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Friendshipis abroad term in its meaning. Many of the theorists,

scholars, philosophers and sociologists have explained this term

according to their own perspective, views, observations and

experiences. They expressed what they witnessed practically. Since the

life is not a theory but a practical one, and after experiencing

themselves they put these practicals in theoretical form.


Friendship has severalapproaches and aspects. Its approaches

are that a friendship is assuaging, helping,consulting and it also

consoles. It majoraspects are honesty, loyalty, trust, goodness and

mutual respect etc. These approaches and aspect make this term of

friendship vast in term. The term of friendship is varied in different

social dimensions and contexts according to its purpose and use. Some

people regard friendship more than blood relations and some keep

every relation at its own place. Friendship as a relation is multi-

dimensional because friendship is not specific to be made amid

specific people, specific society, specific gender or specific class. Even

there are no age specifications for a friendship as well. Friendship has

been experienced among the people (or children) belong to the age of

childhood, teenage, youth, adult and old. There are several forms of

friendships find commonly in a society such as child-child, child-

teenage, child-adult, child-old, then teenage-child, teenage-teenage and

so in this way many other groups are found commonly. Then there are

friendships among people pertaining to opposite sex, a sort of erotic

friendship and even human-animal friendships have also very

commonly experienced. Not only this, but animal-animal friendships

have also been commonly observed amid the domestic animals or pets

as well. The nature and extent of friendship varies according to age and

gender of people and age and gender play a very vital role in the

relation of friendship.

The spectrum of friendship is vast as it has many dimensions

unlike other relations such as father, mother, brother, sister and other

blood or close family relations which are singular in dimension. For

example, the relationship between a father and a son (or a daughter)

has just one dimension, father-son or father-daughter relationship. This

universal relationship is unbreakable because if a father and a son

separate away from each other due to any reason occasionally or

permanently, their verbal communication or interaction may be

exterminated but their relation will remain the same unbreakable, their

race will be counted as same. On contrary to this friendship is

breakable, it is fragile. It has a beginning, a climax and a decline

exactly the like a drama or short story which have duly these three

stages. Friendship comes in to being, reaches at climax and (some

times) breaks after decline. Friendship is breakable according to a few

theorists but it is not necessary that every friendship breaks away. It

does not break all times but there is a definite fluctuation in it. There is

a certain rise and fall in it. Only this breakable quality separates this

relation from the blood relations, otherwise friendship is never less

than any blood relation. Blood relations are not breakable even after

death. Its proof is that if father of a man dies, than after the death of his

father people still call him as the son of that particular person and in

official documents or in national identity card, his fathers name is

always there. If parents and children establish a relation of friendship


amid each other, then their universal relations come more concrete and

affective while expressing even the deeper and inner most feeling and

emotions with each other which helps in understanding each other well

and enable them to look after each other more devoutedly.

1.1 Origination and Definition of Friend

The word Friend is in use in English language before 12th

century. In Old English word freond was used. In Medieval English,

freond got the shape as frend and it is considered that these terms

were taken from German word friunt which eventually turned into

particular word Friend which is currently in practice or use.

Before advancing towards the delineation of subject theme it is

necessary to first highlight what are the more common and specific

definitions and meanings of word Friend. Oxford Dictionary

describes the word or term Friend in several ways. First of all it

defines in such words that if there is a person with whom another

person has a bond of mutual affection and this bond is a particular

one which is void of gender difference or family relations then this

person will be called a friend. According to this definition, there is no

concept of a gender which is specific for a good friend. Moreover, this

definition tells that family relations are not counted in the relation of

friendship because family relations are a sort of other relations than a

friendship. The same dictionary describes this particular term as a

person who is an acquaintance or who is a stranger and comes across

to other person. According to this before becoming a friend, a person

may be an acquaintance in case he is living in same society can

become a friend. In another case if a person is a stranger whom you do

not know but when he comes across you then after a brief or may be a

thorough introduction becomes a friend of yours. At third, the same

dictionary relates the term of friend with generosity or philanthropy. It

is expressed in such a way that if a person who supports a cause,

organization, or country by giving financial or other help is called a

friend. In this definition there is no concept of good or bad,

humbleness or affectation. If a person whether good or bad, right or

wrong, true or false gives a charity or helps an organization or rather a

whole country then he is a friend. In this way, friend is one who helps

others. At fourth stance, if a person who is not an enemy or opponent

is a friend or a person who is an ally. In this definition, any person is

a friend who is not a foe or does not belong to a certain group of

people who are opponents. Anyone who is a foe and can harm any

person at any time, can never be a friend because friends meant to look

each others back, look after each other and devouted to ensure safety

of friends. A harmful person is an enemy but it is not necessary that a

harmless person is a friend. There are some other attributes which are

to be possessed to become a friend because harmless is a neutral stance

and any one can stand in this stance. So according to this view, a

person is a friend who is not an enemy whereas the world is full of

persons who are in neutral stance and are not enemies. In another

definition by Oxford dictionary, a person or a contact on a social

networking website is a friend. On social level, there are so many jobs

to do together and to do any job together a person is dependent on

another person because no one alone can do any job on social level. So

in this way he would be in need of a person from whom he can seek

help. Not only he seeks help but at certain point he also helps him.

Their so many interests are dependent on each other. So this helping

stance is quality of a friend and a contact in this way is definitely a


Let us proceed further with the definitions provided by

Merriam Webster Dictionary. This dictionary describes the same term

as a person is a friend whom you like and always enjoy while being in

company of him. According to this definition, there are two conditions

for a person to become a friend first you like it and second enjoy his

company. At first, if a person is up to a standard according to your taste

and seems reasonable to you then he will be a friend of yours and you

do not turn your face off from him. Secondly, not only you like him

but like to be remained in his company and enjoy being with him. You

can enjoy only in case if your tastes match with his tastes, otherwise he

will not be a friend of yours. So these two conditions should be

fulfilled at the same time to become a friend. In another definition, it is

described as a person is a friend who helps you or supports you

through a charity. It is of no doubt that a person who does help you is

definitely a friend but in case of charity a person may not be a friend

because charity is not such a thing which is given on compassionate

grounds but a person can give a charity for the sake of his fame and

personal interests. On contrary to this, friendship does not desire any

fame or personal interest. In another definition, it is described in such

words that a person who is attached to another person by affection or

by esteem. Affection means fond feeling or goodwill and esteem

means favour or having a high regard. If a person is attached to another

has a kind feeling for him, likes him, gives favour to him and regards

him high spirit and good manners, then he is a not only a friend to him

but infact a very good friend of him. Moreover, it also says as a friend

is one who is an acquaintance and one that is not hostile.

According to the matter of acquaintance and hostile, it is not necessary

that every person who is an acquaintance and he is not a hostile or

enemy is a friend but a friend certainly possesses both of these

qualities. This dictionary also gives the concept of philanthropy or

charity as well. It says as one that favors or promotes something (as

charity) which is further described as a person who gives you favour


and promotes something as philanthropy is a friend but it is not

necessary that a person gives you favour will definitely a friend or who

supports you through a charity. Anyone can give you any favour at any

time depends upon the situation and this situation will always be

social. But a friend gives you favour each and every time what so ever

is a situation whether social or personal etc. On the matter of charity,

as generally observed that friends always support whether this support

is financial or physical but they never give charity as a precaution to

avoid making a friend dishearten of anything. Or even if a friend gives

a charity to his friend then he will never let him know about this

charity. But it is of no doubt that a friend is a favored companion.

Dictionaries define or rather describe the term of Friend to a

very limited extent as we have gone through in preceding paragraphs.

This is because the term Friend is not easy to define. This is may be

because these dictionaries have limited space and this term requires

more space to cover it in real manner and spirit. Outside the

dictionaries there are hundreds of quotes about a friend which

explain this impossibility by dictionaries. These quotes describe this

particular term in such a way that it becomes more immense to us

understand it well. Among the hundreds of quotes a few are quoted as

per preceding lines.


"A friend is a person with whom I may be

sincere. Before him, I may think
aloud." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

"It's one of the blessings of old friends that

you can afford to be stupid with
them." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

According to Emerson a friend is such a person to whom any one likes

to be sincere. This is a fact that one person becomes sincere or agrees

to be sincere with another person only when, then it is clear to him that

the other person is dependable and seems loyal to him. If other person

is dependable and loyal then he is a friend. This is way in which a

person will like to trust him and will show sincerity and loyalty. So an

aspect of sincerity comes to us in the view of Emerson. Think aloud

does not mean here you think really aloud but this means here to

express your feeling and emotions in front of your friend and in can be

happened only in case if your friend is sincere and dependable to

reveal your secrets in front of him. If sometimes it happens that you

want to break boundaries of civility those surrounded you to consider

yourself more cultivated and well-bred, you are always shy and

congested, and remain unable to express your innate self to avoid

pointing fingers on you, then it is only a friend, in front of whom you

can afford to be a stupid because these are only the friends to whom

you can express yourself without any hesitation. It is assured that

almost everyone is aware of this fact and it is not deny able by any one

that friends keep stupidities of friends because than can also be stupid

any time.

"It's not the days in life we remember, rather

the moments." (Walt Disney)

Disney marks comments in a bit different way. He says that every day

in life is not easy to remember. Remember able things are the moments

the specific and the unique ones. It is a quality of humans that they

can keep moments in their mind easily because these moments keep

happy memories in them and these pleasant moments are mostly

achieved in company of friends. Therefore, Disney says about the

moments which are enjoyed in company of friends, which are

memorable or otherwise it is not possible to remember every day of


"There are no goodbyes for us. Wherever

you are, you will always be in my
heart."(Mahatma Gandhi)

These marks by Gandhi portrays an important fact about the friendship

that if a situation occurs when friends are to be departed from each

other, then they will never bid farewell each other because where ever

they will live, they will remain friends of each other and they will

never forget each other or rather they always live in hearts of each


"It's by chance we met, by choice we

became friends."(Anonymous)

This anonymous quoted explain the term of friend in such way that

persons meet each other by chance but becoming friends with each

other is by their own choice. This choice is not such a thing that you

select anything without intention. Choice is purely an intentional

stance and no chooses easily unless he is satisfied after viewing and

analyzing from all aspects.

"Friendships that last are those wherein each

friend respects the other's dignity to the
point of not really wanting anything from
them." (Cyril Connolly)

These lines by Connolly reveal an aspect of a friendship in which a

person is a friend if he respects the dignity of other persons and in he

does not want anything from his friends. If you respect any one, he

becomes automatically affectionate of you. So respect is an important

aspect on base of which friendship exists.

"Somehow I know we'll meet again. Not

sure quite where and I don't know just
when. You're in my heart, so until then it's
time for saying goodbye." (Muppets)

These words by Muppets, in interpretation, are almost similar to the

sentiments that Mahatma Ghandhi has passed for his friends. Muppets

marks about a friend that he will remain a friend after separating away

to a place far away from him or even he breaks apart from the

friendship, he will remain a friend until he does not bid a farewell or

goodbye. A friend will remain in heart until the last words are spoken

to exterminate this relation forever. So this factor appears to be a

necessary part of friendship that a person is a friend until he himself

does not break the friendship even if he separates away and has no

contact with his friend. Acquaintances or other common people of the

society do not need to bid a farewell because they are members or

rather a sturdy part of the society. They commonly do not share

personal feelings or emotions, or the qualities discussed under light of

Emersons views therefore it seems a necessary quality possessed by a

friend only and due to this quality a friends remain in heart and the

only way to break this relation is a formal goodbye. Same expressions

are given by Richard Bach also in following quotation in which he

confesses about a farewell that is compulsory to separate away from

each other. But this farewell does not mean that a friendship is extinct

here but friends are supposed to meet again at least once even after

bidding a farewell.

"A farewell is necessary before we can meet

again, and meeting again after moments or a
lifetime is certain for those who are
friends." (Richard Bach)

"This is the time to remember because it

will not last forever; these are the days to
hold on to because we won't although we'll
want to." (Billy Joel)

Billy Joel defines the term of friend in such way that friend is as a

person in company of whom you seek pleasure and joy while

expressing your inner thoughts and emotions. These days are

unforgettable even if one person tries to forget them. So the quality of

a friend appears in such words that a friend is a person whose company

is unforgettable or rather always memorable while seeking and

recollecting the pleasures and emotions till the life lasts.

"We've shared our happiness and we've

shared our fears. We've shared so many
things throughout the years. And when the
times were hard we were by each other's
side. You were there to make me laugh
when I cried." (Missy Ulbrich)

According to Ulbrich, a friend is person with whom we can share our

happiness, fears and many other personal things which cannot be or

hardly shared with anyone else. It is the friend who stands by the side

of friend in time of need and assuages or consoles in distressful

moments. On the point of sharing fears, Calvin and Hobbes say in

following quote that in the company of a friend or even a best friend,

nothing can make your frightened easily. Because you feel secure and

gain the state of calmness while having a company of a best friend. In


this manner, a person who soothes you is a friend of your during a hard

and scary moments.

"Things are never quite as scary when you

have a best friend." (Calvin and Hobbes)

"A friend is someone you can be alone with

and have nothing to do and not be able to
think of anything to say and be comfortable
in silence." (Sheryl Condie)

Condie highlights a quality to describe the term of friend in such way

that a person can stay alone in the company of other person while

having no fear or worry about any mishap or something which can be

wrong. These words indicate towards erotic friendship in which two

persons belong to opposite gender feel no hesitation or any sort of fear

while being alone in each others company. In this way a quality about

a friend is enhanced in such way that his company other person feel no

reservations while being alone with him and feels comfortable and

secure as there are no chances of exposure to any fear or danger.

"My friends have made the story of my life.

In a thousand ways they have turned my
limitations into beautiful privileges and
enabled me to walk serene and happy in the
shadow cast by my desperation." (Helen

These words are matchless and splendid by Helen Keller. The

researcher thinks that there are no such words to explain this quote

because these are very easy to understand the nature and extent of the

term of friend. These are tremendous words them self explain the

quality of a friend. It is a general observation, a friend is a person who

can make your life and indeed there are so many events in the history

in which friends made the lives of friends and made them learn how to

live their lives and how to live in their respective societies.

"Once you are my friend, I am responsible

for you." (Antoine de Saint-Exupery)

Antoine marks about the sense of responsibility while explaining the

term of friend that a person is labeled as a friend who takes some

responsibilities of you and in exchange you also take at some of the

responsibilities and these responsibilities can be based on utility or

these can be regarding your personal self. A friend is responsible for

rectification of flaws find in yourself besides making you leave your

bad habits

"You know a friend is found when you are

happy to see them. You know love is found
when it hurts to leave them." (A.A. Milne)

This quote by Milne leads us to making an understanding about the

friend that when a person meets you, you feel happy to meet him, you

welcome him with warm feelings and heart and you also feel pleasure

and express your hearty feelings for him. This quote by Milne

describes both about friend and love, but since we are concerned with

the term of friend whose presence makes us happy.

"I know we'll be friends for life, sharing our

dreams together. As we walk down the road,
we'll never think twice, these memories are
made forever. And though we're off to
different worlds, somehow we're
together...because deep within our
heart...these memories are made
forever." (Mystic Pizza)

This final quote by researcher describes the term of friend in a very

unique way that a person is a friend who is with you throughout the

life, with whom you share your inner most feelings or even the dreams.

If the particular person who is a friend departs away from you, then he

is always with in the shape of pleasant memories. These memories lie

in your mind and heart forever. You can take a glance over your past

when you are a student. You will certainly remember your friends and

the moments and events connected with your friends. You will

certainly recognize many of the faces which are faded away deep into

the dark corners of your brain and this will make you feel fresh again

as this has been only a few days ago.

After been gone through the definitions given in dictionaries

and a few of the quotes a cumulated definition appears in such way

that if a person possesses any or a few of the (of course no can possess

all of these) characteristics and qualities like mutual affection,

acquaintance, help and support (whether physical or financial), likes

others, enjoys being in each others company, sympathy, empathy,

affection, mutual understanding, mutual respect, altruism or

unselfishness, compassion, devoution, likeness, secure feeling and

fearless in his company etc. then that particular person can be labeled

as a Friend. Dictionaries describe the particular term of friend at

their own way in which they percept. Scholars and theorists, in one

way or another, to some extent give views which are similar to some

extent with different words and they seem to be agreed upon these

characteristics and qualities to be possessed to be a friend or a very

good friend infact. Including these, there are several important aspects

like truth, trust, loyalty, honesty, sincerity and mutual respect also add

sturdy meanings to the definition of a friend.

1.2 What is Friendship?

Friendship is, no doubt, a very important relation and more or

less every one among the society do certainly know and to some extent

have a concept about Friend and Friendship. This relation comes

in second position after close blood relations such as father, mother,

brother, sister, son and daughter. Some people regard this relation prior

to blood relationship as well because sometimes it is observed that

father and son are also very good friends which is more than a relation

of father and son, and sometimes both mother and daughter are found

to befriends more than a relation of mother or a daughter. Although

friendship adds a meaningful weight in these blood relations but on

social grounds it can never be more than a blood relation because

friendship is fragile and sometimes easily breakable due to absence of

suitable grounds for it whereas blood relations are unbreakable. It is

commonly observed that like a well-organized plot of a short story,

novel and drama which have a beginning, climax and decline or

denouement, friendship relation also possesses the same attributes.

Friendship is more often a phenomenon which comes into being

naturally, gains its climax and turns towards its decline when it fails to

cover suitable grounds for it which can be resulted in a break away.

Beginning and climax are very static and stable stages of friendship

whereas decline has several fluctuations and rise and falls as well.

