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Flange

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Aflangeisanexternalorinternalridge,orrim(lip),forstrength,asthe
Lookupflangein
flangeofanironbeamsuchasanIbeamoraTbeamorforattachmentto Wiktionary,thefree
anotherobject,astheflangeontheendofapipe,steamcylinder,etc.,oron dictionary.
thelensmountofacameraorforaflangeofarailcarortramwheel.Thus
flangedwheelsarewheelswithaflangeononesidetokeepthewheels
fromrunningofftherails.Theterm"flange"isalsousedforakindoftool
usedtoformflanges.Pipeswithflangescanbeassembledand
disassembledeasily.

Contents
1 Plumbingorpiping
2 Pipeflanges Railwaywheelflange(left)
2.1 ASMEstandards(U.S.) Tramwheelflange(right)
2.2 Othercountries
3 Compactflanges
3.1 Applicationsofcompactflanges
4 Vacuumflanges
5 Microwave
6 Skiboots
7 Seealso
8 References
9 Furtherreading

Plumbingorpiping
Aflangecanalsobeaplateorringtoformarimattheendofapipewhen
fastenedtothepipe(forexample,aclosetflange).Ablindflangeisaplate Flangedrailwaywheel
forcoveringorclosingtheendofapipe.Aflangejointisaconnectionof
pipes,wheretheconnectingpieceshaveflangesbywhichthepartsare
boltedtogether.

Althoughthewordflangegenerallyreferstotheactualraisedrimorlipofa
fitting,manyflangedplumbingfittingsarethemselvesknownas'flanges':

CommonflangesusedinplumbingaretheSurreyflangeorDanzeyflange,
Yorkflange,SussexflangeandEssexflange.SurreyandYorkflangesfitto
thetopofthehotwatertankallowingallthewatertobetakenwithout
disturbancetothetank.Theyareoftenusedtoensureanevenflowofwater
toshowers.AnEssexflangerequiresaholetobedrilledinthesideofthe Surreyflange
tank.

ThereisalsoaWarixflangewhichisthesameasaYorkflangebuttheshoweroutputisonthetopoftheflange
andtheventontheside.TheYorkandWarixflangehavefemaleadapterssothattheyfitontoamaletank,
whereastheSurreyflangeconnectstoafemaletank.
Aclosetflangeprovidesthemountforatoilet.

Pipeflanges
Therearemanydifferentflangestandardstobefoundworldwide.Toalloweasyfunctionalityandinter
changeability,thesearedesignedtohavestandardiseddimensions.Commonworldstandardsinclude
ASA/ANSI/ASME(USA),PN/DIN(European),BS10(British/Australian),andJIS/KS(Japanese/Korean).

InmostcasestheseareinterchangeableasmostlocalstandardshavebeenalignedtoISOstandards,howeversome
localstandardsstilldiffer(e.g.anANSI/ASMEflangewillnotmateagainstanISOflange).Further,manyofthe
flangesineachstandardaredividedinto"pressureclasses",allowingflangestobecapableoftakingdifferent
pressureratings.Againthesearenotgenerallyinterchangeable(e.g.anANSI/ASME150willnotmatewithan
ANSI/ASME300).[1]

Thesepressureclassesalsohavedifferingpressureandtemperatureratingsfordifferentmaterials.Uniquepressure
classesforpipingcanalsobedevelopedforaprocessplantorpowergeneratingstationthesemaybespecificto
thecorporation,engineeringprocurementandconstruction(EPC)contractor,ortheprocessplantowner.The
ANSI/ASMEpressureclassesforFlatFaceflangesare125#and250#.TheclassesforRingJoint,Tongue&
Groove,andRaisedFaceflangesare150#,300#,(400#unusual),600#,900#,1500#,and2500#.[2]

Theflangefacesarealsomadetostandardizeddimensionsandaretypically"flatface","raisedface","tongueand
groove",or"ringjoint"styles,althoughotherobscurestylesarepossible.

Flangedesignsareavailableas"weldneck","slipon","lapjoint","socketweld","threaded",andalso"blind".[3]

ASMEstandards(U.S.)

PipeflangesthataremadetostandardscalledoutbyASME
B16.5orASMEB16.47aretypicallymadefromforged
materialsandhavemachinedsurfaces.B16.5referstonominal
pipesizes(NPS)from"to24".B16.47coversNPSsfrom
26"to60".Eachspecificationfurtherdelineatesflangesinto
pressureclasses:150,300,400,600,900,1500and2500for
B16.5,andB16.47delineatesitsflangesintopressureclasses
75,150,300,400,600,900.Howevertheseclassesdonot
correspondtomaximumpressuresinpsi.Instead,the
maximumpressuredependsonthematerialoftheflangeand
thetemperature.Forexample,themaximumpressurefora
Class150flangeis285psi,andforaClass300Flangeitis740 ASMEtypeflangeonagaspipeline
psi(bothareforASTMA105CarbonSteelandtemperatures
below100F).

Thegaskettypeandbolttypearegenerallyspecifiedbythestandard(s)however,sometimesthestandardsreferto
theASMEBoilerandPressureVesselCode(B&PVC)fordetails(seeASMECodeSectionVIIIDivision1
Appendix2).TheseflangesarerecognizedbyASMEPipeCodessuchasASMEB31.1PowerPiping,andASME
B31.3ProcessPiping.

