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1. Summarize the significance of the following amendments:

13th amendment (Free) ended slavery

14th amendment (Citizens) Made freed slaves citizens of the US and states cannot deny citizens
equal protection under the law

15th amendment (vote) you cannot deny a citizen the right to vote because of their race

19th amendment women get the right to vote

24th amendment ended the use of poll taxes

2. Describe the goals of each group and the methods they used to achieve those goals.

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

Worked to achieve equality using non-violent, passive resistance

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

- Nonviolent at first, but when confronted in tough places, turn more militant

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

worked for achieving equality using non-violent, passive resistance, Dr. Martin Luther King
Jr; Montgomery Bus Boycott

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Formed by W.E.B. Du Bois. Used litigation to advance the rights of African Americans

Black Panthers
-violence to force violence; education in neighborhood and protection of African Americans in

Nation of Islam
-advancement of African Americans; separating from the establishment that keeps them down

American Indian Movement

-bring attention to the problems of the Native Americans

National Organization of Women (NOW)

worked for womens equality. They used strikes and lobbying to get laws passed; attempted
to get ERA passed, but failed

Chicano Movement/La Raza Unida

-advancement of latino americans; used walk out, lobbying. La Raza worked to get Hispanics
elected into office

Unit 8: The Civil Rights Movement

United Farm Workers (UFW)
-Boycotts; Mexican-American migrant workers; focused on health and rights of these workers

3. Describe the significance of the following laws and programs.

Executive Order 9981

Desegregated the armed forces; signed by Truman

Civil Rights Act of 1957

First civil rights legislation since reconstruction; signed under Eisenhower

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Ended segregation in public facilities and employment; said you cannot deny a citizen their
rights because of their religion, natural origin, race, or sex; signed by President Johnson

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Ended literacy tests in order to vote

Title IX Education Amendments Act

Schools who receive federal funds for athletic programs, must offer the program for both
male and females; increased participation of females in sports; signed by Johnson

Affirmative Action
Purpose was to equalize opportunities for minorities and women

4. How did the following people try to maintain the status quo of the Jim Crow south?
Orval Faubus
Tried to prevent desegregation of schools in Arkansas; Little Rock Nine

George Wallace
Against desegregating Alabama; prevented black students from entering the University
of Alabama

Lester Maddoxx
Refuses to desegregate his restaurant in Georgia after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 saying
he would rather close his restaurant than serve African Americans, which he does when
activists focus their attentions there

Southern Democratic bloc

Wrote the Southern Manifesto; said they were against segregation of schools and
encouraged states to disobey the order

5. Describe the outcome of each court case:

Plessy v. Ferguson (1898) established separate but equal; legalized segregation if there
was an equal facility for colored people

Unit 8: The Civil Rights Movement

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) overturned Plessy; ended segregation in public schools

Mendez v. Westminster (1947) CA case that ended segregation of Mexican Americans and
white students

Sweat v. Painter said UT Law School must admit black students because there was not an
equivalent program for black students

Delgado v. Bastrop ISD TX case that ended segregation of Mexican American and white
students; left in place the segregation of African American students

Hernandez v. Texas cannot purposely have a jury that excludes a person of your own race

White v. Regester populations of legislative districts must be equal; cannot purposely draw
legislative boundaries to include or exclude a race; legislative districts must be
representative of the population

Edgewood ISD v. Kirby TX case that said the states need to find a new way to fund their
school districts; Robin Hood Plan richer districts give some of their money and it is
redistributed to poorer districts

6. Describe the contributions of each civil rights individual.

Thurgood Marshall NAACP attorney in Brown v. Board of Education; will become the first
African American justice in the Supreme Court

Martin Luther King Jr. leader of the Civil Rights Movement; able to bring people from
different backgrounds together

Malcolm X militant civil rights leader that advocates a more violent response to injustice

Rosa Parks leader of the Civil Rights movement that helped start the Montgomery Bus

Cesar Chavez Boycott of grapes; leader of the Chicano movement

Dolores Huerta Chicano/women rights activist

Lyndon B. Johnson passed civil rights legislation through his forceful personality

Betty Friedan National Organization of Women (NOW); wrote the Feminine Mystique;
leader in the womens movement

Unit 8: The Civil Rights Movement