Some times during a decline it again gains a momentum to reach at

climax and sometimes it is lead towards extermination of this relation.

Like the definition of Friend, Friendship also lacks in a

particular definition which can be labeled as standard one.

Dictionaries, theorists, philosophers and socialists give the definitions

according to their own perspectives, perceptions, observations, insights

and experiences. Among many of the definitions, few are highlighted

in following paragraphs.

Aristotle (384 - 322 BC), was a Greek Philosopher and a

Polymath. He was an able student of Plato. He did teach King

Alexander as well. He did claim the subject term in two ways

Each alike wish good for the other qua

good, and they are good in themselves.

And it is those who desire the good for

their friends for the friends sake that are
most truly friends because each loves the
other for what he is, and not for any
incidental quality. (Aristotle)

According to these views, if a relation is based on goodness and the

persons who so called are friends are themselves good, then it is a

relation of friendship. Friendship relation can only be amid friends and

this relation certainly possesses goodness as its basic ground. This

goodness can only be achieved when friends themselves are good in

nature and good at heart. If there is no goodness, there will not be any


Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 - 43 BC), a Roman philosopher,

orator, theorist, constitutionalist, and politician marks about friendship

in following lines

Let this, then, be laid down as the first law

of friendship, that we should ask from
friends, and do for friends, only what is
good. But do not let us wait to be asked

either: let there be ever an eager readiness,

and an absence of hesitation. Let us have the
courage to give advice with candour.In
friendship, let the influence of friends who
give good advice be paramount; and let this
influence be used to enforce advice not only
in plain-spoken terms, but sometimes, if the
case demands it, with sharpness; and when
so used, let it be obeyed. (Cicero)

[I]n friendship and relationship, just as

those who possess any superiority must put
themselves on an equal footing with those
who are less fortunate, so these latter must
not be annoyed at being surpassed in genius,
fortune, or rank.(Cicero)

These lines by Cicero reveal this relation is based on goodness

for each other. There is candour and frankness between friends to

possess this relation. In this relation friends give good advice to each

other and there is no class, society or race difference between friends

as this relation is based on equality. It can be seen that there are so

many relations exist in society where each relation has its own

importance and place. Blood relations and other social relations such

as teacher-student relationship, doctor-patient relationship, master-

servant relationship, worker-worker relationship in an office or any

working place, boss-worker relationship, and so many other similar

social relations, all these relations do not possess such qualities which

has been possessed by friendship relation because this is the only


relation in which friends can express their inner most thoughts,

worries, problems, feelings, emotions or even the darkest secrets with

each other. In other aforesaid relations, people are shy of telling or

expressing their selves with each other and they mostly try to hide their

inner selves and some of the bitter realities which cannot be expressed

at any cost. So these are the friends, and this is the relation of

friendship who makes them worthy of expressing each and everything

with any hesitation or fear of been explored in front of others.

Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was a Lord Chancellor of

England. He was also a philosopher of his age. He wrote many essays

which gave him the fame as the master of English Prose. Bacon

marks on friendship in his essay Of Friendship in following lines

A principle fruit of friendship, is the ease

and discharge of the fullness and swellings
of the heart

These remarks by Bacon point out some of the important

features about friendship that this relationship has the capability of

soothing and curing. There are so many medicines for body diseases

pertain to liver, spleen, bowls, stomach, lungs, kidneys, bones, skin,

brain and so many others, but there is only one medicine for heart and

that is friendship. Because at one stage heart becomes burdensome

which needs to be enlightened and free of grieves and sorrows, and

friendship makes it easy to reduce its burdens and gives a soothing


effect. Friendship assuages and consoles and even gives the relief from

the immense distractions or anxieties. Therefore, in the light of

Bacons marks, if a relation has the ability to reduce the burdens of

heart of a person being in contact with him, then the relationship

amidst them can be labeled as friendship. At this point this relation

stands equal to the relation of mother because same attributes are also

possessed by the relation of mother but mother-ship has limited extent

that it boundaries are confined to the children only, and the children

who are her own. This equality is purely based on consolation and

assuagement, as friends console and assuage each other to such extent

that a mother uses for her children otherwise this does not mean that

friendship and mother-ship are equal relations. Both are important but

at their own places.

Bennet W. Helm is PhD in Philosophy and he is a writer of

many books. He serves in department of Philosophy in Franklin and

Lancaster College, PA. He describes the relationship of friendship in

his book about theory of friendship in year 2013 titled as The

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. According to him the relation

of friendship is a

distinctively personal relationship that is

grounded in a concern on the part of each
friend for the welfare of the other, for the

other's sake, and that involves some degree

of intimacy.

In view of these lines, it is quite easy to understand about this

particular relation which is clearly identical from other social relations.

This distinctions is made on the basis of welfare and this welfare is

done for the sake of other friends as each friend does a favour to the

other friend and vice versa. According to him, there is no doubt that

friendship plays a central part in our lives. It is because we have a

special concern for them not a single but so many concerns. Among

these many concerns, there is a particular one moral concern which

we mostly pay amid each others because a friend is the most typical

person who plays a vital role in shaping the personality and moral

sensibility of a friend. These are the friends who can make or break a

personality. In making a personality, the friends are not doubt good and

in breaking a personality they are still friends but the bad one as in a

society we find both sort of friends i.e. good and bad. But good friend

friendship is based on goodness possessed by the good persons (Plato

& Cicero). These words also highlight the features of this particular

relation that mutual caring, Intimacy and shared activity

undergo in establishing the relation of friendship. Friendship is a

concrete relation if the friends have mutual caring for each other, their

relation is intimate as they are well acquainted with each other and

they like to share their private and personal activities with each other.

No doubt, the possessors of these qualities suffer rarely because they

always have their backs to be watched in any critical situation in the

life which may be pleasant occasions or may be adverse.

Doyle and Smith both (a brief introduction of both theorists is

given in forthcoming lines) say about the friendship in their friendship

theory that friendship is such a relation which possesses following


a. Friendship takes place between good men.

b. Perfect friendship is based on goodness.

c. Friendship is based on utility (or needs as well).

d. Friendship is based on pleasure.

If these qualities exist in a relation possessed by friends, then

this bond will be called a friendship (relation) which becomes

unbreakable if concentration is been kept by the persons who so are

called friends. Good men and goodness seem rational about the

relation of friendship but what concerns the utility and pleasure about a

relation of friendship. This question is really a thinkable one.

According to Doyle and Smith, Utility and Pleasure provide a

solid ground for a solid friendship relation, because needs keep friends

close to each other and more over pleasure do the same as utilities or

needs do. When there is no utility and pleasure, then there is no more

friendship, according to the theorists but the researcher will analyse

these factors in chapter 4 whether to what extent these factors qualify

these facts.

In the scenario of above quoted definitions, a general definition

of friendship appears as friendship is such relation which possesses

qualities like mutual usefulness, pleasure, goodness, candour, soothing

and caressing, pleasure, utility, needs and so on. Besides this, the

relation which is void of social, cultural and regional differences also

comes under the flag of friendship which also works as a medicine to

sooth and enlighten the burdens of heart.

1.3 Introduction to Theory of Friendship by M. E. Doyle

and M. K. Smith

This particular theory was presented by Doyle and Smith in

year 2002 under the name Friendship Theory: Some Philosophical

and Sociological Themes (in short Friendship Theory) which can be

accessed or cited on internet address http://infed.orgeasily.

Michele Erina Doyle is a tutor in YMCA George Williams

College, London. She is lecturer in informal and community

education. She is also an author of many books among which Born


and Bred is her famous work which she has published along with

Mark K. Smith.

Full title of the book is Born and Bred? Leadership, heart and

informal education. Doyle and Smith, both are the writers of this

book. This book was published by YMCA George Williams College

for the Rank Foundation, 199 Freemansons Road, Canning Town,

London E16 3PY in year 1999. This book discusses about the

leadership whether the quality of leadership is inborn or whether it is

inherited. The writers have shown in this book that leadership is not

only the name of some certain actions, gestures, grimaces or a

particular use of oratory (to convince audience into ones own favour)

with which the individuals are privileged and even it is not a thing

which is god-gifted. For perfect leadership, a leader should be in

possession of some certain qualities which come to him with constant

endeavour, practice and experience. They describe classical view of

leadership and portray some certain factors and elements of classical

leadership. In the way of acquiring a perfect leadership, they also

delineate the role of heart and informal education (or a socially

acquired knowledge). Since there is a factor amid friends that friends

hail and cheer the good abilities of friends and ability of good

leadership is also an important factor of friendship. This factor can

easily be traced in subject film as well where Manfred (detailed


introduction is mentioned forthcoming paragraphs) is not only a good

friend but a good leader too. If we take a glance on the novel The

Lords of the Rings and Harry Potter, we also find the same factor of

good leadership as well. Not only these two novels, but hundreds of

books of plays, short stories and novels contain the same examples, in

which one can find good examples of leadership among the friends.

Mark K. Smith is a Rank Research Fellow and tutor in

YMCA George Williams College, London. His fields of

specializations are Informal Education, Social Pedagogy and

Community Learning. He is also an author of many books such as

Creators not Consumers (1980, 1982), Organise (1981),

Developing Youth Work (1988), The Art of Helping Others (2008)

and few others.

The Art of Helping Others was published first in year 2008

by Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London UK under the title The Art of

Helping Others: Being Around, Being There, Being Wise. M. K.

Smith and Heather Smith, both are the authors of this particular book.

The authors aim to portray some certain qualities like compassion,

commitment and wise, if possessed by any person, other people

automatically move towards him who want to seek help. This book is

published to guide those people who like to help others. The authors

describe several ways with which people can help others with more

passion, devoution and grace while being around near them, while

always being there ready to help and being wise while making wise

decisions in typical and critical situations. This book is also for every

member of workmen class engaged with government organizations,

welfare organizations and clergy as well. Since good friends are

always helping therefore this book can be a good guide while utilizing

this they can help other more effectively.

1.4 Introduction to the Friendship Theory

There are so many theories about friendship which cover

different aspects and features of friendship. All of them have different

point views according to different situations and experiences faced by

the theorists. To some extent, all these theories cheer some common

features (which will also be highlighted along with the procession with

the research) and definitions mentioned in preceding paragraphs as

well. Among these theories, there is also a theory or module of

friendship named as Friendship Theory: Some Philosophical and

Sociological Themes which covers the objective of its theorists Doyle

and Smith in following lines

Many peoples understanding of friendship

in northern societies is rather thin. We
explore some classical views of friendship,
the development of theory and practice in

modern societies, and some key aspects of

the current experience of friendship.

which adds a remarkable weight in exploring and understanding the

relation of friendship and its nature amid any society. This particular

theory also has some features in common with other theories,

therefore, the researcher also plans to delineate the subject theme on

the basis of these features. Since this theory is comparatively easier in

reading and understanding than other theories about friendship and it is

also easily accessible through internet, therefore the researcher has

selected this theory to make a way to reach the conclusions during his

research. As Mel Reichler writes in his theory A Theory of


We lack both an integrated theory of

friendship and a frame work within which
such a theory could be constructed
although many contributions to an
understanding of friendship have been
made by sociologists, anthropologists,
psychologists and social psychologists

in this scenario, the researcher infers that there are and will definitely

some gaps which are still to be explored and delineated and the

researcher aims to reach and explore any one of the gaps.


1.4.1 Major features of Friendship Theory

They both discuss some features of friendship that how

friendship makes or breaks. At first, they claim that Perfect friendship

is based on goodness. They perceive this idea from Aristotle and after

observing this feature experimentally, they regard this feature because

they are agreed on this point that this sort is found only among the

people who are good. Since good people wish well for others, therefore

it makes the friendship perfect. If people are not good their self, they

will never be able to make perfect friendship. Secondly, they state that

friendship is based on utility and utility is not such a thing which is

permanent. Utilities change according to the different situations and

circumstances which can cause this relation diminish. Utility based

friendships occurred in high frequency rate and this high rate is

observed amid the people belong to the age of 45 years or above. This

sort of relation does exist at comparatively low rate in people belong to

middle ages or early life of workmenhood.In their third point, they

highlight that this relation is based on pleasure. This sort of

friendship is observed between the people belong to young age about

18-25 years or the people who are unmarried and hail the adventures.

Teenage people are also included in this category to some extent as

observed commonly because in this age expression of feelings and

emotions are at the peak. They regard this sort of friendship as it is


capable of make and break quickly. The cause of this quick make and

break of friendship is that the tastes of the people belong to this

particular age change quickly.

After highlighting these features, they also proceed towards

few modern views about friendship. They assume after analyzing some

social comments about friendship that convivial relationship has been

replaced by a more competitive and individualistic one. They point

toward the work of Ferdinand Tonnies (1887) in which Ferdinand

states as the friendship is one pillar among three pillars of Traditional

Community. Ferdinand is worried about that this pillar is highly

disturbed by the industrialization, urbanization and capitalism.

Afterwards they quote the remarks by Adam Smith on friendship that a

man does generosity intentionally to seek love, gratitude and

sympathy from others. According to the current social living

demands, it has become necessary that every one should know to

whom a generosity has been paid and by whom it has been paid. This

enables two parties come close each other and bound with a relation of

friendship. On contrary, this showiness or demonstration of generosity

by a person is forbidden in Islam but this is now a social demand and

value that a person who is beneficial towards others should be known

to society or at least to the people with whom he pays generosity. In

Pakistan, as well as in region from where the researcher belongs, the


same trend is found. It is mostly observed on occasions i.e. marriage

and death especially, people particularly neighbours who are called the

closest friends, take pride in telling that in this occasion they have done

that or on that occasion they have done this for the sake of friendship

and to oblige friends. They take pride and feel honour while doing this.

So this fact of showiness, although not right one according to Islam,

but plays a major role in bringing people close to each other and same

is delineated by both of these theorists while pointing towards Adam


Doyle and Smith mark another very eminent fact about

friendship that friendship arises from companionship. When two or

more than two companions find their interests, tastes and insights in

common, they succeed into the relationship of friendship. This is a

common fact in current society but this bound is never a strong one

because change of taste, interest or insight may change the dimension

of friendship or weaken this bound.

These and there are few other facts they highlighted in their

theory which will come under consideration along with the procession

of this particular research. These are the common features which are

being observed in societies where friendships exist.


1.5 Introduction to animated film Ice Age

There are so many movies, animated and unanimated, which

contain the theme of friendship. Among these films, Ice Age is the

one selected by the researcher because of the presence of some of the

natural emotions and responses paid by friends at different situations

and moments. Not only these facts, but in this film, character are

confined to their natural stance such as a lion can not use his paws like

the humans, or an elephant is confined to use his trunk to some extent,

or a sloth who only has the ability to use his hands to some extent.

These restrictions are the allegories to the human beings who are

naturally confined to their instinct limits and can on to gain impossible.

There are certainly some restrictions and confinements which limit the

humans in their own particular circles as humans can not fly like birds

unless they fly through an airplane or jump from an airplane through a

parachute or otherwise they will die.

Ice-Age is a cartoon animated comedy film extended upon

four serials. It is an American film released by 20th Century Fox

Studios. It is basically an adventure film belonging to the pals of Ice-

age or the prehistoric animals. About all of the characters are fossils or

prehistoric. Only a few of the animal species among them do exist till

the time. These serials have intentionally been designed for business

purpose while amusing and entertaining the viewers or audience.


Infact, this film has made able the investors of this film earn in

millions of dollars. The point of concern is that the writers and

producers do not aim more than earning and amusement, it is the

researcher who aims to delineate the theme of friendship from this

particular movie. Before, heading to the exploration of theme, there is

a need of brief introduction to these serials and their stories.

Ice Age or Ice Age-1 comes first among four serials. Its year of

release is 2002. The story writer of this particular serial is Michael J.

Wilson. This film has three major characters Manfred (a mammoth),

Diego (a saber-toothed tiger) and Sid (a Megalonyx sloth) who find

themselves bounded in the relations of friendship by end the of film. In

the opening of the story, all prehistoric animals of a herd start their

expedition towards the south of the region to avoid ice age.

Incidentally, Sid comes into the companionship of Manny who saves

Sids life from two megacerops (rhinoceroses) who want to kill Sid for

the cause of ruining their salad. Sid starts on chasing Manfred after

being saved from rhinos because he does not want to be alone at any

cost because of the fear that megacerops again will attempt to kill him

and he does not want to be killed. If he remains alone, he might be in

danger. Subsequently, they come across a human baby Roshan at the

bank of a river near a cataract. Few hours ago the mother of Roshan

jumps down from the cataract into the river to safe him from the attack

of tigers. These tigers are headed by Soto, who is a chieftain of this

tribe, wants to eat this baby for the sake of his revenge from humans

and as well as also for the sake of his pride. Manfred leaves Roshan at

the same very place, the bank of river, and walks away but Sid does

not leave. Sid intends to return Roshan to Roshans family. After

walking for a while Manfred unintentionally turns back to help Sid

who is in extreme difficulty in the way of returning the human baby

back to his family. In the meanwhile, Diego also joins them as a feet

tracker who apparently presents his services to help them but internally

he wants to get baby because works for his leader Soto and resolved to

get a superior rank in his tribe. Now at this moment, an unintentional

companionship is established among these three who are doing their

own jobs. Apparently they are members of a team who is on an

expedition, a so called rescue mission, to return Roash, but in the dark

Diego leads these three chaps down to an ambush where a few other

saber-toothed tigers wait for their preys. During the expedition they

come across an incident of lava which brings these fellows in real

companionship. In this incident, Manfred saves Diegos life while

risking his own. Then afterwards, after been inspired by this splendid

act of Manfred, Diego becomes grateful to them. He changes his mind

and tells all about his plan on which he previously works. He makes a

promise to help them escaping out of that ambush. When these

companions come across with Soto and the other members of tiger-

tribe, Diego plays a vital role to save his companions. Due to this act

by Diego, other three pals who are saved from the ambush do need to

be grateful to Diego but they are grateful to him because they realize

that they still had the danger of coming across of this particular

ambush and along with company of Diego, this ambush could be more

dangerous because Diego could add a remarkable might to this tribe.

