religion, disability or
shall not depict material contrary to Prevailing
political belief.
Community Standards on health and safety.
2.2 Advertising or Marketing Communications
2.7 Advertising or Marketing Communications
shall not present or portray violence unless it
for motor vehicles shall comply with the
is justifiable in the context of the product or
Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries
service advertised.
Code of Practice relating to Advertising for
2.3 Advertising or Marketing Communications Motor Vehicles and section 2.6 of this Code
shall treat sex, sexuality and nudity with shall not apply to advertising or marketing
sensitivity to the relevant audience and, communications to which the Federal
where appropriate, the relevant programme Chamber of Automotive Industries Code of
time zone. Practice applies.

2.4 Advertising or Marketing Communications to 2.8 Advertising or Marketing Communications for


Children shall comply with the AANAs Code food or beverage products shall comply with
of Advertising & Marketing Communications the AANA Food & Beverages Advertising &
to Children and section 2.6 of this Code Marketing Communications Code as well as to
shall not apply to advertisements to which the provisions of this Code.
AANAs Code of Advertising & Marketing
Communications to Children applies.
Source: The AANA Code of Ethics is correct as at 10 March. The Code is currently being reviewed by an
independent reviewer and will be released later in 2011. For updates refer to www.aana.com.au.

Sugging determine the needs of the consumer and Sugging


suggest products offered by the business A disguised marketing
The business environment is competitive.
that cater to these needs. The ethical issue process that uses
This leads some businesses to engage in general questions in a
here is whether the consumer is aware
unethical marketing practices, such as survey or questionnaire
that the business is, in fact, attempting to
sugging. This process involves selling to determine the
promote and sell its products from the interests and needs of
under the guise of research. Consumers
outset of the interview; that is, when the a consumer and then
are asked general questions on a range
questions were first being asked. Sugging offers the consumer a
of topics, such as Where would you like
is regarded as unethical because the product that the business
to go for a holiday? and Would you like believes caters to the
consumers are not aware that they are
to be a millionaire in two years? From consumers needs.
being encouraged to buy the product.
the responses the interviewer is able to

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Table 7.1 Measures used to control the selling of restricted goods

Tobacco sold widely s Purchases restricted to people aged 18 and over


across Australia s Must not be displayed openly
s Packets contain health warnings
s Unable to sponsor sporting/community events
BUSINESS
Alcohol sold across
Australia BITE s Purchases restricted to people aged 18 and over
s All staff serving alcohol must complete Responsible Service of Alcohol course
s Sponsorship of sporting/community events permitted
Casino/Gaming s Visible and clear information informing people of support services for
restricted to people gambling addiction
BUSINESS
aged 18 and over s Restricted opening hours for leagues and RSL clubs

In August 2010, the Federal Court of Australia ruled that phone card sellers Prepaid
3ERVICES 0TY ,TD AND "OOST 4EL 0TY ,TD HAD ENGAGED IN MISLEADING CONDUCT AND MADE
false representations in regard to the value, price and benefits of their phone cards. This
conduct breached the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) [superseded by the Competition and
Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) on 1 January 2011].

In recent years the ACCC has been active in promoting truth in advertising in the
TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY 0REPAID 3ERVICES 0TY ,IMITED IS A MEMBER OF THE /PTUS
Group of companies. Boost does not have its own telecommunications services but
buys telecommunication services through PPS. The ACCC argued that PPS and Boost
contravened the Act by representing that certain phone cards would provide consumers
with a specified amount of call time, when that was not the case; and that no fees, other
than timed call charges, would apply when in fact other fees were charged.

Both phone card businesses also suggested to consumers that a specified rate per
minute would apply to calls regardless of the number and length of calls made, when in
fact the specified call rate was highly unlikely to be ever achieved. For example, Boost
represented that its card offered 1896 minutes of talk time to various countries including
the UK and Japan at a flat rate of half a cent per minute, however, the 1896 minutes could
only be used in exceptional circumstances, such as through one continuous call in excess
of 30 hours or through a series of calls of exactly one or five minutes duration. A seven-
minute call to Japan would cost 44 cents and not the 7.5 cents as expected.

The courts declared Boosts conduct was false and misleading and ordered the business
publish notices correcting their actions.

