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statistical

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1.1. Discrete random variables. Let X be a random variable. If the number

of possible values of X is finite, or countably infinite, X is called a discrete

random variable. The possible values of X may be listed as. X1, x2,

In the finite case, the list terminates; in the countably infinite case, the list

continues indefinitely.

Example 1

The number of jobs arriving each week at a job shop is observed. The

random variable of interest is. X, where

X = number of jobs arriving each week

denoted by Rx. Here Rx = {0, 1, 2, ...} .

Let X be a discrete random variable. With each possible outcome X; in

RX' a number p(xi) = P(X = xi) gives the probability that the random variable

equals the value of xi. The numbers p(xi), i = 1, 2, . . . , must satisfy the

following two conditions:

1.

2.

distribution of X, and p(xi) is called the probability mass function (pmf) of X.

Problem: textbook example 2

variable X is an interval or a collection of intervals, X is called a continuous

random variable. For a continuous random variable X, the probability that X

lies in the interval [a, b] is given by

The function f(x) is called the probability density function (pdf) of the

random variable X. The pdf satisfies the following condition s:

a.

b.

c. f(x) = 0 if x is not in Rx

As a result of Equation (1), for any specified value x0, P(X = x0) = 0, because

The graphical interpretation of Equation (1) is shown in Figure 2. The

shaded area represents the probability that X lies in the interval [a, b].

Problem: textbook example 3

function (cdf), denoted by F(x), measures the probability that the random

variable X assumes a value less than or equal to x, that is, F(x) = P(X <= x).

If X is discrete, then

If X is continuous, then

a. F is a nondecreasing function. If a < b, then F(a) <= F(b).

b.

c.

All probability questions about X can be answered in terms of the cdf. For

example,

P(a < X <= b) = F(b) - F(a) for all a < b

For continuous distributions, not only does Equation (5) hold, but also the

probabilities in Equation (2) are equal to F(b) - F(a).

Problem: textbook example 4, example 5

1.4 Expectation

3. DISCRETE DISTRIBUTIONS

which only integer values can occur.

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