Any how, eventually, by the end of their expedition, they succeed in

returning Roshan back to his father. At this particular moment, their

companionship turns into a strong bond of friendship. During this

expedition, they enjoy many adventures. Their natural expressions and

emotions are really admirable which have no match with any other

animated film.

Serial two is labeled as The Meltdown or Ice Age 2. This

story is by Peter Gualic and Gerry Swallow. The year of release of this

film is 2006. The story opens with an extreme rapture by the jolly

members of a herd. All of the children, teenage and young and

energetic fellows are extremely busy in seeking pleasures and joys of

their youth. Sid is the founder of this entertaining camp so called

Campo de Sid or a small day camp in which there are slides and

pools made of melting ice for the entertainment of children of all

animals live in the herd. Manferd, Diego and Sid besides all other

animals of the herd live very happy and joyous life but they are likely

to undergo a threat of global warming which is going to destroy their

town located in a bowl nearby the glaciers. On getting prophecy about

a flood within three days, all prehistoric animals move to reach a boat

made of the trunk of an old dead tree on the distance of three days

travel. Manfred (or Manny) is considered as the last one mammoth on

the earth as his race, considered by all other animals, has been extinct.

No sooner these three rag-tag friends besides other animals of the herd

start their expedition to reach the boat. During their journey, these

three pals find two opossums Crash and Eddie and a female mammoth

Ellie. Ellie believes that she is also an opossum. This belief by Ellie

teases and irritates Manfred a lot. Crash and Eddie are brothers to Ellie

as Ellie considers. Ellie and her both brothers join the company of

these three pals on request of Sid. Manny apparently opposes the offer

by Sid to Ellie and her brothers, but he agrees to keep pace along with

them as Ellie can be a last chance to keep their race alive. Manny is

amazed due the behaviour of Ellie that she considers herself an

opossum instead of a giant mammoth. During their journey, Ellie

comes across a place familiar to her where she remembers her past and

discovers herself a mammoth. At this particular moment she is

extremely amazed with endless rapture. The attitude by Ellie explains

that she is not interested in Manny or rather in keeping their race alive

but after passing through an adventure in which both Manfred and

Ellie as a team save Diego from felling down from a mountain.


Afterwards, they reach a place where geysers do exist. At this moment,

there is clash between Manny and Ellie that from which way should

they go ahead to reach at the place where the boat does found. On this

clash, both Manny and Ellie get separated from each other to choose

their own way to reach the boat. Meanwhile a fissure appears amid the

glacier and causes the water start flowing into the valley. This

particular valley comes under the flood after being the bowl filled by

the water. Ellie gets trapped into a cave find at the middle of the place

from where flood passes. Ellie is eventually saved by Manny while a

gallant deed paid by Manfred in rescuing her. This incident brings

them close into affection. When the flood is over and all animals of

herd are saved, then a huge flock of mammoths pass through by the

valley. All animals become surprised when they witness this huge

flock of mammoths and Manny and Ellie are so happy to find many of

the mammoths belong to their specie. Ellie at first leaves Manny to

join the flock but immediately she changes her mind and joins back

Manny again when Manny asks her to not leave him. In this way this

serial ends with a happy mode.

Dawn of the Dianosaurs is the name this particular serial.

Story of this serial is by Jason Carter Eaton. Its year of release is 2009.

It comes third in sequel to the subject film and it is released in year

2012. The story opens when Manny and Ellie are about to have a baby

mammoth, Diego wants to leave their friends while considering his life

no more adventurous while Sid tries to persuade and keep the group

close to each other. Since Manny holds a family, his intentions are

distributed. He shows more concern toward his family and most of the

time busy in arranging and decorating a play camp for upcoming baby.

Still Manny tries to persuade Diego to not leave them but Diego is

fully resolved to leave them and he leaves them at last. When Diego

leaves them and Manny is more concerned and busy in his family and

upcoming baby mammoth, Sid then feels himself alone. Sid becomes

disappointed due to the attitude of both of his friends and moves away

to a place somewhere else to find tranquility for his own. During this,

Sid finds three dinosaur eggs. He adopts these eggs. Manny asks him

to leave these eggs back at that place from where he has brought but

Sid does not bother it at all. This act of Sid causes him self trap into an

intense danger. When eggs are hatched and baby dinosaurs are born,

the mother tyrannosaurus of these babies comes in search of them, she

finds her three babies and carries them along with Sid back into

underground world. Now afterwards, Manny, Ellie, Crash and Eddie

are on an adventure to rescue Sid from the Tyrannosaurus. Since Diego

also witnesses Sid being carried away underground, he also joins them

in their expedition to save Sid. Inside the underworld, this team comes

across a weasel named Buck who also joins them in their conquest and

he further leads them to achieve their goal. After facing a very


dangerous trip, they eventually succeed in rescuing Sid. During this

course, a baby mammoth named Peaches comes into being and on the

other hand Mamma tyrannosaurus becomes affectionate with Sid

because of Sids behaviour, pure emotions and careful attitude toward

babies. By the end of the story, while exterminating a giant baryonyx

Rudy, they finally come out of the underworld but Buck does not come

out. Buck exclaims that without Rudy he has nothing in his life and he

rejoins Rudy at underworld. When they all come out of the

underworld, Diego is now disgraceful of his attitude, makes an

apology and makes a promise that he will not leave them again while

exclaiming that the real adventures lie here with his friends. All of

them are amused by the innocent actions by Peaches (a new baby


The Continental Drift, this particular animated film comes in

number four which is a sequel to previous three parts. The story writers

for this part are Jason Fuchs and Michael Berg. Its year of release is

2012. The Continental Drift starts with a very happy and a prosper

life possessed by the prehistoric animals at a continent. They all live

together on Pangaea and now have become quite modern as the new

generation or the offsprings have reached their teenage who were child

in previous serial. Manny is worried about his teenage daughter

Peaches whereas Ellie assuages and consoles him that nothing will be

happened. There is an addition of number of count in to the characters.

Louis appears as a best friend of Peaches who is a molehog. Peaches is

interested in Ethon belong to her own specie and she is interested in

erotic friendship which may eventually turn into their permanent

bound of marriage. Sids family returns and leaves a feeble member of

their family Granny to Sid to be looked after by him and abandons

him again in very same moments. Now Granny is being looked after

by Sid. Sid is very disappointed by the attitude of his parents or so

called family. Manny and Diego assuage Sid to not to be worried about

any thing because they are with him as Sid is now in possession of a

family while taking care of his grand mother Granny. Granny appears

more foolish than Sid but latterly she proves herself more able than

others although she is very old and feeble. At a moment when Peaches

sneaks out to meet Ethan, Manny catches her and an exchange of harsh

words breaks in between them. Peaches regrets about the attitude of

her father and wishes if Manny never been her father. She exclaims

that she does not want to see him again. In the mean time, a continental

drift occurs which separates Peaches and Ellie from Manny. Many,

Diego and Sid fell into the ocean while standing on an ice chunk and

this ice chunk heads away from the island. A current is produced due to

felling of a cliff in to ocean, which pushes the ice chunk away from the

continent and far away into the sea. They face a dangerous conquest

while struggling against severely bad weather, gigantic waves


produced by a storm and a huge twister. They eventually succeed

through these bad weather conditions while finding their selves still on

the same particular ice chunk. They also find Granny sleeping inside a

hollow stump of a tree who suddenly disappears about two day earlier

to this disaster. Now they are four members of a crew sailing on an ice

chunk away from the continent. During this unexpected voyage, they

are found and caught by another gang so called the sea pirates who

exclaim their selves as the masters of the sea. Their leader is Captain

Gutt who is a Gigantopithecus who, after imprisoning them, offers

them to become the members of his crew. Manny and his companions

refuse his offer. Eventually Manny and the companions manage to

escape away. During their escape, Manny causes a severe damage to

the ship owned by Gutt. While splitting into two parts, the ship headed

by Gutt sinks into the ocean. Shira, a saber-toothed tigress, another

member of same specie belong to Diego, is saved by Manny while

drowning into the sea. Shira does not want to be saved by them. These

companions, latter on reach another island where they find Gutt

already there building another ship while imprisoning hyraxes, the

dwellers of that particular island. Gutt intends to take revenge from

Manny who has caused his bounty drown into the ocean. Gutt is

extremely furious and annoyed due to this ship wreck. Manny succeeds

in making the other hyraxes their allies and with the help of these allies

they manage to snatch the ship away from Gutt. Before Manny and

fellows reach at their particular continent, Gutt is already there and

makes Mannys family his hostage. When Manny and other

companions reach the continent, they find the continent and the bridge

have been destroyed but at the same time they find Mannys family

captured by Gutt. Gutt is fully resolved to take revenge while killing

Manny and his whole family. Then a war takes place midst these two

opponents. Eventually Manny, Diego and Sid besides Mannys family

and their all other companions manage to defeat the pirates with the

help of Granny and her adopted baby whale. They baby whale plays

very vital role while making all these fellows reach at the victory

stand. They all leave their destroyed island to find another island, and

afterwards they find it and begin their new life at newly discovered

island. Manny, Diego and Sid, all these friends are happy after

attaining many adventures right from beginning to end of this serial.

1.6 Statement of Problem

Animated film Ice Age has a theme of friendship which covers some

major factors of friendship (i.e. goodness, utility and pleasure) and

these factors qualify the features presented by M. E. Doyle and M.K.

Smithin year 2002 in their Friendship Theory.


1.7 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this particular study are

a. To delineate the theme of friendship in the animated

film Ice Age on the basis of the eminent factors of

friendship i.e. Goodness, Utility and Pleasure.

b. To analysis these factors of friendship with the

Friendship Theory presented by Doyle and Smith.

1.8 Research Questions

a. Is animated film Ice Age has the theme of friendship

based on goodness, utility and pleasure?

b. Is the theme of friendship qualifies the major features of

the Friendship Theory?

1.9 Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to the animated film Ice Age (serial 1-4).

1.10 Significance of the Study

It is a general attitude of a society that the society, not all of but

mostly, takes every literal work as an amusement or entertainment

while neglecting its several universal facts. The society usually takes

its surface context while ignoring its deep aspects and critical views.

Regarding this animated film, it is observed by the researcher that most

of the viewers take the characters of the film funny and amusing who

work jointly while heading towards their goal but they do not notice or

analyse the behaviors, attitudes and emotions of friends and their

natural responses in real-time situations which are void of artificiality.

Therefore, in this research, while exploring the theme of friendship and

its analysis with friendship theory, it will be tried to build the sense in

the audience as well as students specifically of literature and sociology

to not only amuse themselves while watching any film but go on

exploring and adding some new information to their respective field of




2.1 Reviews of the theories of Friendship

Under the flag of Friendship, there exist so many theories

generally named as Friendship Theory or The Theory of

Friendship. Most of theories are presented by the socialists or social

theorists as Friendship is a topic or rather a discipline comes under the

department of sociology. Besides sociology, the attempts have also

been made to this discipline by other fields like philosophy,

psychology, social psychology and anthropology. It is a very important

social relation but sociology is a different discipline and it is omitted

from English Language and Literature. Social theorists have made

their own hypothesis and assumptions based on their own knowledge,

observations and experiences. Mel Reichler states in his A theory of


Contributions to an understanding of
friendship have been made by sociologists,
anthropologists, psychologists and social

In his theory, Mel Reichler counts so many names of the theorists

pertained to these four fields who have presented their theories in the

way of exploring the exact meaning and extent of the relationship of

friendship. Almost each and every angle and point of view have been

described by the theorists about the relation or topic of friendship

while presenting their own hypothesizes and assumptions. Among

many of the theories, following are most eminent theories.

i. The Dialectical Theory of Friendship by William K.

Rawlins (1992)

ii. Social Exchange Theory by George Homans

iii. A theory of Friendship by Mel Reichler

iv. Friendship theory: some philosophical and sociological

themes by Doyle and Smith

In The Dialectical Theory of Freindship, William K. Rawlins

marks friendship as institutionalized non-institution (p. 9) because of

more expressiveness nature of this relation besides sexual nature of

romantic love. He states that friendship does not have vivid position in

society. He describes two categories of friendship i.e. contextual

which illustrates place of this relation in society and interactional

which concerns with oddities of daily mutual correspondence among

the friends.

Social Exchange Theory is a social-psychological theory

initially presented by George Homans in 1960s. Afterwards many

theorists continued working upon it and added a meaningful weight to

it. This theory contains three dimensions of the subject relation (i)

Sociology, (ii) Psychology and (iii) Economics. This theory illustrates

social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchange

between parties.

A Theory of Friend, was presented by Mel Reichler in 2002.

In his theory he describes that friendship is based on needs which are

of two types (i) needs pertaining to self, to express your self, emotions

and inner feeling etc. and (ii) needs pertaining to commodities or

materials to sustain your life. The former needs points towards the

pleasures and the latter needs are about the utilities.

Friendship Theory: some philosophical and social themes

presented by Smith and Doyle covers some of the dimensions and

features which have already been described briefly in preceding


Beside these four famous theories, there are several other

theories which cover the friendships several angles and aspects which

are listed as under

a. Equity Theory

b. Rational Dialects

c. Attachments Styles

d. Ben Franklin Effect

e. Contact Hypothesis

f. Dilution Effect

g. Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis

h. Friendship

i. Law of Attraction

j. Matching Hypothesis

k. Mere Exposure Theory

l. The Pratfall Effect

m. Propinquity Effect

n. Reinforcement-Affect Theory

o. Repulsion Hypothesis

p. Social Penetration Theory

q. Stage Theory

r. Stimulus-Value-Role Model

s. Terminating Relationship

t. Attachment Style

u. Attachment Theory

v. Buffer Effect of Social Support

w. Communication Accommodation Theory

and so many others which can easily be accessed through internet at


2.2 Book Reviews containing the theme of Friendship

There are thousands of books in English literature contain the

theme of friendship in uncountable forms. Many of the books are

included in the syllabus of different educational institutes contain this

important relationship. Most of the times students are asked to analyse

the concepts or themes of friendship according to the writers point of

view in examinations. Every writing is in possession of at least one

dimension or aspect of friendship. Plays like Waiting for Godot by

Samuel Becket has the aspect that friendship is (i) a consolation when

one is afraid of loneliness and (ii) to pass the time you are always in

need of a companion. Short stories like The Devouted Friend by


Oscar Wilde delineates that friends are always helping and while

helping friends feel pleasure. The New Constitution by Saadat

Hassan Manto, friends hails and cheers the qualities and abilities of

friends whether any one else accepts or not. Novels like The Lords of

the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien, portrays many aspects and dimensions of

friendship like truth, honesty, loyalty, trust, mutual respect and the

concepts of homoerotic friendship. Thee are aspects like helping,

caring, trusting each other or similar also find in Harry Potter by J.K.

Rowling. There are so many other brilliant and enormous writings

which revolve around the theme of friendship, are the works of the

writers belonging to the field of literature not the sociology. Since

short stories, plays, novels and other forms of fictional and non-

fictional prose come under the flag of literature and literature is a main

discipline of English studies, therefore the researcher expects this

study as a mile stone in the way of exploring and analyzing

friendship with respect to English literature.

2.3 Reviews of theme of Friendship in Animated Films and

Cartoon movies

Plunging of electronic media into the societies has changed the

ways of thinking and perception. Most of the audience has turned to

this latest entertainment because it consumes far less time than reading

any book. Moreover, watching moods and expression and descriptions


visually makes a lot of difference in perception than reading.

Perception of right accents, intonations and the actual way of speaking

remarkably influences the audience and the learner of L2 as well.

Electronic media lacks in many important fields and aspects which are

covered by reading of the books. No one can deny the importance of

books or any other written material. Reading is always suggested and

preferred by intellectuals of every society. Despite of few flaws, audio-

visual presentations are definitely the important supplements in way of

learning and analyzing the true social expressions and emotions. At

some places books describe far better than audio-visuals and at some

places audio-visuals explain more than books. In this perspective, the

subject animated film is also a part of learning and observing very true

and real-time emotions and expressions according to several social

conventional and unconventional situations lexically and semantically,

especially when you talk about some certain themes contained in a film

like friendship. There are so many animated films and cartoon movies

sustaining the marvelous and prestige of the friendship. Among them

Ice Age is the one selected by the researcher for the exploration of

the subject theme. Before heading towards the reviews of this movie, it

is felt necessary to take an overview of few other animated films and

cartoon movies containing the subject theme for better understanding.