MaterialsforflangesareusuallyunderASMEdesignation:SA105(SpecificationforCarbonSteelForgingsfor
PipingApplications),SA266(SpecificationforCarbonSteelForgingsforPressureVesselComponents),orSA
182(SpecificationforForgedorRolledAlloySteelPipeFlanges,ForgedFittings,andValvesandPartsforHigh
TemperatureService).Inaddition,therearemany"industrystandard"flangesthatinsomecircumstancemaybe
usedonASMEwork.

TheproductrangeincludesSORF,SOFF,BLRF,BLFF,WNRF(XS,XXS,STD&Schedule20,40,80),WNFF
(XS,XXS,STD&Schedule20,40,80),SWRF(XS&STD),SWFF(XS&STD),ThreadedRF,ThreadedFF&
LJ,withsizesfrom1/2"to16".Theboltingmaterialusedforflangeconnectionisstudboltsmatedwithtwonut
(washerwhenrequired).InPetrochemicalindustries,ASTMA193B7STUD&ASTMA193B16StudBoltsare
usedasthesehavehightensilestrength.

Othercountries

FlangesintherestoftheworldaremanufacturedaccordingtotheISOstandardsformaterials,pressureratings,
etc.towhichlocalstandardsincludingDIN,BS....havebeenaligned.

Compactflanges
AstheCompactflangesizeincreaseitbecomesrelativelyincreasinglyheavyandcomplexresultinginhigh
procurement,installationandmaintenancecosts.Largeflangediametersinparticulararedifficulttoworkwith,
andinevitablyrequiremorespaceandhaveamorechallenginghandlingandinstallationprocedure,particularlyon
remoteinstallationssuchasoilrigs.

Theprincipledesignoftheflangefaceincludestwoindependentseals.Thefirstsealiscreatedbyapplicationof
sealseatingstressattheflangeheel,butitisnotstraightforwardtoensurethefunctionofthisseal.

Theoretically,theheelcontactwillbemaintainedforpressurevaluesupto1,8timestheflangeratingatroom
temperature.

Theoretically,theflangealsoremainsincontactalongitsoutercircumferenceattheflangefacesforallallowable
loadlevelsthatitisdesignedfor.

ThemainsealistheIXsealring.Thesealringforceisprovidedbytheelasticstoredenergyinthestressedseal
ring.Anyheelleakagewillgiveinternalpressureactingonthesealringinsideintensifyingthesealingaction.This
howeverrequirestheIXringtoberetainedinthetheoreticallocationintheringgroovewhichisdifficulttoensure
andverifyduringinstallation.

Thedesignaimsatpreventingexposuretooxygenandothercorrosiveagents.Thus,thispreventscorrosionofthe
flangefaces,thestressedlengthoftheboltsandthesealring.Thishoweverdependsontheouterdustrimto
remaininsatisfactorycontactandthattheinsidefluidisnotcorrosiveincaseofleakingintotheboltcirclevoid.

Applicationsofcompactflanges

Theinitialcostofthetheoreticalhigherperformancecompactflangeisinevitablyhigherthanaregularflangedue
totheclosertolerancesandsignificantlymoresophisticateddesignandinstallationrequirements.Bywayof
example,compactflangesareoftenusedacrossthefollowingapplications:subseaoilandgasorriser,coldwork
andcryogenics,gasinjection,hightemperature,andnuclearapplications.

Vacuumflanges
Avacuumflangeisaflangeattheendofatubeusedtoconnectvacuumchambers,tubingandvacuumpumpsto
eachother.
Microwave
Inmicrowavetelecommunications,aflangeisatypeofcablejointwhichallowsdifferent
typesofwaveguidetoconnect.

SeveraldifferentmicrowaveRFflangetypesexist,suchasCAR,CBR,OPC,PAR,PBJ,
PBR,PDR,UAR,UBR,UDR,icpandUPX.

Skiboots
Skibootsuseflangesatthetoeorheeltoconnecttothebindingoftheski.Thesizeand Formfactorof
shapeforflangesonalpineskiingbootsisstandardizedinISO5355.Traditionaltelemark PDRandCBR
andcrosscountrybootsusethe75mmNordicNorm,butthetoeflangeisinformallyknown flanges.
asthe"duckbill".Newcrosscountrybindingseliminatetheflangeentirelyanduseasteel
barembeddedwithinthesoleinstead.

Seealso
Casinghead
Closetflange
Victaulic
Swivel

References
1.ASMEB16.5
2.ASMEB16.5
3.ASMEB16.5

Furtherreading Theextensionsatthetoeandheelof
thisskibootproduceflangesusedto
clipintotheskibindings.
ASMEB16.5StandardPipeFlangesuptoandincluding24inches
nominal
ASMEB16.47StandardPipeFlangesabove24inches
ASMESectionII(Materials),PartAFerrousMaterialSpecifications
Nayyar,Mohinder(1999).PipingHandbook,SeventhEdition.NewYork:McGrawHill.ISBN007
0471061.

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Categories: Piping Plumbing Mechanicalengineering Structuralengineering Trainwheels

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