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Waves A TYPE OF DISTURBANCE produced by an oscillating or
vibrating motion in which a point or body moves back and
forth along a line about a fixed central point produces waves.
Wave front LINE OR PLANE on which the vibrations of every points are
in phase and are at the same distance from the source of the
In phase =same direction, same displacement
Transverse Wave WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is
to the direction of propagation of the wave(water waves, light
waves, electromagnetic waves)
Longitudinal Wave WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is
parallel to
the direction of propagation of the wave(sound waves,
Amplitude MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT from its equilibrium position /
MEASURE of height of the wave crest or depth of the wave
Period TIME TAKEN to complete an oscillation, from one extreme
point to the other and back to the same position.
Frequency NUMBER OF COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS made by a vibrating
system in
one second
Wavelength, DISTANCE between successive points of the same phase in a
Damping DECREASE in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called
damping.(Internal damping: extension and compression of
molecules)( External damping: frictional force/ air resistance)

Resonance Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a

frequency equivalent to its
natural frequency
by an external force. The resonating system oscillates at its
maximum amplitude.
Natural frequency FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY of which an object vibrates. It is
the frequency of a system which oscillates freely without
external force
Reflection of wave Reflection of wave occurs when a wave strike an obstacle
Refraction of wave Refraction of wave occurs when a wave travel from one
medium to another
f = ; v ; ; direction
Diffraction of waves PHENOMENON in which waves spread out as they passed
through an aperture or round a small circle
f = ; = ; speed = ; v ; direction
Interference of waves SUPERPOSITION of two waves originating from two coherent
sources coherent
=same frequency, amplitude and in phase
Constructive Constructive interference occurs when the both crests or both
interference troughs of both waves coincide to produce a wave with crests
and troughs of maximum amplitude
Destructive interference Destructive interference occurs when the crest of one wave
coincides with the trough of the other wave, thus cancelling
each other with the result that the resultant amplitude is zero
Antinode POINT where constructive interference occurs.
Node POINT where destructive interference occurs.
Electromagnetic waves PROPAGATING WAVES in space with electric and magnetic
components. These components oscillate at right angles to
each other and to the direction of propagation of wave.

Monochromatic light LIGHT with only one wavelength and color.

Principle of Principle of superposition states that at any instant, the wave
superposition displacement of the combined motion of any number of
waves at a point is the sum of the displacements of all the
waves at that point

Charge, Q WORK DONE to move a unit of voltage in a circuit
Current, I RATE of flow of charge
Potential difference, V WORK DONE in moving one coulomb of charge from one point
to another in an electric field
Electric field A FIELD in which electric charge experiences an electric
force / A FIELD in which electric force acts in a particle with
electric charge
Circuit CLOSED LOOP through which charge can continuously flow
Resistance, R RATIO of the potential difference across the conductor to the
current flowing through it / MEASURE of the ability of the
conductor to resist the flow of an electric current through it
Superconductor CONDUCTOR in which its resistance will suddenly become
zero when it is cooled below a certain temperature called the
critical temperature
Electromotiveforce TOTAL ENERGY supplied by a cell to move a unit of electrical
(e.m.f.) charge from one terminal to the other through the cell and
the external circuit

Power rating RATE at which it consumes electrical energy.

Ohms Law Ohms law states that the electric current, I flowing through a
conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference
across the ends of conductor, if temperature and other
physical conditions remain constant. That is, V I

Electromagnet DEVICE in which magnetism is produced by an electric current
TEMPORARY MAGNET which acts as a magnet when the
current is switched on and ceases to be a magnet when the
current is switched off
Magnetic field REGION in which a magnetic material experiences a force as
the result of a magnet or a current-carrying conductor
Radial field MAGNETIC FIELD with the field lines pointing towards or away
from the centre of a circle.
Electromagnetic PRODUCTION of an electric current by a changing magnetic
induction field (conductor cuts across a magnetic flux OR a change of
magnetic flux linkage with a coil)
Root mean square VALUE of a steady current/ voltage, which would produce the
current / voltage same heating effect in a given resistor.
Transformer EQUIPMENT to raise or lower the potential difference of an
alternating current

Faradays Law The magnitude of the induced electromotive force (e.m.f.) is
directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux
linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor
cuts through the magnetic flux.
Lenzs Law Lenzs law states that an induced electric current always flows
in such a direction so as to oppose the change (or motion)
producing it

Thermoionic emission EMISSION of electrons from hot metal surface
Work function MINIMUM ENERGY required to eject electrons from surface
Cathode ray Fast moving ELECTRONS travel in a straight line in vacuum
Cathode ray measuring and testing INSTRUMENT used in study of
oscilloscope electricity and electronics
Conductor MATERIAL which allows current to flow through them
Semi conductor MATERIAL whose resistance is between good conductor and
Insulator MATERIAL which does not conduct electric current
Junction voltage POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE acting from n-type to p-type material
of a diode across the depletion layer
Rectification CONVERSION of a.c. to d.c. by diode
Smoothing PROCESS where output is smoothed by connecting a capacitor
across load that acts as a reservoir and maintains potential
difference across load
Logic gates ELECTRONIC SWITCHES with one or more inputs and one

Atom An atom consists of a nucleus which is made up of protons and
neutrons, with electrons orbiting the nucleus.
Nuclide TYPE of nucleus with particular proton number and nucleon
Proton number NUMBER of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Nucleon number NUMBER of protons and neutrons in an atom
Isotopes ATOMS of an element which have the same proton number but
different nucleon number(similar chemical properties but
differs in physical properties)
Radioactivity SPONTANEOUS DISINTEGRATION of unstable nucleus into a
more stable

nucleus with the emission of energetic particles or protons

PROCESS where an unstable nucleus becomes a more stable
Radioactive decay nucleus by emitting radiations
Radioisotope ISOTOPE that has unstable nucleus that tends to undergo
radioactive decay
Half life TIME TAKEN for the activity of atoms to fall to half its original
TIME TAKEN for half the atoms in a given sample to decay
PROCESS involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two
Nuclear fission nuclei of roughly equal mass and shooting out several
neutrons at the same time.

Nuclear fusion PROCESS involving the fusion of two or more small and light
nuclei come together to form a heavier nucleus

Einsteins Principle of The change of energy is linked to the change of mass by the
Mass-Energy equation