The Lion King, a cartoon film, was released in 1994 by

Walt Disney Pictures. It is a story about a lion territory. In Africa, a

lion named Simba takes back and holds his pride besides the pride

lands which were snatched from him due to a conspiracy by his uncle

who kills his father and makes him run away from his territory while

using really inducing rhetorics. Before taking over his pride back, he is

far away into another jungle where he finds Hakunamatata (a phrase

in Swahili language) which means no problem or no worries for the

rest of the days in company of his two rag-tag friends Pumba (a

warthog) and Timon (a meerkat). These three rag-tag friends pass their

time in leisure and self-made amusements. The phrase

HakunaMatata signifies that where there is friendship, there will be

no worries at all. At this point the writers point of view is that friends

attitude is most of the times, no matter, seemed careless, sloth, sluggish

and wicked but it does not matter at all. No one need be worried about

this because they have still the potential to do good at the right time

when they are needed to do so. In this movie, Simba is though very

careless, sloth and sluggish, but a moment comes when he gets

stimulated to get back his pride and kingship and eventually he takes

his pride back. He becomes a king and holds back his territory by the

end of this story. In this scenario, the writer regards and hails the

sluggish friendship as it is not void of morality.


The second example of theme of friendship is found in

Finding Nemo, a 2003 American animated film released under Walt

Disney Pictures. This film is about sea animals and sea life. In this

film sea animals like fish, crabs, prawns, sea horses and etc. live

together which is also an allegory of a social life in which different

people belong to different races, beliefs and regions live together. This

is a typical example of a particular society in which people from

different races, cultures, traditions and regions live like a single family

who take care of each other and also look after each other while

realizing each others social status and self respect. In this film Marlin,

a clown fish and a protagonist as well, discovers a friendship with a

female fish Dory while he is on conquest of finding his lost son Nemo.

Dory is a short term memory lost fish which is another kind of

specie belong to fish family and her stance is foolish at most of the

times. Although Dory is a bit fool character but still a very helpful and

caring friend. At this moment, we discover an aspect of friendship

which is applicable on the proverb, a friend in need is a friend

indeed and Dory proves this proverb true. Both of the friends face so

many adventures and dangers, during this course they also find other

friends, foes and some foes in the guise of friends. The story is though

an adventurous one, but the theme of friendship it contains also covers

one of the major dimensions of friendship that good and perfect

friendship occurs amid good persons and is based on goodness. The


good attitudes of protagonist characters and their kind heart attitudes

eventually result in good end as these companions find their goal

because of their true passion and devoutions. On the other hand Nemo,

like his father Marlin, also succeeds in making Tank Gang members

his friends. This particular gang helps Nemo in getting back to his

father. This covers another aspect of friendship which is helpfulness.

Most of the times, friends are fully devouted in helping friends which

empowers the bound of friendship.

In the third place, there is another animated film Madagascar

which is also an American and it was produced by DreamWorks

Animations which released in May 2005. The main characters in this

film are Marty (zebra), Alex (lion), Melman (giraffe) and Gloria

(hippopotamus) who are the residents of a local zoo find in New York

City. They are neighbours to each other and best friends as well.

Although these companions are good friends but their aims and

intentions are to some extent contrary to each other such as Martin is

resolved to escape away from the zoo to live in wide open meadows

whereas Alex does not want to leave the zoo. This fact is an important

dimension of friendship. Because it is not necessary that friends must

have same perspectives, tastes and intentions etc. This very animated

film revolves around the theme of friendship which contains other

features like (i) friendship is void of regional and social class


differences as friends in this film belong to different species, (ii)

friends help each other and look after each other as seen in this film

that they are most of the time trying to help each other, (iii) good men

are good friends and perfect friendship lies in goodness which is also

proved from this film that the characters are good and sincere to each

other and their goodness makes their friendship more strong. Almost

the same features and aspects do exist in the subject film as well but

still there is a lot of difference between these films because of

difference of environment, time and social situations. At one moment

in this film, Marty manages to escape away from the zoo to find

consolation for his reveries. Other three characters when get known of

the escape by Marty, they also manage to run away from the zoo in the

chase of Marty to find out him because these friends consider that the

zoo is only a place which is perfectly safe and an ideal one for them to

live there and out side the zoo they are not safe. Due to this act, all four

friends get trapped and declared by the management to be shifted in

another zoo which is found far into the jungle in another continent

known as Madagascar. During the voyage, their particular boxes fell

into the ocean and they eventually reach an island. Now, the intention

of these friends is to come back again in their former zoo regarding it

as their home. They face many difficulties during this course but fail to

manage to come back at all. They are found in constant endeavour to


return back to home and while doing this, they seem to fulfill the major

features of friendship theories.

At number four, another example is Charlottes Web which is

also an animated film, produced by Hanna-Barbra and released by

Paramount Pictures in year 2006. This feature film is based on E.B.

Whites story Charlottes Web. White (1899 1985) was an American

writer who wrote this story in 1952. This story contains many themes

besides friendship. Although the theme of death is eminent in this film

but friendship has its own importance in this film too. The eminent

aspects of friendship such as trust, loyalty and sacrifice are found in

this film. Wilbur (a baby hog) is in friendship with Charlotte (a female

spider). Other animals are inspired by this intense (highly emotional)

relation of friendship. It is because they both belong to very different

species, such as one belongs to vertebrates (animals) and the other

belongs to invertebrates (insects). Situation comes when both of these

friends are about to die as Wilbur is a pig who has been raised to

acquire meet by the humans or the masters, there fore his days have

been counted so far. On the other hand, Charlotte has to be died to

bring her 540 children into life. Her sacrifice is the only way to bring

her children from magnum opus to this real world. In this extreme

pessimistic situation, still both of the friends have care for each other.

Wilbur begs Charlotte to not die as he will look after her. On the other

hand, Charlotte assuages Wilbur that he should keep hope because it

was the miracle that he was brought in this farm and it will be another

miracle that he will not die. In this way, their friendship exemplifies

the consolation of each other in the time of profound miserable

situation. At this moment, the views of Aristotle, Cicero and Bacon

about friendship come upright to fit in with this situation. Moreover,

the researcher advises to the students of literature to go through this

movie to get a better understanding of the literature, particularly the

dialogues amid Wilbur and Charlotte when the days of both have been


2.4 Literature Review of animated film Ice Age

Since film Ice Age is an intensive part of researchers research,

it will be worth to bring some important works into consideration

before proceeding to next chapter for the exploration and analysis of

subject theme. Selection of the animated film Ice Age has further

two reasons. First, the researcher does not find any research regarding

this particular film with respect to the theme of friendship. A few

essays are found on internet like Ice Age Response which covers the

environmental aspect, Film Review of Ice Age and A Critique of

Ice Age. Many of the critics and viewers consider, its plot is a petty

one but it is a very wonderful peace of work for enjoyment. It is


beyond the doubt that this particular film covers many of the major

aspects of friendship according to the Friendship Theory. Since

the film is comedy and adventurous, viewers take keen interest in

watching this film therefore it is a very useful tool in understanding the

subject study effectively although the characters are not humans but

the language given to them is basically a work of human story writer.

Another aspect of this film is that it has language which is very simple

and easy to understand and while watching this film viewers as well as

students of English language learning can learn English more

effectively while understanding the nature of language and its use

according to different typical and crucial situations (in other words

they can easily understand lexical and semantic features as well).

This first work researcher finds about the subject film is the

Ice Age Response (this essay is accessible through internet,MLA

Citation is given in bibliography). This particular essay covers the

environmental aspect and beginning of the earth when all the

continents were a single unit of earth several million years ago. The

writer of this essay hails this film as a best mode of teaching history

such as origination of earth and its prehistoric animals. Since children

get bore of reading history, therefore, this film teaches in such a mode

which is very entertaining. This film provides suitable information

about the splitting up of continents in a funny way so children


spontaneously become curious to learn about the real historical facts

about origination of earth. Not only this, it also tells us the about the

diameter and the radius of the earth, layers of earth and their thickness,

and the core of the earth lies 6400 km down into the earth. This film

also leads us into the facts about an age lasting for millions of years in

which the continent is covered with ice proceeded by global warming

and further distribution of different continents into different areas

according to their unique weather and atmospheric conditions. It also

solves a major problem of understanding about the migration of

(prehistoric) animals by children who seem most curious about to

understand the facts of animal migrations. The children do read about

the fact of migrations by animals and they do also read the factors

which cause these migrations but these are not easily understandable

by the children because difficult terms make them bore while

understanding them. The researcher also confess about this fact that

when he was in that particular era when these factors were to be

learned, he failed to understand and learn them well, but after going

through this film, the researcher has come to understand them well

after a passage of many years.

The next work find on the subject topic is the Film Review of

Ice Age (easily cited on internet through the link mentioned in

bibliography). This essay or review as well, covers at least two major


aspects like (i) Family is important and (ii) No matter how different

people are, anyone can be friends. It is beyond doubt that the

friendship relation comes in second position after the blood relations

and this film proves while marking the first point that family is

important. In serial three of this particular film, Manny is fully

devouted to his family i.e. his wife and upcoming baby. His other two

friends also assist him in curing his family. Manfred pays more

attention to his family and shows less concern about his friends.

Although Ellie, his wife, asks him to also share a sufficient time with

his friends. Eventually, Sid and Diego are weird and tedious because

Manny does not pay a particular time to his friends therefore Sid and

Diego make a break away to find their own way. Moreover, Sid and

Diego do not posses any family therefore they feel sad and lonely amid

their friends and other animals of their herd. This fact truly indicates

the importance of a family. The second factor, inspite of a vast

difference between people, anyone can be friends at any level. In this

film, all these rag tag friends belong to different species i.e.

mammoths, sloth, saber-toothed tiger, opossums, weasel etc. and there

is an immense difference between their body structures besides their

adverse nature and living styles and standards. Inspite of vast

difference in their nature and living habits, they are united in a single

bond which is a relation of friendship and while helping and caring

each other, they present a perfect example of perfect and true


friendship where everyone is good himself, thinks good for others and

goodness is base of their bond.

At third stance, the researcher finds a critical work A Critique

of Ice Age (internet link is mentioned in bibliography). This

particular essay covers this particular film in such words that 20 th

Century Fox production has introduced us to a variety of animals who

are prehistoric. These prehistoric animals are in conquest of getting rid

of the upcoming cruel ice age while migrating to warmer climates. The

story revolves around the non-fiction animals. This critique regards

this story as a classic buddy story. The main plot of this animated

film gives a lot of information about the prehistoric animals and the

terrain which is existed at that time. According to this essay, viewers

are introduced to many of the prehistoric animals who get instinct

during their ages due to global changes and sudden disasters. There is

also a brief touch of the life cycles of these animals according to the

importance of migration from one place to another place which is still

in practice by a few animals like elephants and some water birds who

migrate when there is a change in weather from cold areas to warm

areas to sustain their lives. To sustain life, to search for better

environment and suitable living conditions, these migrations do not

occur only in animals but these also occur in humans as well.


It is commonly observed that during expeditions, many good

friendships come into being according to different critical situations

and events. Not only expeditions, but adventures too are the most

prominent factor of a strong bond of friendship when made by a

certain horde of companions. In the same manner, this animated film is

also an adventurous one besides an expedition by the animals of a

specific herd towards an area which is warm or comparatively less cold

than the area in which they are currently living. During these

expeditions and adventures, there definitely are some critical situations

during which the chances are availed to help each other which bring at

first different persons into friendship, then these friends come more

close to each other and finally result in making friendship more

concrete. Some of the friendships result in to the erotic friendships

which eventually turn into a permanent bond of marriage. These facts

are based on the nature, kind and gender etc. which result different

kinds and extents of friendships.




After delineating the theme of friendship in animated film Ice

Age, this theme will be analysed on the basis of the Friendship

Theory presented by M. E. Doyle and M. K. Smith.

This theory expresses some of the important features about the

friendship. Such as, at first, the theorists say that friendship takes

between good men. The writer of Ice Age practically proves this

feature while expressing his three main characters that are actually

very good and kind at heart. According to theorists the quality of

goodness is possessed by the good men and goodness perfects a

friendship. Same state seems reasonable when we go through the film

while observing that same fact of goodness. Secondly, the theorists say

that friendship, most of the times, is based on utility (need) and utility

(need) causes a friendship come in to being and when there is no utility

then friendship breaks away. The same element has also been surfaced

in this animated film when the protagonists bond into the relation of

friendship due to some certain needs and they leave their friends when

their utilities are fulfilled. In this point, their views seem familiar with

each others. Thirdly, the theorists discuss that the friendship is based

on pleasure. Pleasures also cause a friendship come into being and

when there are no more pleasures are find in friendship, it breaks away.

The same feature is also presented in this animated film by the writers.

The main characters of this film find their based on this particular

feature and remain friends until they seek pleasures. Afterwards, a

certain break up in friendship occurs when protagonists find no more

pleasure in their friendship. They set apart from each other to seek

pleasures from somewhere else. But, soon after their separation from

each other, at moment when they again start gaining pleasures from

friendship, they again come close to each other. Lastly, theorists agree

upon a point that perfect friendship is based on goodness. If the good

persons do not show goodness, then friendship is hardly possible to

occur. It is the goodness which makes the friendship good and the

characters of this animated film definitely pay goodness in one way or

another which makes their friendship bond stronger.

These are the major features upon which both the writers of Ice

Age and theorists of friendship theory, seem to be agreed. Ideas and

thoughts of both kinds of writers match with each other to some extent

whereas their belonging of the fields is different.





It has already been claimed by the researcher that the writers and the

producers of this particular film did not aim to portray the theme of

friendship. They seemed to be, and of course, they have earned a good

deal through this animated film while providing the amusement and

entertainment to the audience. They made a sturdy amount of money

after releasing this film. They did not indicate any particular theme

except presenting a good deed while leaving several points for several

interpretations by the viewers and critics as well. No doubt, many

views appeared on-the- record and so many off-the-record as well

about the subject animated film among which few have been already

mentioned in preceding chapter. In the same way, for the sake of a

different interpretation as observed by the researcher, the searcher aims

to delineate the theme of friendship in this film while bringing some

factors into considerations which are more or less important features

and aspects of friendship covered by several theorists in friendship


If we sow a seed of a particular plant or tree, we sow it very

carefully, compassionately and devoutedly because we expect a very

fruitful plant or tree for the sake of utility in coming future may be for

a specific period or which may be for a life time and even if a tree

grows more green and prosper then the advantages extend further for

the upcoming generations. But in sowing a seed or planting a plant, we

have nothing to do more except looking after it or taking care of it. The

particular plant or tree grows upon its own natural instinct. If a plant

starts growing, then there is an uncountable ecstatic delight and that is

hardly explainable by any one because this particular person has paid

his personal efforts in sowing it in the way of achieving his goal. Sine

an ever green tree can be sustained for thousands of years and its life

depends upon the careful attitude by the utilitarian that in which

manner they care for this particular tree. On the other hand, nature

sows seeds of different plants and trees at its own and nature looks

after them because it is the nature who can look after more gently and

carefully. It is beyond doubt that the nature is the only painstaking and

industrious who works out thoroughly in its any commitment. Upon

this painstaking endurance by nature, many other living beings take

advantages from these plants and trees. In the same way, friendship has

also such stances whether we make friendship with our personal efforts

(or intention) or it occurs spontaneously. At first stance, if we want to

achieve it by our personal endeavours, it might not always be certain


that we achieve this because it depends upon the response of other

person whether his interest or taste matches with our tastes or not. If

we make a friendship for the sake of taking some advantages such as to

express ourselves, or to express our inner feelings, grievances, and

emotions, it may not be necessary that the other person will draw

spontaneously near to you. The matter may not be only expressing

feelings and emotions but may be of utilitarian as well to sustain your

self. The response by other person may not be the same as one expects.

This is a same example like sowing a seed. We sow a seed and leave

the rest on nature. In the same way, friendship depends upon the matter

of taste and mood of other person. This intentional friendship has this

typical stance, if you extend your hand to shake it to make a friendship,

it may not be necessary that the other person will response as you are

expecting for. This is a natural phenomenon, if tastes and moods match

naturally, then there is chance of a friendship come into being. On the

other hand, if we keep a view on the other example in which nature

itself seeds and plants a tree, when no one pay their personal efforts to

make any friendship, then at a particular time when their stars get

closer and matcheach others, the friendship will occur spontaneously.

The researcher regards the later stance, if some certain qualities such

as taste, thoughts and goals match with each other, then there will

certainly be an existence of friendship. This friendship will not only be

just a friendship, but it will be a perfect and ideal one and its benefits

may long last till the succeeding generations as we have witnessed so

many examples in our real life.

On the basis of these personal assumptions by the researcher,

the researcher aims to portray the major facts like goodness, utility and

pleasure and their role in making or breaking a friendship according to

the selected theory about friendship while mingling the writers views,

the theorists views and the researchers own views. A tree needs to be

looked after because fertile soil, water, carbon dioxide and sunlight are

not sufficient make it grow and become fruitful. Although a tree has

plenty of natural ingredients for its growth, but it is still in need of to

be looked after because many other extraneous elements can cause it

damage or can cause it worthless of growth and fruitfulness. Good

aims and intentions can keep a tree alive and growing up with a natural

and constant pace, pleasure can make it prosper, utility can cause it to

become fruitful and goodness can preserve it forever. In the same way,

friendship is just like a tree. It comes into being naturally as a natural

phenomenon is stored in it which causes it to occur naturally or we can

also say that friendship contains a natural potential for its coming into

being. Goodness, good persons, pleasures and utilities are the

extraneous factors which play a meaningful part for the tree of

friendship in such way that good persons keep it alive, pleasures make

it prosper, utilities make it fruitful and goodness makes it perfect and


eternal. On the basis of these facts, theorists have highlighted these

major factors in their theory. While keeping the importance of these

major factors, the researcher has also the aim to delineate the theme of

friendship in the same chapter in succeeding paragraphs.