Source: ACCC Website

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Chapter summary
s There are four key factors that influence consumer choice: psychological, sociocultural, economic
and government.
s Psychological factors are the personal characteristics of individuals that influence their behaviour.
These factors relate to the way people think and develop attitudes to certain products.
Psychological factors include a consumers understanding of a product and what motivates the
consumer to purchase particular products.
s Economic factors relate to an individuals level of income and ability to access credit.
s Sociocultural influences on a customers choices are those that come from the customers society
and culture, such as where they live and their religious beliefs.
s The government has an important role in influencing the goods and services that consumers
purchases. It does this through its use of fiscal and monetary policies, microeconomic reform and
age restrictions placed on the purchase of specific products.
s Under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), businesses are prohibited from engaging
in deceptive or misleading conduct. This extends to conduct in the area of marketing, such as
advertising, sales promotions and discounts.
s Price discrimination refers to the process of a business giving preference to some retail stores by
providing them with stock at lower prices than is paid by the retailers competitors.
s Implied conditions and warranties ensure that a product is sold in full working condition and is
consistent with the description given.
s Resale price maintenance ensures a manufacturer cannot refuse to sell goods to a retailer who
decides not to sell the good at the price that is suggested by the manufacturer.
s Marketers are expected in engage in fair and honest behaviour when developing a marketing
campaign. It is expected that when promotional material is distributed, this material represents
information that is truthful, accurate and in good taste. Failure to do this may result in a breach of
the Competition and Consumer Act.
s The federal and state governments have sought to restrict the provision of various goods and
services that may act as a health detriment to the consumer, without applying a ban on their sale.
s Some businesses do attempt to engage in behaviour that is either legally or ethically unfair to their
competitors.
s From a legal perspective, it is the role of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission to
regulate business behaviour.
s Sugging is the process that involves selling under the guise of research.

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Chapter revision task
Copy the word puzzle below. Then complete it using your answers to the clues listed below.
1

Clues
1 These factors relate to our thoughts and attitudes towards particular products.
2 This is the image a particular product or brand has in the mind of a consumer.
3 A consumers __________ may act to discourage the consumer from purchasing a certain good
or service.
4 Our perceptions of and attitudes towards particular products are influenced by this.
5 An individual with a high income may purchase goods and services of this kind.
6 An organisation that influences the types of goods and services consumers purchase.
7 Factors related to an individuals level of income and financial commitments.
8 An important factor influencing the perception of a product.

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Multiple-choice questions
1 Which of the following scenarios best describes the practice of price discrimination?
(A) Smarta Electrics sells air conditioners to consumers located in different geographic areas at
different prices
(B) Sing Lee and Davie Jones each sell the same digital video camera but at different prices
(C) Vision Central offers discounts to pensioners and to consumers willing to pay cash
(D) The manufacturer of Toko cars sells the cars to different car dealerships at different prices
2 Helen visits a furniture store hoping to purchase an outdoor setting that was advertised as being
priced below cost. When Helen asks the salesperson to show her the setting, she is told that
there was only a very limited number and they were sold that morning. Helen is then shown a
more expensive style of outdoor setting. This practice is typically known as:
(A) Bait and switch advertising
(B) Sugging
(C) Retail price maintenance
(D) Higher costs
3 Bens pies are advertising their food products as 97% fat free. Independent tests reveal the fat
content is actually greater than this. Which of the following processes is the business engaging in?
(A) Deceptive advertising
(B) Price discrimination
(C) Taste in advertising
(D) Sugging
4 Psychological factors are reflected through which part of consumer behaviour?
(A) Their personality
(B) Their culture
(C) Their income
(D) Government policies
5 People of similar age, income and ethnicity will not always buy the same types of goods.
What factor influencing consumer choice is reflective of this?
(A) Culture
(B) Lifestyle
(C) Socioeconomic status
(D) Government
6 What are two economic factors influencing consumer behaviour?
(A) Culture and lifestyle
(B) Income and financial commitments
(C) Culture and socioeconomic status
(D) Perception and culture

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7 Isam has applied to a religious council to receive approval for the ingredients of the products he
uses in his food business. He believes this will allow his business to better cater to the religious
needs of his customers. What factor has influenced Isams decision?
(A) Socioeconomic status
(B) Culture
(C) Income
(D) Learning
8 A consumers decision to buy up-market clothing brands would be influenced by which factor?
(A) Culture
(B) Personality and self-concept
(C) Government policy
(D) Motivation
9 The Reserve Bank of Australia has lowered interest rates as a way of encouraging consumers to
increase their level of spending. Which government policy is this an example of?
(A) Monetary policy
(B) Fiscal policy
(C) Microeconomic reform
(D) Industry reform
10 Which of the following represents a criticism of the concept of sugging?
(A) Its ability to promote products in a misleading manner
(B) Consumers are made to believe that the purpose of the questionnaire is legitimate market
research
(C) Consumers pay higher prices
(D) The business is able to identify the needs of consumers in a deceptive way

Short-answer questions
1 Explain how economic and government factors influence a businesss marketing plan during a
downturn in economic activity.
2 Describe the role of ethics for a business developing a marketing campaign.

Extended-response question
Identify the factors influencing consumer choice and examine the impact of ethical and legal
regulations on the process of marketing of a product.

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