4.1 Friendship is a natural phenomenon and it takes place

amid good persons and is based on goodness

In the same way as expressed in previous paragraphs, a similar

situation occurs in becoming a friendship into being amid the three

main characters of subject film Manfred, Sid and Diego by the end of

first serial. The point of view of story writer explains the same stances

about a friendship as mentioned previously. These three characters

have different moods, intentions and tastes. Manfred is a strong fellow,

has no or less fear of any thing, proves to be more gallant and likes to

be alone and silent since he is the only single being of his race left

behind on the earth in the opinion of other animals of his particular

herd. Manfred is secluded most of the times before meeting with Sid

and always thinks about the existence of other animals of same specie.

What so ever the feeling and emotions do Manfred have, but he is

infact a good person at heart and it is revealed through this film that he

is found of helping other animals of the herd. On contrary to Manfred,

Sid is physically weak, sloth, frightened of danger and seclusion,

comparatively small in posture and belongs to a specie of slow moving


mammals who used to live on trees and as well as more talkative. Sid

is mostly worried about to sustain his life while seeking a shelter

which can retain him alive. This shelter is more reliable in the form of

friendship while making a strong and giant fellow a friend who can

protect him from unknown fears, dangers or any unexpected disaster.

All the facts and figures about Sid are negative in nature except an

only plus point that he is also a good person and he is good at heart

too. A natural goodness has been preserved in his heart which plays

more important role in preserving his life. On third hand, the character

of Diego adds another dimension of friendship as a natural

phenomenon. Diego is a tiger and also a predator who hunts the

mammals as mammals serve for the hunters like tigers as prey. Diegos

stance is cunning because he works for a tribe headed by Soto to find a

remarkable rank amid this particular tribe. He works cleverly to

achieve a prominent rank amid a tribe pertain to his own specie. The

specie represents a particular race or class allegorically. The stance of

Diego also exemplifies a separate social class and is a representative of

a regional difference also. No doubt, Diego is a smart, active, fast

running and intelligent character in this film.

At this moment when several characteristics have been

discussed about these three fellows, there is a vast difference midst

these three characters while being the possessors of different regions,


classes, species, races, characteristics, moods and attitudes. Their aims

are different, their intentions are different and their attitudes and

perceptions are extremely different. Their attitudes from three different

angles merge into the three different dimensions of the relation of

friendship. If we start from beginning, Sid is wandering here and there

who is an abandoned member of his own tribe or specie because of his

foolish and indolence stance amid his family. Incidentally, Sid comes

across two megacerops (rhinos) who intend to kill him because Sid

ruins their salad. Eventually Sid is saved by Manfred after a gallant

and victorious fight. After saving Sid, Manfred intends, as well as asks

Sid to apart from him and find his own way. On contrary to this, Sid,

who looks more worried about his sustenance, does not want to be

apart from Manfred. Sid starts walking along with Manfred besides

talking foolishly. Sid even offers Manfred to become his friend while

claiming that they can do well as a team. Manfred is not intended to

become a friend of Sid because he possesses different attributes. Now

they are on an expedition like the other animals of the herd to migrate

towards south. This companionship is based on the basis of utility from

Sids point of view and Sid is more inclined to utilize this utility. They

both spend a whole day and a night together during their expedition.

Manfred does not pay any attention to what Sid says and does.

Manfred is now slightly affectionate with Sid but still he is not ready to

recognize Sid as his friend. On next very morning, they start again

their expedition. After a while, they find and save human baby Roshan.

At this moment, their journey takes another turn. After saving Roshan,

Manfred leaves him at that very spot where there he saves him and

assumes back his journey again. On contrary to Manfred, Sid does not

leave the baby there because he is kind and good at heart. Sid

immediately makes a point that Manfred is forgetting some thing.

Manfred exclaims that heinfact wants to get rid of the thing he has

saved prior to saving Roshan. Then Manfred leaves both of them and

starts walking at his on. Sid takes up Roshanand intends to return him

to his parents.Sid starts climbing up a hill to reach the tents where

Roshans family is staying previous night. Manfred after walking a

while, unintentionlly returns back when he sees Sid and Roshan in

extreme danger as they both are about to fell from the hill because the

way climbing up the hill is too steep and lofty. This attitude by

Manfred is an indication of a factor heading towards the relation of

friendship. This factor also points towards the phenomenon of

friendship. Although Manfred does not intend to be a friend of Sid but

he flows towards it spontaneously because he is infact a good person

and also good at heart. At this moment remarks by Aristotle and Cicero

qualify the fact of goodness because both Manfred and Sid are them

selvesgood persons and their stance is helping. This is one valid factor

or indication of theme of friendship in this particular film.


Afterwards, in the mean time when Sid and Roshan are in

danger of felling down of the cliff and Manfred comes close the cliff to

save them, Diego joins these fellows. Diego claims that he will guide

them in the way of returning Roshan back to family. Diego is actually

intended to get Roshan to supply him to his chieftain Soto to gain

access to a major rank in tribe. By hook or crook, Diego is fully

resolved to get Roshan but in presence of Manfred it seems difficult

for him. Alone, Diego is not able to do any thing to get Roshan. Since

Diego is very intelligent, he also has a plan to lead these two mammals

to an ambush as a prey which is necessary to sustain their lives. Diego

shows humbleness and compassion to make Manfred and Sid believe

on him. Even Diego uses the word friend while talking to Manfred

as (my) name is Diego friend. Manfred replies (my name is)

Manfred, and I am not your friend. So, Manfred seems not ready at

all to accept any one as his friend. Sid looks worried at this moment

because he smells the air of danger but does not lose patience because

Manfred is with him and in the presence of Manfred no harm can be

done to him. Now they start their journey to find the family of Roshan.

Apparently, they are now a team but internally their motives are

adverse from each other. Sid needs friends to sustain his self, Manfred

likes to be secluded therefore on achievement of the goal he will depart

from these two fellows and Diegos stance is cunning, he is a member

of team to gain his own personal goal. Diego pretends to be generous


and loyal but in real, he is not. At this point, there are three contrary

facts adverse to a good friendship. They are bonded in companion ship

for the sake of their own utilities and purposes. During the way, all

three find different certain amusements which increase their fondness

of each other. They become more close to each other and their attitudes

become slightly changed but their intentions are still unchanged. They

do well as a team to meet many problems occurred during the

expedition. All circumstances lead them towards a way in which a true

friendship can be gained and eventually they achieve it. During their

expedition, a moment comes when an incident of volcano happens.

Since they are journeying on ice, lava makes this ice melt quickly with

in a few minutes and they get trapped on a few chunks of ice which are

still melting. While jumping from one ice chunk to another, Sid and

Manfred manage to reach at solid part of the peak but Diego is left

behind and trapped on a chunk of ice. Manfred risks his life and saves

Diegos. Diego asks Manfred, why did you do that, you could have

died trying to save me. Manfred replies, thats what you are doing in

herd,look after each other. This moment is a turning point for all these

three fellows. Their thoughts get changed immediately after this

incident and they become friends in real to some extent because Diego

suffers an internal conflict at this moment. Looking after each other

and helping each other are two important factors of friendship which

lead in finding the theme of friendship in this film. Their turn of


friendship does not stop here only with the change in stance of Diego

because there is a lot more needed to become real friends. Their

friendship at this point is like a bud which newly shoots out of the stem

of a tree. Newly gained friendship is very sensitive as it needs a lot of

nourishment to grow up to a solid one. This is why Diego seems

worried at this moment because all these fellows are very close to an

ambush. Then immediately Diego tells about his job and asks for

pardon. Manfred and Sid immediately turn against him because of his

deception and bringing them very close to their death. Now they do not

have any other choice except trusting Diego because Diego exclaims in

such words, youve to trust me because I am your only chance, I can

help you out. These two factors trust and help are also important

elements of friendship. These elements are a clear indication of the

facts which lead into delineation of theme of friendship because trust

and help are vivid attributes of friendship. Afterwards, they three plan

jointly how to escape away from this ambush or how to overcome on

an eminent disaster which eventually can result into their death. Diego

plays a vital role in this situation. Soto and his other fellows succeed to

come so close to get them all. Diego risks his life while conducting a

battle against Soto. Since Soto is too strong, he fights furiously and

knocks Diego down. Diego gets severely injured and lays unconscious

while trying to save Manfred while assuming that if Manfred gets

saved;Roshan and Sid will automatically be saved. Eventually Manfred


succeeds in slaying Soto and banishing other tigers away of them. This

act by Diego is for the sake of friendship while saving friends. At this

point, these three companions become friends in real and their stances

such as goodness, helping, trusting, looking each others backs and

working together as a team prove their friendship more solid and

concrete. These factors are no doubt the important aspects of

friendship. After returning Roshan back to his family, their attitudes

and stances are totally adverse as possessed by them in the beginning

of this film. Now they are totally changed and their emotions and

feelings for each other are absolutely admirable. Sids stance is foolish

but his pure emotions add sturdy meaning to lead a way towards a

solid bond of friendship from beginning of the film to end.

4.1.1 Analysis with the feature of goodness of theory of


According to the subject theory selected for analysis, the

theorists claim their first feature as a perfect friendship is based on

goodness. Infact this fact does not need any justification because it is

universally true. They further say in support of this fact that the perfect

friendship only lies among those persons who are good themselves and

they possess goodness equally. Since these people who are good

friends, are infact good themselves therefore they wish good for each

other. Those friends are true friends indeed who wish the good for each

other. In the result of good will and wish, the friendship amid such men

is long lasting. This friendship lasts as long as these friends remain

good to each other because goodness is an enduring quality.

This words expressed by these theorists become true when we

go through the subject animated film from the point of view of good

and goodness. It is beyond doubt that all three fellows are good at

heart them selves. Their moods and intentions are far different from

each other but the thing brings them close and bonds them into the

strong bond of friendship is their own naturally preserved (by Manfred

and Sid) and eventually gained (by Diego) goodness. Right from the

beginning, first Sid offers for friendship to Manfred but Manfred

refuses, then afterward Diego also calls Manfred a friend but Manfred

not ready to accept both of the times both of them as friends. Diego is

not a good person right from the beginning but he possesses the quality

of goodness to some extent and eventually he gains the quality of

goodness after experiencing too many good attitudes. On contrary to

Diego, Sid and Manfred are good persons because they are vegetarians

whereas Diego is a predator who eats meat therefore he may not

deserve the goodness. Any how, while inspiring by the goodness of

Manfred and Sid, Diego also becomes good at heart and gains the

quality of goodness. The risky act of saving Diego by Manfred is a

turning point which turns Diego from a bad guy to a good person.

Diego is truly inspired, first by Manfred and then by Sid. Moreover,

Diego proves himself good while risking himself too. He saves

Manfred which is a proof of his goodness. Diegos goal eventually

changes while conforming to other two companions. Manfred is good

person right from the beginning of the film when he saves Sid from

megacerops while exclaiming, you know, I dont like animals who

kill for the sake of pleasure. Manfred says this because he is good and

possesses goodness. He not only saves Sid and Diego but also keeps

safe Roshan until he returns Roshan to his family. Sids stance of

goodness reveals when he does not leave Roshan at the bank of a river

and adopts the baby to return to his herd (family). Inspite of refusal by

Manfred, Sid intends to return the baby back at his own although this

is not possible for him to do it alone. Therefore, on the basis of their

goodness, a very strong bond of friendship appears amid them by the

end of the first serial of this film and this also longs for other three

serials as well.

Both theorists further state in regard with the same feature in

about such words that good friends always please each other because

goodness is a pleasing stance. Good persons always please each other

because of their good conduct. When one friend does well and good to

other friend, then in exchange the friend certainly does well and good

to first one. This exchange occurs mostly on equal level. In this course

they, both of the theorists, regard this feature in following words

Friendship of this kind is permanent,

reasonably enough; because in it are united
all the attributes that friends ought to

According to these lines, the factor of pleasing each other does also

exist in this film. All three characters find pleasing each other at

different occasions in one way or other, openly or in the dark. Manfred

pleases first Sid, then Roshan while taking care and looking after him

and finally Diego while saving him from a certain death. In the same

way, Diego also pleases while saving Manfred and Sid besides human

baby Roshan. InfactRoshan is found in more danger than other two

because he is an infant and also the major focus of slaughter. Their act

of pleasing each other brings them close and into a strong bond of

friendship which seems eternal and infact is eternal because it lasts

long till the end of serial four of this film. The thing which is vividly

good is definitely pleasant. These are such qualities which are

plausible and admirable. The theorists highlight this view in such

words what is absolutely good is also absolutely pleasant. These

qualities are no doubt lovable and it is a general observation

commonly find in a society. Since this quality is lovable therefore it is


mostly find amid good men and both love and friendship are chiefly

found in the highest form.

It is the good men who judge the good acts of other good men which is

no doubt pleasant and leaves the long lasting effects on this relation.

But to judge the naturally preserved quality of goodness, one good

person needs particular time and also needs to be well familiar with the

other good person to become tied in relation of friendship. A person is

never able to accept any other person as friend until he is not able to

recognize him well and his real importance is not revealed to him. On

the point of intimacy and worthiness, the theorists say they need time

and intimacy. A sufficient time is always required to become fully

acquainted with each other. One person can not accept the other man or

become his friend until a specific time come when it is proved that the

other person is really of such worth to be accepted as friendship or

love. Trust is the main thing which is needed to be won at all

circumstances. It is a general observation and the researcher also

assumes that when you do not trust on any other person, you remain

always panic about him. You may remain attached with him as a friend

but your mind never goes on to trust him although you are sharing so

many activities jointly.

Then afterwards a question raises that if a person whom you are

going to make a friend is worthy enough to make him a friend or if he


is not worthy enough to make him a friend. You can say it in simple

words that does a person worthy of friendship or not. To answer this

question, the theorists do say that the friends those are worthy of

friendship are those who have in themselves the qualities which

attract affection. They further add that man of this kind is rare and

indeed all excellent things are rare. Because there is nothing so hard

except finding a thing which is entirely and completely perfect.

When we start watching this particular film, from the right

beginning we are not able to predict whether three friends are worthy

of friendship or not. The stance of Sid only indicates when we proceed

further with the film that he possesses such qualities which make him

worthy of friendship to some extent because of some factors already

discussed. Eventually, Manfreds qualities appear which prove him

more worthiness than Sid, but Diego is unpredictable until we exceed

more than half of the film because this tenure takes time to convert him

from worthless to worthiness. And by the end of the first serial, he

proves himself worthy of friendship. The qualities possessed by these

friends, if we take a glance in our surroundings, are really rare. In

regard with this example, a very famous saying by Ahmed Faraz (a

well known Pakistani poet) perfectly accords with this fact, dost

hotanahi her hath milanaywala (which means, not every one is a

friend who shakes you hand). So, worthiness is a rare quality to be a


good friend for eternal friendship. Every one who meet you daily,

have gossips with you, spend a sturdy time with you, have some

opinions familiar with your opinions and etc. is not an indication of

worthiness for a good friendship but it is an innate or God gifted

quality which enables a man to be worthy of a perfect friendship. Even

if it is not innate of God gifted possession, but any one can achieve this

quality with a meaningful endeavour. If one does not possess such

quality, he can achieve it to make himself worthy like Diego who does

not possess in the beginning but by the end he does so.

This term does end with worthiness as well. A further quality of

virtue also contains a meaningful weight in the block of goodness.

Virtue means a moral excellence. Moral concerns with accepted rules

and standards of human behavior. So morality is a quality which

enables one to make distinction between good and bad. If a person is

morally good, then he is a man of virtue. The theorists express their

views about this quality in such way that virtue is such a thing which

creates a friendship at one hand and at the other it preserves the

friendship. They further say about virtue in following lines that

On it depends harmony of interest,

permanence, fidelity. When Virtue has
reared her head and shewn the light of
her countenance, and seen and
recognized the same light in another, she
gravitates towards it, and in her turn

welcomes that which the other has to

shew; and from it springs up a flame
which you may call love or friendship as
you please.

On the matter of virtue, these three friends definitely possess this

quality, Manfred and Sid right from the beginning while carrying

human baby Roshan and before reaching the end of first serial Diego

achieves this quality too. Diego is not a person of virtue but he himself

analyses, learns and adopts this quality while recognizing from the

behaviours of Manfred and Sid who are resolved to achieve a goal of

returning Roshan to his family. Not only this, if we go through third

serial The Dawn of the Dinosaur of this particular film, we find a

character named Buck who presents his services disinterestedlyto

help them in rescuing Sid from the clench of a dinosaur. Buck

endangers himself while doing this deed and eventually all together

achieve their goal. Due to this quality of virtue Buck becomes their

very good friend who even gets ready to come out of his own

underworld. Buck while going to outer world along with other friends

stops and returns back into the underworld, but he leaves his memories

to other friends because of his good quality of worthiness and virtue.

So, in this way you can say virtue is another aspect of friendship which

makes friendship strong and eternal, and stands never less than any of

the other good qualities.


4.2 Needs (personal/social) and utilities cause the

friendship to come into being

The researcher has quoted an example of tree in the beginning

of this chapter. This tree needs something more for its nourishment

than other natural available ingredients. A tree not only needs water, air

and light but also needs to be looked after and cared. The persons who

are in need of oxygen, a cool shadow in summer, chunks of wood to

burn them to get heat and coziness in winter, ample fruit for eat to

sustain their life, greenery to sooth their eyes and fresh their minds,

and many other benefits they definitely pay some thing back to the tree

to fulfill their needs. In this way to fulfill their needs, a tree serves

them as a utility. In the same way a friendship does so. Needs and

utilities provide the basic ground to the tree of friendship. Needs are

the most important part of life. Where ever life exists, needs exist. No

one can deny this fact. There are several kinds of needs such as needs

to sustain life, needs to live a life, needs to retain your social status in a

society, needs to earn your wages, needs to express your self, needs to

express your feeling and emotions, needs to be looked after, needs to

look after others, needs to overcome problems, needs to overcome

hunger and starvation, needs to overcome diseases, needs to overcome

disasters and son on. There are also needs belong to self such when

some one says, I need to do this or that, I need to know this or that,

I need to tell some one or some one needs to tell me, I need to

lessen my burden being felt at my brain or heart, I need to go there,

I need some one to help me or if there anyone needs my help, I

need a family to live with, I think that family needs me, I need to

look at you, I need you to listen to me and so on. Needs, whether

personal or social, are always there where humans or animals do exist.

Where there is existence of life there is existence of needs. On the

basis of needs many theorists regard the need(s) as an important

factor in making or breaking any relation as well as the relation of

friendship. Some scholars say friendship comes into being on the basis

of need and some scholars say that friendship does not come into being

on the basis of needs but on the basis of utilities. Needs is an

important factor which strengthens this particular relation of


Similar situation on the base of needs does also exist in this

particular film. Sid, first of all, needs some fellow with whom he can

walk and talk, express his feelings and exchange his emotions. We find

Sid in this film as a more talkative person who is unable to stop his

tongue which keeps on slipping unconsciously. Most of the times Sid

is busy in talking whether other friends listen to him or not. Talking

with others is an effective tool to lessen your burden and if the hearer

is your best friend then nothing works better than this. In the same

way, Sid utilizes friendship to express his thoughts and emotions

whether consciously or unconsciously. We observe at many occasions

that if Manfred and Diego try to make him quiet, as he is not able to be

quiet for long, because sooner or later a while he starts on speaking

again. Sid can not stop himself talking whether significant or

worthless. Till the end of first serial of this film, Sid is used to talk to

not only with Manfred and Diego but also with baby Roshan although

Roshan is not able to talk. His habit does not extinct in first serial, but

his stance is same in other next three serials such as in The Dawn of

the Dinosaurs when Diego departs from herd and Manfred is busy

with his family, Sid is very desperate and pessimistic. Sid also starts

moving on aimlessly while abandoning the herd too, and finds three

dinosaur eggs. He paints the faces in three different modes on eggs

while using coal and starts talking them. Indeed these eggs do not

become his friends but he adopts them as his children while becoming

their mother. It is because Sid needs some one or some sort of activity

to spend his time and keep on flowing his feeling and emotions

through his tongue. It is his need that there should be some one who

listen to him and understand his feelings. On the base of need, he is in

intention to build any relation; friendship or any other relation. His

need enforces him spontaneously to do this act of making any relation

whether it is friendship or any other relation.


Not only Sid, if you see in this same serial, Buck is also in need

of talking and expressing himself. Buck is also in need of help others

because he needs to express his self as an able and gallant person. This

sort of need is very unique and typical but still this is a need and if you

take a glance in society around you, you will find many examples of

this kind that people like to be friendly and helping to express their

selves. You can not say this factor as showiness, but you can not deny

this fact as well. No doubt, there are some typical examples of

showiness and affectations, but to distinguish amid this fact and

showiness is pretty hard. For easy understanding you can say the first

kind as pride and the later, showiness, as proud. Some people take

pride while helping others and some like to be proud after helping

others. Pride in a sense, when you do not have any personal interest

and proud, no doubt, is full of personal interest. So example of Buck

here is as he feels pride while doing gallantry in way of helping other

companions in rescuing Sid. In this way, friendship is utilized to

express talent, abilities, intelligence, smartness, activeness and bravery

etc. Here at this stance of Buck, to utilize his abilities, he uses

friendship as utility. Serial three reveals that Buck is fond of a giant

baryonyx Rudy and by the end of this serial, Buck puts a leash on

Rudy and takes a ride on him. To tell others about his abilities, he

needs some fellows to express his self and he finds the fellows to listen

to him and admire his gallantry in the shape of friends.


Manfred, contrary to Sid and Buck, likes to keep silent and

secluded but he too speaks and expresses his emotions. Many a times it

is observed, silence teases Manfred when Sid stops talking for a while

then Manfreds expressions are okay, alright and so on. This is

because Manfred too need to speak and express himself or rather likes

to listen to any one to avoid silence at two or three occasions. In this

scenario, utility of friendship works for him to abolish the silence

which makes him worried. It is also from the beginning of the film that

Manfred is the only being on this earth whose race has been extinct

and most of the times he is worried about a mate not only to break his

seclusion or hermitage but to continue his race ahead. He is the only

and lonely being who does not like to blend with the other members of

herd. But after a while when he comes into the company of Sid

unwillingly, his mood gets changed eventually and a companionship

becomes his need to lead his life while recognizing the reality that

there is hardly a chance he may get his pair. So to fulfill his need, he

unwillingly fells in to the bond of friendship and this friendship is a

utility for him to mitigate his seclusion and to spend good time


Diego also talks too less. He talks according to need or

situation. His stance is typical because he likes or rather loves

adventures and due to his fondness of adventures he does need friends


to diminish his thirst. He does not need to express him self, but he does

need someone to help when someone is in trouble or in need and he

does this without any personal interest. He seems more modest amid

the group of friends.

There are few other friends such as Ellie, Crash and Eddie who

are also in need to survive the disaster to sustain their joyful life. Now

at this point, their stance is a lot different from previous three fellows

although these are also the good fellows. When we come across

through these later fellows (in serial two), we observe that their

friendship is infact based on utility. Since these are opossums and

afraid of travelling at day and need protection while travelling at day

time because they are to face some certain dangers like hawks as they

serve for them as preys. On contrary to this, Manfred, Sid and Diego

can not travel at night and they need the guides in the shape of

opossums to lead them at night towards their destination. So their

friendship is based on utility for their sustenance as the second serial is

named as The Meltdown and there is going to be flood with in three

days and they are supposed to travel all this time to reach a ship which

is the only chance of survival for all the animals of herd and some

other animals who used to live nearby. In this sort of friendship it is not

necessary that friends like and respect each other for example there is a

tussle amid Diego and Crash and Eddie. Diego is extremely annoyed

against Crash and Eddie and vice versa. On the other hand, Manfred

also does not like the newly joined friends into their company. But

since their goal is the same and their expedition is on the same track so

they move ahead altogether. Why they travel together, because it is

their need to reach safe and sound at the destination and by utilizing

this utility of friendship they can fulfill their purpose.

The typical example of Sid is also the one that is based on

utility. Sid needs to sustain his life. Sid is also weak and can not defend

him self against any of the foe or natural disaster. This particular

character is almost helpless in the way to sustain his life. He possesses

no such quality which make him survive at his own but a brilliant art

of speak. He inspires others through his speaks. His style of talking is

very soft and typical, and a proverb perfectly suits here in the manner

of Sid that sweet words even win haughty hearts. And it does so, Sid

enthrals not only the friends of him but also an extremely wild beast

tyrannosaurus (a female dinosaur, the mother of three adoptees by Sid)

in the third serial of this particular film. He uses this quality to utilize

friendship for his sustenance especially in beginning of the first serial

and when we proceed further it seems that Sid has become independent

and can sustain his life without his friends but it is not the such case

because after becoming friend with Manfred and Diego, he is

automatically protected as these friends are always with him. When we


talk about serial three The Dawn of Dinosaurs, Sid is confident that

tyrannosaurus will not harm him whereas tyrannosaurus is extremely

annoyed and sloths are also the prey for a tyrannosaurus.

Tyrannosaurus is always after her prey but her three baby

tyrannosauruses intervene in the way of slaughter and eventually this

giant female tyrannosaurus also becomes affectionate of Sid because of

his excellent quality of speak and makes him also a friend and this

friendship is further utilized to get saved not only Sids but the lives of

other friends as well.

There is another kind of need that is Sid needs to return Roshan

to his family because he is kind and good at heart. Sid is not able to

perform this task alone and he needs some one else who is able enough

to help him. Then Manfred joins Sid to help him achieving his goal

because Manfred is also a good and kind hearted and also likes to help

others. Helping others is also a kind of need to express your self, and

Manfred also does this act. Now a temporary friendship comes into

being on the base of need, need to help others because of their inner

goodness. Manfred many a times exclaims different remarks. For

example he says, I am still trying to get rid of last thing I saved, but

does not get rid of last saved thing because he is in need to empty the

thirst of innate goodness. At another occasion he says, there is no us

but he is with Sid and they are two fellows with one mission and still

he passes these words. He further asks Sid, alright, Ill bring you to

his (Roshans) herd but promise me youll leave me alone after that

and the sooner we find the humans, the sooner I can get rid of stinky

drool face and the baby too and so on. Against all his exclamations,

Manfred does not leave any one of the fellows until the promise by

him with himself is not fulfilled. On adverse to this, Diego also needs a

friendship to get pink baby (Roshan) because his motive is contrary to

Manfred and Sid. His needs are odd in the way of making friendship

but still this friendship is upon the need and he utilizes friendship to

achieve his goal.

4.2.1 Analysis with the feature friendship based on utility

Theorists of this particular theory express this feature in such


Utility is an impermanent thing: it changes

according to circumstances. So with the
disappearance of the ground for friendship,
the friendship also breaks up, because that
was what kept it alive.

They further state that this kind of Friendship occurs most frequently

amid the people belong to the age of fifty or more. This sort of

friendship is less frequent in the people who belong to the middle age

or to early of life. The sort of people belong to middle or lower age

spend less time together. This is because they may be do not like each

other. They feel that they do not need of such company unless they

realize their mutual usefulness. When they are hopeful of finding any

advantage then they get ready to take pleasure from the company of

each other. The theorists further highlight the fact that these sort

friendships usually occurs with the foreigners.

Not only these theorists, but many other theorists talk about the

same fact with different other more or less familiar words. Needs are

the part of life and we need to fulfill certain needs on about each and

every step of life. These needs are generally of two types

i. Needs pertaining to self to express your self, emotions

and inner feeling etc.

ii. Needs pertaining to commodities or materials to sustain

your life.

First type of needs is purely for the sake of pleasure purpose. To

express your self, to express your emotions and feelings, the utility is

quite different which is purely based on communication purpose. You

utilize friendship to communicate and interact with your friend(s). You

not only convey your personal feelings or emotions but also your

companions exchange their feelings or emotions too. You not only talk

but also listen to your friends. This deed is purely based on almost

equal give and take. This kind of friendship is most frequent in people

belong to age from about 18 40 years. This era can further be sub-

categorized as well which is not required at the moment.

As per saying of these two theorists, utility is not a thing which

is eternal. When circumstances change, it changes accordingly. At the

point, to an extent of high degree, utility is the thing which keeps a

friendship alive. If there is no utility, there is no friendship as utility

provides a certain ground for this particular relation. The theorists of

under consideration theory do not make any difference whether this

utility pertains to self (expression or emotions) or the commodities

connected to a self to sustain life. While living in a society, any living

being is in need of both types of utilities except the animals who do

only need to sustain their life although biologists make assumptions

that to some extent animals also communicate to express their feelings

and emotions but it is not understandable by humans. In the scenario of

this, the factor of utility does find in this film is mostly about the

expression of ones own self i.e. expressing feelings and emotions (by

Sid) and need to do good because of eternal goodness (by Manfred

Diego, Sid, Ellie and Buck etc). We also find the modes of utility in

several ways and also we find that friendship itself also serves as a

utility as friendship is utilized at many occasions. We can also make a

hypothesis on this matter that friendship is based on utility and as well


as friendship itself serves as a utility, that is utilized according to needs

and situations.

If we start analyzing these factors, it is observed right from the

beginning in the film that all of the major characters are in certain

needs which are required to be fulfilled. Sid takes the advantage or

rather wants to take advantage of a friendship to fulfill his needs

pertain to his inner self and as well as outer self. Manfred is in need of

a mate of his opposite sex because he is young and alone and needs a

fellow to communicate his feelings and emotions and transgress as

well. Diego at third hand, is also in need of a distinguished rank amid

his herd and this need is also pertained to his self but the mode is quite

contrary to Manfred and Sid. This need by Diego is a self based but

feelings and emotions are out of question in this stance (this point will

be further discussed in succeeding chapter). As a wild and saber

toothed beast, the priorities of Diego are totally adverse according to

the relation of friendship. At beginning of serial one, Diego is no more

than a beast who is in chase of a victim to fulfill his desire. He joins

the friends, not as a friend but as a beast for the sake of his own

purpose. Eventually his mind turns and he becomes civilized from a

beast. So this is of course a need pertain to his self but not for

expressing his emotions but for the sake of his innate nature of hunting

or slaughter for food and sustenance. When Diego gets changed, at this

moment, all these three friends are in possession of about the same

priorities. In first serial, these friends are in pursuit of same goal i.e.

carrying Roshan to his family. During their expedition, to spend good

deal of time, express their feelings, to head towards the destination

with any trouble and avoid loneliness, their utilities are same. It is their

prior utility to reach at destination successfully and on the base of this

utility, their friendship lasts. This friendship is temporary and is

primarily based on the utility and this utility keeps this friendship into

being. According to theorists, this friendship should go extinct after

there is no more need of any utility but the case is contrary to this

assumption, the friendship becomes real and truer, and well bounded.

What is the reason behind becoming this friendship more substantial;

will be discussed in succeeding part of this chapter in detail.

Second aspect of utility, contrary to self expression, pertains to

commodities which are needed to sustain an existence on this very

earth as a living being. To get food, to posses home and live safely

without worries, to make your self relax and at ease, to overcome some

certain fears and sudden disasters, and to carry particular vehicle of life

you need to have friendship and be friend with others. You can take an

example of a vehicle, when the battery gets discharged, you need

another person to make a push on your car so to get it started. You will

be highly obliged to that helping person and if this person is your


friend or becomes your friend then there is nothing fruitful than this.

Only expressing your self and emotions is not sufficient to pull your

cart of life but some other certain needs pertain to daily routine life and

those are so called the utilities. No one is perfect and complete, and

at the same way no family is complete and perfect to live at its own.

Everyone is to tackle with life or grapple with disasters and diseases

and being alone, this can not be done. Example of the character of Sid

and Diego perfectly suits here. Sid is in need of protection because

every required thing is available where there he lives but amid a wild

nature, he needs to overcome the fear of death and in this way when a

sturdy guard in the shape of friend fell from heaven than what to say

about it. And what to say about another example of friendship based on

utility while keeping the character of Diego in view, is not it horrible?

Diego makes Sid and Manfred friends for get human baby (Roshan)

and also to bring down a mammoth to an ambush for slaughter. The

researcher thinks or rather assumes at this moment that if these

theorists talk about friendship is based on utility, then no doubt this

friendship will exist until this utility is not fulfilled. This utility will

finished when, then it is certain that there will be no friendship any

more because when there is no further aim (returning Roshan) and no

more friends (Manfred and Sid as both are mammals and serve as the

prey for the beasts) then automatically there is no friendship or


existence of friends any more. The researcher wonders about this fact,

which has not been mentioned or portrayed by the theorists but it is

certain that both theorists would had this fact in their mind while

writing this theory because their knowledge and practical experience is

more vast, concrete and worthy than the researchers does. One

particular reason of not mentioning this fact is that may be this theory

or rather other similar theories have been presented on the basis of a

society purely based on people who are not enemies to each other as a

perfect example of a society and a social life where every one although

not friends but at least they are acquainted with each other and well

familiar with each other to some extent and this is an example of a

perfect or ideal society. If you are living in such society which is ideal

and perfect then you do not need to think about such facts. But if we

take a glance on the cities which are grown over populated then there

are at least three main facts or categories come into the mind about the

concept of enemy. The enemies which are vividly distinguished and

universally recognized are placed in the first category, where you are

well known of the enemies. The quality of these enemies is that they

are universally proclaimed enemies and there is a rare tendency that

they become friends because they do not live amid the society belong

to their enemies. In the second category, the enemies who are

absolutely the enemies but they come across in the name of friendship

to fulfill their fatal motives like Diego who also comes with the fatal

motives because he is a flesh-eater and Manfred, Sid and Roshan are

his preys. This type of enemies have tendency to become friends

because while living in the society there come certain turns which can

cause them to change their minds and become friends. At the third

stance, there are some enemies who are infact friends but due to some

reasons they turn their minds and become enemies as these are not the

ones those are universally proclaimed. You have solutions for previous

two categories of enemies but you do not have an appropriate solution

for the third type. This third fact of enemies comes under the discipline

of Psychology because this occurs due to psychological problems or

unhealthy conditions of mind of some particular mental diseases. Any

how, these facts about the enemies are not the matter of concern at the

moment with this research therefore going into further details is not

necessary. But these facts and aspects about enemies have a definite

connection with the relation of friendship which can not be neglected

because example (or rather character) of Diego absolutely matches

with the second category of enemies who comes into the relation of

friendship on the basis of utility along with the fatal motives but

eventually changes his mind after getting inspired of some very good

reasons and becomes a true friend in spirits. This is because he lives


amid them and practically observes the facts which compel him to

befriend rather than fulfill his fatal aims.

Another factor of this feature as described by theorists that

friendship which is based on utility most frequently takes place

between the elder people or you can say people belong to age of fifty

years or more. People belong to this age are in need of each other to

sustain their existence while seeking or helping each other. Their most

of the time is spent helping and assisting each other in daily routine

works. What ever they do, where ever they go, they do it altogether.

They mostly look after and take care of each other because youth and

adult people go out to earn wages. Due to this reason, the old people

are left alone in their homes and they do not have such activities in

which they seek pleasure. For better understanding about this factor,

reading a poem Growing Old by Matthew Arnold solves many clues

about the old age where old people do not need pleasures but utilities.

The mastery of Matthew Arnold is absolutely admirable regarding

explanation of this particular era of life. Waiting for Godot is another

typical example of this kind of friendship which is based on utility

when two old tramps need each other to spend their time and to avoid

fear of being alone. In the case of this particular film, none of the

characters have found old, so discussion about this factor is out of

question at the moment because the writers keep these characters


young even after passage of 20,000 years. Probably this factor

indicates the eternity of animal race as unlike the humans, animals,

generation after generation, born with same qualities as possessed by

their ancestors and their nature remains the same. It is the humans,

who born with different qualities as possessed by their parents. Due to

this factor, may be the writers of the Ice Age do not make these

characters grow old or if these characters grow old may be their

priorities get changed eventually according to the needs.

Scholars and theorists say friendship is, not only some times

but most of the times, based on needs at first hand and at the other,

needs strengthen the relation of friendship, then we can say a relation

comes in to being amid Manfred, Sid and Diego in first serial, further

amid these three former friends of first serial and Ellie, Crash and

Eddie in the second serial and amid these six former friends of first

two serials and Buck in third serial is based on a few particular needs

as discussed in previous paragraphs and utilities provide a solid ground

to them for the existence of a perfect friendship. This feature or fact

has also been described by the theorists of under consideration theory

and at this point writer the writers of this animated film and the

theorists of under consideration theory have same point of view about

this particular fact of friendship.


4.3 Pleasures cause the friendship to come in to being and

break away

Pleasures are far most part of life. No one says no to the fact

that every living being on earth enjoys or try to enjoy its life and seek

pleasures for its own satisfaction. Delight and gratification are not the

things that one can find on the road while wandering or strolling about

aimlessly. There are a lot of delights, enjoyments, gratifications and

satisfactions which entail pleasures. Pleasure is a thing which makes

you happy and satisfied but seeking a pleasure is not an easy job which

is done at its own. You have to endeavour to some extent to achieve

pleasure but it is not as easy task to be achieved. The more you invest

the more you get, is a typical proverb and the same fits also in the way

of seeking pleasure as a pleasure also demands you to invest time,

energy or even money to gain it in the shape of profit. When you get

oxygen, fruit, wood and shadow from a tree as the utilities, then you

also find the essence of freshness and greenery to sooth your eyes and

mind as well as pleasures. William Wordsworth also points towards the

same pleasures and joys while having a close contact with nature

during spending a time in seclusion. So is the case, friendship also

serves for some certain pleasures like a big green and prosper tree.

There are several ways of seeking pleasures. Feeling pleasure is

most concrete and worthy as with out pleasures and joys the life is no

more than thickets and thorns. And where there is a concept of flower,

the pleasant sensation is certain. When only an arbitrary idea of flower

makes your mind fresh and sensational then what to talk about when a

flower is itself in front of you. People seek pleasure through different

activities. Some people find pleasure in seclusion while being alone

like Wordsworth and meditating about something. Some find pleasure

amid noisy crowds for example watching various sports matches.

Some find pleasure through cooking different dishes and recipes with

heir own hands and serving to their guests. Some find pleasure through

working with their own hands as doing home work, some other petty

jobs related to the house and or several assignments. Some find

pleasure while listening to music according to their taste such as pop

music, classical music, jazz music, rock music or etc. Some people

read books, novels, poems, newspapers or other written works to spend

their time. Some find pleasure through visiting picnic places, historical

places and making adventures. Some find pleasure while being good

and helping others. There are several other forms or activities to

acquire self satisfaction. Like other sources of pleasure, friendship is

also a source of pleasure. Since the pleasure has direct link with

feelings, therefore it is an important factor for building a relation of

friendship. People want to express their feelings when they feel

necessary to communicate with others to reduce their stresses. Not

only to express but many a times they seek assuagement while


listening to consoling word by others. And when this consolation is

provided by a person who is a best friend then what to say about it. But

the matter is quite contrary to this, as pleasure is a factor which causes

a friendship come into being, gain climate and become weak or rather

die out by the end or fulfillment of pleasure. Pleasure is not a thing

which is durable. It changes according to the needs and desires.

Any how, as per perceptions and observations, pleasure stands

for at least two meanings

(i). Pleasure is a delight, satisfaction and enjoyment when

you have it. When you express or rather exchange your

feelings and emotions to satisfy your self and make

your mind cool, calm and happy, then this pleasure is a

form of delight and satisfaction. Not only the exchange

of feelings and emotions, but also when you share some

activities of common interest, like watching a cricket,

football or any other match, playing any game together,

travelling together or doing so many other social and

intellectual activities together, then this is also the cause

of seeking pleasure and satisfaction.

(ii). Pleasure is an honour and a sort of grace and respect

when you feel it. For example a person helps another


person in solving a problem, the other person becomes

grateful to him, then in this course first person

expresses his words in such a way, its a pleasure for

me which is a cause of honour and respect for him.

For a better understanding let us go through an example of charm, such

as charm in your life and charm in your self. Charm in your life

pertains to the first stance of pleasure when you have it in your

physical life while living such life in which you wear beautiful dresses

according to latest designs, keep your house up-to-date which looks

splendid to others, latest vehicles. This is some sort of physical

expression of your pride because you want to look descent, civilized

and well-bred. In the second stance, the charm in your self pertains to

the later stance of pleasure when you feel honour and respect in your

own self when it is natural and innate quality stored in your inner self.

This inner and innate charm does not need to be expressed, it comes

out spontaneously and there is no showiness in it. Any how, in each

and every case, the main point is satisfaction which is gained either

by enjoyment and delight or honour and respect. If you get your

desires fulfilled then you are satisfied. So the basic theme of pleasure

revolves around the factor of satisfaction which is gained in all

manners. Therefore it can be assumed that pleasure is a sort of mental

satisfaction either gained by joy or respect.


When we talk about this particular factor of pleasure, we find

the major characters always busy in seeking it. Sid feels pleasure while

expressing his feelings and emotions, Manfred feels pleasure while

helping others and Diego also wants to seek pleasure but not from the

friendship of Sid and Manfred but from Soto which is typically

contrary to forms of pleasures by Sid and Manfred. Although this is

also a pleasure which Diego intends to seek from the friendship of Sid

and Manfred but is adverse in nature. This stance for seeking pleasure

by Diego is temporary which starts from beginning and ends when this

film crosses its mid because Diegos mind changes eventually after

inspiring by some facts previously explained. It is observed almost in

all serials that Sid is in habit of seeking pleasure while communicating

his feelings and in this way he is constantly in habit of speaking to his

friends and other animals as well. Sids speaks indicate his innocence

and pure emotions. He is void of greed, affectation, impurity or other

hideous evils. His mind and heart is clear of malicious aims. That is

why he gains access to the pleasures without any difficulty. It will be a

pleasure to hand over Roshan to his family successfully. This type of

person always remains calm and satisfied but only on the condition

when he has the source of sharing his feelings and emotions. If he does

not have any opportunity to express his self, then this causes an

irritation or dis-satisfaction. This failure to avail the particular

opportunity of satisfaction causes a certain breakdown in the relation


of friendship and it is observed several times in this film. At first, in

the second serial The Meltdown Sid is not happy when he asks his

friends and other animals to respect him. Asking for respect from other

animals is probably a sturdy business but if the friends who are close to

him are not giving him the proper respect then it is truly embarrassing.

The person who is closely associated to you is not bothering you then

you feel certain dissatisfaction. Although Manfred and Diego try to

make him understand what the fact is and do not intend to demoralize

him but still he does not understand them well. Due to the attitude of

Manfred and Diego, Sid makes a breakup and climbs up a glacier to

attempt a suicide and makes only one condition to surrender his aim

that both of the friends should give him a proper respect for which he

deserves for. This act by Sid indicates that the absence of ground of

pleasure causes the extermination of friendship. Manfred and Diego do

not give him disrespect but still this attitude is not up to the mark as

expected by Sid therefore the ground of pleasure is missed which

causes Sid to turn away from his friends. Secondly, in serial three of

this particular film, at the beginning of the film, when Manfred is busy

with his family, Diego is not satisfied. Diego feels lonely and there is a

lack of delight and adventure. At this turn of situation, Diego makes

decision to depart from the friends. This deviation from friendship is

because of the absence of pleasure. Diego is an adventure guy and his

pleasure lies in the adventures. Sid assuages him and tries to persuade

him to not to leave his friends. Diego is resolved to make his own way

to find the pleasures for his own self while exclaiming that Manfred is

busy with his family and Manfreds priorities have been changed. And

in this way, Diego bids his friends farewell after being found no

pleasure for him. Due to this attitude by Diego, Sid also realizes the

dissatisfaction caused by the attitudes of Manfred and Diego as

Manfred is most of the times busy with his family and constantly

ignores his friends, and Diego has left his friends to seek pleasure from

some where else. In this way Sid also finds his own way to seek

pleasure for himself from somewhere else while exclaiming that he is

good at making friends and eventually he finds the consolation with

finding three eggs of a giant dinosaur and adopting them while

becoming mother of these three baby dinosaurs. Sids stance shows

that he has never been a friend of Manfred and Diego or animals. Now

his monomania is to keep his self stick with three baby dinosaurs for

his consolation. Manfred is most of the times busy with his family and

mostly concerned about his upcoming baby elephant with in few days.

Manfreds priorities do not indicate that he has left his friends but

seems more concerned about his family and less concerned about his

friends. He spends most time in decorating a park and making

arrangements for his upcoming baby. Due to this, his friends are

mostly ignored. This factor does not mean that he has abandoned his

friends or he has broken the friendship, but mode of pleasures has been

changed from one into another. The pleasures on which the base

friendship does exist, are no more sought by the friends. Infact their

friendship has not been broken but these friends find their own ways

for their consolations, delights, satisfactions and pleasures.

Another typical example of this particular feature is of Crash

and Eddie. These both fellows are brother of each other and extremely

fond of adventures, joy, delight and pleasure. They seek pleasure

through adventures and doing the things that are extra ordinary while

risking their lives. This doing of their extra ordinary is their

monomania. They do not compromise on any condition about their

obsession of seeking pleasure. They are brave but unwise as there is no

concept of death in their mind. They become friends with the

protagonists because these protagonists fulfill their pleasures in many

occasions. For example, Crash asks Manfred to fire him by a branch of

tree pulling down to earth then releasing it to produce a sudden thrust

to throw Crash into air. While asking this by Crash, he looks to be

uncompromising and uses a weak point of Manfred to black mail him.

Manfred does not have any other choice except fulfilling the desire of

Crash. So this act by Crash and Manfred indicates about a relation

based on pleasure. The friendship of Crash and Eddie with Buck in

third serial is also another example of this particular friendship. At this

point, these three fellows share the same attributes. These three fellows

love the adventures that are extremely dangerous and fatal. Like Crash

and Eddie, Buck also likes to put his life in danger and this particular

act by him is a sort of delight for him. This delight is certainly a

pleasure for him because while doing this he feels satisfaction and joy.

At one moment Buck is inspired by the attitude of Crash and Eddie,

and at another moment Crash and Eddie are inspired by Buck because

they certainly realize that their pleasures resemble with each other to

some extent.

Another example of friendship, very typical of pleasure, is

amid Peaches and Louis and amid Peaches and a few other young

mammoths of her age both male and female. The fact about these

characters is that all of these are young fellows who have just crossed

their teenage. Friendship based on pleasure most frequently takes place

among the people belong to this very age. Feelings and emotions are at

their peak in this particular age. Teenagers are more concerned in

expressing their selves than availing utilities. Louis and Peaches take

pleasure in expressing their feelings and emotions between each other.

Their pleasure lies with each other while wandering through the jungle

whole day and talking each other mostly about their inner feelings

about their selves and as well as about the world. Louis seems very

loyal and affectionate to Peaches and Peaches is most of the time busy

in telling Louis her male mate Ethon for which she has tender feelings.

When at the moment, the continental slip down or drift is in progress,

all of the animals are evacuating the continent, then Peaches comes

across the other young mammoths of her own age. One of the young

female mammoths asks Peaches that it is not good while Louis is not

with her. Further she asks that Peaches should become their friend and

points out an oddity about the friendship amid a mammoth and a

molehog. Peachess taste at this moment changes according to the

situation and her affection for Ethon. Peaches exclaims spontaneously

and shyly about the friendship amid her and Louis, we are not

friends. This is because there is a change in pleasure, and change is an

innate quality possessed by humans or to some extent in animals.

Louis becomes dishearten after the remarks by Peaches but this fact is

a natural element of life. Peaches also becomes a bit worried as she

hurts the feelings of Louis with no intention but the spoken words do

not turn back forever like an arrow out of its bow.

Previously mentioned facts are about feelings and emotions.

These tell the nature of friendship according to the personal

satisfaction and joy but on the manner of pride and respect, Manfred,

Diego and Sid look busy to represent this fact of pleasure. Let us start

right from beginning of serial one of this film. Manfred gains a pride

while saving Sid from the rhinos while exclaiming, I dont like

animals that kill for pleasure. The pleasure quoted in this stance is the

pleasure pertained to preceding paragraph. Not only this, Manfred does

many other brave deeds for the sake of pleasure which seems his

innate quality. Since he is a giant, brave and powerful mammoth, it is

his honour and pride to help otherswhich is also a source of pleasure

for him. He does not need to be proud of his qualities but honour and

pride come automatically to him without any effort of showiness or

affectation. At second stage, when Manfred saves Diego after a risky

deed in which he could have been died, Diego truly starts appreciating

his bravery and gives him honour and respect for which Manfred

deserves. At third stance, by the end of first serial, Manfred is

honoured by humans when a particular person, who is so known as the

father of Roshan, presents a typical medal of pride to Manfred which is

a cause of extreme pleasure for Manfred. Manfred is truly satisfied

with this sort of pleasure while being given a respect for which he

deserves. This tribute of pleasure also equally goes to Sid and Diego

because they both are also on same mission besides Manfred, and

when a group leader is rewarded with respect, then this respect goes

equally to other members of team. So this is also a pleasure for these

three friends because not only Manfred, but Diego and Sid also pay a

brave deed too to save Roshan and return him to his father. In this they

equally cheer the pleasure while being honoured by the humans and by

their selves as well. In another stance of Soto in the same serial is also

about a sort of pleasure in which Soto wants to seek pleasure through


slaughtering human baby Roshan to keep pride as his innate nature

amid other animals of the same specie. Sotos bravery is for avenge not

for help which is quite contrary to the pleasure sought by other three

friends. On the matter of Buck who also seeks pleasure while attaining

an impossible mission while rescuing Sid from the grasp of danger

while being in company with a giant female dinosaur out there in the

under world belong to the dinosaurs, is also a typical one who presents

his services with no personal interest. After his mission of rescuing Sid

is accomplished, Buck also seeks pleasure in the shape of honour and

respect. All members of Sid rescue team are very impressed and

pleased with him. They are grateful to Buck and offer him to join their

world when Buck exclaims his life is purposeless without a giant

baryonyx Rudy. Buck seems to have no pleasure without Rudy even

Rudy is his fatal friend. Buck wishes to enjoy the company of Rudy

although Rudy is extremely dangerous to him. This fact is not easily

understandable or rather explainable that what kind of this company or

relationship is in which Buck wants to seek pleasure while playing at

the door of death. By about the end, Buck leaves the company of Sid

rescue team and joins back Rudy when he finds that Rudy is alive.

4.3.1 Analysis with the feature friendship based on pleasure

The theorists state about this feature that the friendship based

on pleasure mostly occurs amid the young. This is why, because the

lives of the young are regulated by their feelings, and their chief

interest is in their own pleasure and the opportunity of the moment.

When their age grows more, there is a certain change in their tastes

besides the change in their age. Due to this factor, they are quick to

make and to break friendships; because their affection changes just as

the things that please them do and this sort of pleasure changes

rapidly. This is not so, the young people have also the tendency to fell

in love. Due to the factor of young age they are forced spontaneously

towards an erotic friendship because of the influence of the feelings

attributed to this particular age and this is also for the sake of pleasure.

This fact makes them fall in and out of friendship quickly. Certain

changes in mood can occur with in a same day. Young people like to

spend as more time as they can, because that is how they realize the

object of their friendship.

According to their first point, it is thought that the friendships

which occur amid the young people are usually based on pleasures.

The reason of this fact is that in this particular age the feelings of the

young people regulate their lives. In this very age, young people prefer

the feelings rather than wisdom. They become inspired immediately

when ever they see a thing matches with their taste. The friendship

possessed during the teenage is of quite emotional type. Friendship

stimulates to go on any extent for the sake of friendship due to strong


feelings and emotions. This age is quite energetic because young

people are full of newly governed energies. In this age, people are

joyful, playful, fond of adventures, inhabit visiting and exploring new

places every day. They arejesty, jolly and lusty fellows and use to do

those activities which make them satisfied both mentally and

physically. There are stormy excitements in their ocean of life. They

are always excited,anxious and as well as curious about each and every

new thing whether this thing is of their concern or not. If they get a

chance, they will make no any wastage of time to reach at the moon or

other planets beyond the moon or perhaps cross galaxies to reach at

heaven but this is not possible as it is out of their grasp. They are keen

to seek any opportunity in this age without missing any of the chance.

Expressing their selves and exchanging their emotions among each

other is most common activity at this particular age. Due these factors,

making and breaking friendship is most frequent in this age. At this

age, both of the elements are at the peak, making a friendship suddenly

and breaking a friendship suddenly. People belong to this age are quick

in making a friendship because their feelings and emotions are quite a

similar to each other. In this age, change in taste is most frequent, due

sudden change in taste; this causes also a break in friendship. Young

people are keen in making friends quickly and more keen in breaking a

friendship more than making it when they find no more pleasure in this

friendship. They mould friendship according to their desires, feelings


and emotions. At this point, real essence of friendship seems to lose its

ground. But this is a fact that young people make and break friendships

quickly. Breaking a friendship does not really mean that they abandon

their friendship or make a permanent boycott. A permanent boycott

occurs in very few cases. There are so many other factors which make

friends apart from each other. To earn their wages, people move from

one place to another, they change their living standards and styles

according to the needs and social demands to keep them updated along

with society. When people migrate from one place to another

according to their needs, they of course leave some of their friends

behind and at new place they also make new friends. Then in this way

it is not the case that people forget their former friends. Their

memories keep on pacing in their minds and when ever they meet

again, it is never than a pleasure while find them again any turn of life.

Similar facts do exist in this film. On the point of friendship

based on pleasure among young, the example of friendship between

Peaches and Louis can be quoted here. Both of the young fellows

remain in each others company while expressing their feeling and

emotions to seek pleasure. Peaches most of the times tells her feelings

and emotions besides expressing herself as young and energetic. She

mostly talks with Louis about Ethon and how to inspire Ethon as she

feels that she is probably in love with him. On the other hand, all other

young animals are enjoying and seeking pleasures of their youthwhile

passing their time in a sort of fun club where a few other young

mammoths are also found. Peaches has been forbidden to go far into

the jungle for the sake of exploration or play in this particular fun club

with other young animals. Inspite of this restriction Peaches goes into

this fun club to meet her other friends as she is unable to stop her self

in doing this. This is because she is young therefore desires to seek all

of the pleasures pertain to her particular age which are not only

expressing her self, communicating her feeling and emotions but also

to enjoy her youth and the playful activities of youth age besides

finding an erotic friendship. As per view of the theorists, young people

fell in love because it is not only in the nature of humans but also in

animals. It is an inborn quality that young animals do also find their

pairs to keep their race existing in the world and it is a definite part of

life cycle. So is the case with Peaches. She is unable to stop herself

falling into love with Ethon as a natural instinct. This is a sort of erotic

relation which is counted also under the flag of friendship by the

theorists. The quality of this friendship is that it eventually changes

into a permanent relation if they get marriage after becoming friends at

first. Some times this sort of erotic friendship is exterminated after

extermination of sexual pleasures. This sort of friendship occupies

most of the part in expressing feelings and emotions among each

other.After establishing this type of friendship, friends want to spend


more and more time with each other thereforethis sort of friendship is a

most time consuming pleasure. Most of the time is consumed while

seeking this sort of pleasure. Examples of this type of friendship are

now commonly observed almost all of the societies in the world.

Theorists mark about this sort of friendship as capable of coming in to

being quickly and in the same way breaking away. It breaks away may

be on the same particular day or may be last for a few hours. But this

seems to be not the case every time, because many of the friendships

which come in to being, which are based purely on the purpose of

seeking pleasures are long lasting many of the times. If you see the

friendship relation amid Manfred, Diego and Sid is based on pleasures

earlier on, which turns eventually in fondness of each other and even

after the passage of many years during which Peaches becomes youth,

they are still friends and their friendship seems to be unbreakable.

Even in serial three, friends are ready to die for a friend. According to

the point of view by the theorists, this type of friendship should not be

the long lasting one which is existed on the manner of pleasure as these

friends obtain their pleasures earlier on. This is why, because in the

manner of friendship between Manfred, Diego and Sid the matter is

more than seeking the pleasures. They are infact good people, their

friendship resides more on the basis of goodness, and they have some

utilities and interests in common therefore the friendship is seemed to

be endless amid them. On the basis of these facts, it can be said that

mode of friendships can be changed at any time and any level of the

life from one stance to another, from one factor to another according to

the situations, conditions and also the changes which occur inside the

mind or out side around them.

If we proceed with the factor of pleasure, the example of

friendship between all of the major characters and Buck justifies the

statement of the theorists to a particular extent. This friendship is no

doubt an excellent one but it is not long lasting. Long lasting does not

mean here that their friendship is temporary. When Buck becomes a

friend of them, he is in pursuit of pleasures. He seeks pleasures while

expressing his self many of times in the serial. By the end of this serial,

he is ready to quit the dino-world because he feels that there are no

more pleasures left for him in the underground world. He hardly

accepts the proposal of Manfred and Diego to join their company.

Diego and Manfred persuade him that he could seek pleasures as he

would desire while being in the company of Sid, Crash and Eddie.

Buck is extremely pessimistic at this stage because he considers that

his pleasures lies only with Rudy and after the death of Rudy he has

nothing to do although Rudy is his enemy but wants to enjoy the

pleasures of enemy-ship. Buck is sad at one side as he loses his first

stance of seeking pleasures while living underground or in dino-world

but at the other side he is happy too because he finds a few other very

good friends of his own taste. When Buck is very near to the opening

of way out to the outer world, he listens to the roar of Rudy.

Immediately, he changes his resolution and goes back again to the

world belongs to his own sort of pleasures. Not only this, he seals the

gate-way of this world permanently. In this way, his friendship is

temporary but this does not mean their friendship breaks away. They

remain still friends afterward but they are living apart each other. On

this basis of this example we can not say that friendship based on

pleasures is of short term and breaks away according to the change in

the tastes and temperaments. There is a separation in friendship not the

break away. Buck is departed from other friends and seeks his own

pleasure according to his own mental satisfaction and desires but this

does not mean that he forgets his very new friends and if you observe

in serial four, other all friends remembers Buck especially Crash and

Eddie who previously enjoy most in company of Buck.

The nature of pleasures depends upon mood and temperament

and to some extent upon mental conditions or stability. Mind gets

mature by the passage of time while recognizing the real facts of life

and having personal experiences. So is the case with the relation of

friendship. Friendship gets mature by the passage of time. In the

beginning friendship is based purely upon the pleasures when it starts

from the age earlier than teenage. Before stepping into teenage, there is

no concept of gender in the way of friendship, but when teenage starts

then it is the time when sexual senses starts developing rapidly as a

human instinct, then at this stage friendship automatically converts in

to erotic friendship. This age is very sensitive and typical of making

and breaking of friendship quickly due to the extreme influence of

feelings and emotions. Teenagers go through many of the important

experiences and facts of relations during this age particularly of the

relation of friendship. After passage of teenage, friends become mature

enough to define their own lines, boundaries, course of action and

future strategies because friendship is not the only relation with which

whole life can be pulled forth. Adults belong to the age of 21 to 25

years define their own plans and strategies for the future based on their

own insights to some extent and partly from the observations. You can

take a view through the examples from this film, at first, when in first

serials Manfred, Sid and Diego seek pleasures together although they

are not teenagers but they have recently stepped into their adulthood.

In serial two, since they are grown more mature and seems to be

satisfied with the pleasures currently sought by them. Inspite of all

favourable circumstances, Manfred remains sad most of the times

even he is amid the company of most amusing friends and pleasures

are also still the same which are being enjoyed by them. This factor is

observed in the beginning of serial two when Manfred is worried about

his race which seems to be extinct apparently and wants to be secluded


because of a specific innate characteristic. By the end of serial two,

Manfred at last finds this sort of friendship when he finds true love

with Ellie. At beginning of the serial two, they are just fellows who are

on expedition, but eventually they become fond of each other while

getting stimulated from certain factors during the film and become

friends of each other. By the end of serial two their friendship turns

into erotic one which eventually results in their permanent bond of

marriage. At the second stance, Diego, who has been a very good

friend till the beginning of serial three, wants to depart because his

pleasures become exterminated and he feels satiated with them. He is

also an adult and is in need of a mate of his opposite sex belong to his

on specie because of innate characteristic. At this moment, Manfred is

mostly busy with his family therefore Diego is been ignored most of

the times. In these circumstances, Diego leaves out their friends to find

his own way for the sake of his own. This fact does not mean that the

friendship has been demolished. They still remain friends but their

ways get apart from each others. As per theorists, when there are no

more pleasures, the friendships break away. But here the case is

different, Diego departs from friends but does not break the friendship

as he joins again when he sees his one of the best friend Sid in trouble

and aims to rescue Sid from the danger. This separation (rather than

break away) and unforgetability is not explained by the theorists may

be because they consider leaving a friend is equivalent to break up in


friendship. According to their view, friends must remain close or rather

in contact with each other. If they are out of contact, then there is no

more friendship amid them. At third stance, another dimension of

friendship is found in the shape of Bucks friendship. Buck becomes

not only a very good and exemplary but a monument of friendship

when after he departs. Buck leaves his own world for his new and ideal

friends with whom he can seek his desired pleasures but soon

afterwards he again changes his mind and returns back to his own

world while leaving their friends out to the world they belong to. Is

this friendship has broken? The researcher thinks, no, not at all. They

leave each other but the friendship does not breaks because in serial

four they still remember Buck as good, gallant and ideal friend. In

these three stances, friendship does not seem to be break away but a

separation does occur. But in the stance of friendship of Peaches and

Louis in serial four, this fact of break away in a friendship is found to

be fulfilled the fact highlighted by theorists in which friendship breaks

away between Peaches and Louis at a moment. When at a particular

moment Peaches exclaims in front of other new friends about the

friendship with Louis that Louis is not a friend of her. By chance Louis

is there at that very place and duly listens to Peaches while she

exclaims in front of other new friends and he becomes extremely

disappointed because of the attitude of Peaches. He suddenly makes a

break from his friendship with Peaches. This moment exactly qualifies

the point view of the theorists. This sort of situation is mostly find

amid the friends belong to young age and it does so in the serial four of

this film. Louis deviates from friendship for a moment but after a few

days he joins back his friend again while exclaiming that never leave a

friend at any cost.

After over viewing all aspects of friendship based on pleasures,

there may be and there certainly are breakups of friendship after

finding no more pleasures or change in tastes, but in this film no such

kind of disintegrations have been found so far except leaving or

deviating temporarily. Friends abandon friends temporarily but do not

break their friendship, or even they depart forever but they still remain




5.1 Conclusions

It was stated before starting this particular research by the

researcher that this animated film has a theme of friendship according

to the major factors of friendship i.e. goodness, utility and pleasure.

These factors do also qualify the features stated by the theorists of

under consideration theory. After going through the delineation and

analysis during the research, it is assumed by the researcher that

friendship comes into being on the basis of previously stated factors.

At first, goodness also covers at least two aspects (a) internal goodness

and (b) external goodness which can also be said as showiness or

affectation. Possessors of internal goodness are infact good man and

possessors of external goodness are no more than show-offs.

Secondly, utility covers a vast area related to personal, impersonal and

social needs. At third, pleasure covers at least two factors related to (a)

personal satisfaction and joys and (b) honour and pride. In case of

these both types, pleasures end with the mental satisfaction. This fact

depends upon the mental stability. Mental stability points towards the

normal humans not the abnormal humans or psychiatry patients.

The second conclusion made by the researcher during the

research is that the factors of friendship i.e. Goodness, Utility, Pleasure

etc. can not be separated from each other easily, because they are

intermingled with each other so immensely and are related to a single

relation at the same time with three separate dimensions. These

dimensions are though different from each other but these serve a

single purpose i.e. making and keeping the friendship perfect and

long lasting.

Goodness leads to two dimensions (i) mutual usefulness and

(ii) the pleasure on the basis of which this particular relation exists.

When friends are good, they will respect each other, and this respect

will appear in the shape of mutual usefulness because they mutually

respect each other. Goodness should be inner goodness, the goodness

of heart and mind to make a friendship perfect and long lasting.

External goodness may lift you up for a specific time but it does not

hold you forever. This external goodness is just for the sake of utility

not for the friendship because people regard you until their needs are

being fulfilled. On the other hand, a person who does the practice of

external goodness, this is because he wants to seek fame and this fame

can do some certain favours to him to gain some certain profits. The

example of this kind is the political leaders who do good for the sake

of their own personal profits.

During the research, the researcher also finds that friendship

itself serves as a utility. This factor has not been highlighted by the

theorists of under consideration theory or may be by the other

theorists. In section 4.2 and 4.2.1 the same fact has been proved that

most of the times friendship itself is utilized by the characters to fulfill

their requirements and needs.

It is not necessary that you seek pleasures only from the

relation of friendship. There are several other ways to seek pleasure

and amusement. But you can not deny the importance of friendship

because pleasures related to your inner self, feelings and emotions are

fulfilled only by the company of friend. You can not tell your personal

problems or feelings to other sources of pleasure such as TV, video

games, visiting historical places, parents and etc.

Ending of pleasures or changing of the tastes does not really

mean that friendship is exterminated, friends depart from each other

but their friendship does not break at all. A friend becomes an

acquaintance afterwards with the passage of time due change in

obligations, commitments and priorities.


Although the theorists do not mention the major aspects of

friendship such as truth, loyalty, honest and mutual respect etc, in their

theory but if we take the features of goodness, utility and pleasure into

consideration then these aspects are automatically covered under these

features. If the friends are good, then they will automatically be true,

sincere, loyal and honest with each other and they will also pay mutual

respect to each other. Utilities make them to remain loyal with each

other. The exchange of goods will be on honest grounds. There will be

equal give and take amid each other. The seeking of pleasures will be

more concrete when will speak truth with each other. Inner emotions

and feelings need fair medium of exchange because they need to trust

each other and they are in need of keeping some secrets safe. So these

aspects cover automatically in these major features.

During this workout, the researcher finds that needs have

remarkable role in making or breaking any friendship. Theorists have

named need as utility. These utilities keep friends communicating

each other in two ways (a) communication for exchange of goods and

commodities and (b) an exchange of gratefulness. In this way utility

serves only for the exchange of goods and commodities. On the other

hand, need has two dimensions (a) need to express inner feelings and

emotions and (b) need pertain to commodities of daily routine life

which. These commodities are infact the utilities required to run on


with daily stuffs. More over, friendship itself serves as utility in such

way when friends communicate their feelings and other things pertain

to their inner selves. On the basis of these assumptions, the researcher

concludes the term of Needs more concrete than the term of utility

because utility has one dimension which is external, whereas need has

two dimensions which cover both internal and external aspects.

As per theorists, friendship breaks away in the absence of

ground of goodness, utility and pleasure. But during the research it is

found that break away in friendship is very less frequent. When we talk

on the basis of goodness and good men, when these qualities are

lost then the breakup in a friendship is certain. Because when you lose

trust on any friend or any friend loses trust on you, then in this

situation your mind will never ready to recognize the other person as

friend and so is the case with other person who will also not mentally

satisfied. This is a guilty stance. On the other hand, on the basis of

absence of utility and pleasure, there will be a turn away or a

deviation from the friendship not a break-away. Because to seek

utilities and pleasures, friends will go farther or places some where

else to find these both factors but this is not certain that their friendship

breaks in this way. They will leave each other but they will not break

their friendship and when ever they get a chance to meet each other,

they will meet the same buddies as they are used to earlier than

leaving each other. The same fact been discussed in chapter one while

been given the quotes of Mahatma Gandhi and Muppets. They both do

say that there is no break away in friendship until the friends do not bid

a formal farewell or goodbye for ever as a proclaim of break up of a

friendship. If they do not bid a formal farewell of breakup mutually

they will remain friends forever and there memories will remain kept

in their minds and hearts. Every one knows this fact which is generally

observed in general life. Therefore, as per researchers observations,

the separation (rather than break away) and unforgetability is not

explained by the theorists may be because they consider leaving a

friend is equivalent to break up in friendship. Whereas, the point view

of the writers of this film is found quite different because deviation

from friendship has been experienced through the research but a

permanent break away has not been found except for the one moment

when Diego reveals his secret about the ambush. This break away or

rather turning against is for a few moments and trust consoles this

break away immediately when at further moments Diego proves

himself true and loyal. Then in this way, there is a sudden break away

and again a make away of friendship. In a later stance of same fact,

there is an example of the character of Buck who at first becomes a

very good and typical friend, and later afterwards becomes a

monument of friendship after his departure from the friends. In this

example, friends are apart from each other but they still are friends and

keep remember each other. Therefore, it is concluded that you have to

announce Now friend, you are not a friend any more from now

onward, to break up a relation of friendship permanently.

5.2 Evaluation

Only theories are not sufficient to understand any extent of any aspect

related to any of the field. Practical is the most necessary part along

with the theory. These are the general assumptions scattered amid all of

the intellectual societies and not the researchers own. Some of the

ground is covered by theory, some is covered by practical experience

and observations and some ground is covered by demonstrations. Here,

these demonstrations are being pointed towards the watching video

films and dramas. This is because some certain facts can be found

easily through these demonstrations which may not be found in general

life. These demonstrations are an easy access towards the

understanding of the assumptions presented by the writers. This fact is

especially more important for the learners of L2 languages just like the

Pakistani students of English literature. When we read the texts, we

mostly miss the real contexts according to the particular situations but

when we practically observe those situations through our own eyes, we

may certainly realize these facts. So in this way, it is suggested that do

watch films and dramas,particularly related to the literature and

theories to get a better understanding. This will not enable you


understand well only but also will enable you to learn L2 more