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CONTENTS

Pages
Preface iii
Contents iv
Diagramsandphotog~aphs vi
Abbreviations vii

CHAPTER 1

Charts, books, system of names, International Hydrographic Organization, International Maritime Organization
Navigational information (1.1) 1
Chartsanddiagrams(1.5) 1
Supply of charts (1.35) 6
Navigational warnings (1.55) 8
Admiralty Notices to Mariners (1.62) 9
Upkeepofthechartoutfit(1.71) 11
Books(1.97) 14
System of names (1.135) 18
International Hydrographic Organization (1.149) 19
International Maritime Organization (1.156) 19
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (1.159) 20

CHAPTER 2

The use of charts and other navigational aids


Charts (2.1) 21
Fixing the position (2.32) 26
Lights (2.65) 30
Fog signals (2.71) 31
Buoyage (2.73) 31
Echosoundings(2.79) 32
Squat (2.94) 34
Under-keel c1earance (2.100) 35

CHAPTER 3

Operational information and regulations


Obligatoryreports(3.1) 36
Distressandrescue(3.7) 36
Tonnage and load lines (3.16) 37
National limits (3.23) 37
Vessels requiring special consideration (3.33) 39
Fishing methods (3.55) 43
Ships'routeing(3.63) , 48
Vessel traffic management and port operations (3.70) 49
Exercise areas (3.72) 49
Minefields(3.77) 50
Helicopter operations (3.81) 50
Pilot ladders and mechanical pilot hoists (3.91) 51
International port traffic signals (3.99) 53
Offshore oil and gas operations (3.104) 54
Submarine pipelines and cables (3.129) 59
Overhead power cables (3.137) 60
Pollution of the sea (3.140) 61
Oilslicks(3.158) 63
Conservation (3.159) 63
Historic and dangerous wrecks (3.160) 64
International Safety Management Code (3.161) 64

CHAPTER 4
The sea
Tides (4.1) 65
Tidalstreams(4.13) 67
Ocean currents (4.17) 67
Waves (4.30) 70

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Underwatervo1canoes and earthquakes (4.38) 72
Tsunamis (4.40) 72
Density and salinity of the sea (4.42) 73
Colour of the sea (4.45) 73
Bioluminescence(4.46) 78
Submarine springs (4.48) 78
Coral (4.52) 79
Sandwaves(4.56) 79
Local magnetic anomolies (4.59) 82

CHAPTER 5

Meteorology
General maritime meteorology (5.1) 91
Weather routeing of ships (5.53) 107
Abnormal refraction (5.55) 108
Aurora (5.64) 110
Magnetic and ionospheric storms (5.70) 110
Cloud formations (5.71) 114

CHAPTER 6
Ice
Seaice(6.1) 121
Icebergs(6.17) 127
Iceglossary(6.26) 143

CHAPTER 7

Operations in polar regions and where ice is prevalent


Polarregions(7.1) 150
Approaching ice (7.7) 151
TheMaster'sdutyregardingice(7.18) 152
Icereports(7.20) 152
Ice accumulation on ships (7.22) 153
Operatinginice(7.27) 153
Icebreaker assistance (7.45) 157
Exposuretocold(7.54) 158

CHAPTER 8

Observing and reporting


Hydrographic information (8.1) 161
Renderingofinformation(8.4) 161
Views(8.34) 169

CHAPTER 9

IALA Maritime Buoyage System (9.1) 178

ANNEXES, GLOSSARY AND INDEX


AppendixANationalflags 190
Appendix B The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) 194
Glossary 208
Index 233
DIAGRAMS

LimitsofVolumesofAdmiraltySailingDirections Facingpagel
Areas of Australian and New Zealand Charting Responsibility (1.13). 3
Limits of Volumes of Admiralty Lists of Lights (1.110) 15
Seismicvessels(3.48) 41
Fishing methods (3.55.1-3.55.3) 44-46
Fishing Vessel types (3.55.4) 47
International Port Traffic Signals (3.99) 53
DrillingRigs(3.1O7) 55
Offshore Platforms (3.112) 55
Offshore Mooring Systems (3.116-3.121) 57
World Sea Surface Densities (4.42.1-4.42.2) 74-75
World Sea Surface Salinities (4.44.1-4.44.2) 76-77
Sandwaves(4.56-4.57) 80-81
Sea state photographs (ForceO-Force 12) 83-90
Pressureandwindbelts(5.3) 91
Depressions(5.16) 96
Formation of Fronts in the N Hemisphere (5.17) 98
Occ1usions(5.20) 99
Typical paths of Tropical Storms (5.32) 103
Stormwarningsignals(5.51) 107
Refraction (5.56, 5.58 and 5.62) 109
Auroral forms photographs (5.64) 111-113
Cloud formation photographs (5.71) 115-119
Movement of Arctic Ice (6.13) 125'
Ice Photographs (Photographs 1-28) 129-142
lcingNomograms(7.25) 154
Windchill(7.56) 159
H.1O2-HydrographicNote(8.4) 162-163
Marked up echo-sounder tracing (8.14) 165
H.1O2a-Hydrographic Note for Port Information (8.24) 167-168
H.488-Record of Observations for Variation (8.32) 170-171
Panoramic view (8.36) 174
Aerial Views (8.38.1-8.38.3) 175-176
PiiotageViews(8.39.1-8.39.3) 176-177
Portrait View (8.40) 177
Close-up View (8.41) 177
IALA Buoyage Lateral Marks Regions A and B (9.16.1-9.16.2) 180-181
Local and general direction of buoyage (9.17) 182
IALABuoyage Cardinal marks (9.25) 184
IALA Buoyage Isolated danger, Safe water and Special marks (9.32-9.49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 185
IALABuoyage diagrams (9.5.1-9.5.2) 188-189
National Flags (AnnexA) 190

Meteorological Tables
BeaufortWindScale 92
Seasonal Wind/Monsoon Table-West Pacific and Indian Oceans 95
Tropical Storm Table 102
Dewpoint 106

Meteorological Conversion Tables 120

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ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text.

Directions
N north (northerly, northward, northern, S south
northernmost) SSW south-south-west
NNE north-north-east SW south-west
NE north-east WSW west-south-west
ENE east-north-east W west
E east WNW west-north-west
ESE east-south-east NW north-west
SE south-east NNW north-north-west
SSE south-south-east

Navigation
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System Satnav Satellite navigation
GPS Global Positioning System TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy VTS Vessel Traffic Services
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System

Offshore Operations
ALC Articulated loading column FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
ALP Articulated loading platform SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring SALS Single anchored leg storage system
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring SBM Single buoy mooring
FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offloading SPM Single point mooring
vessel

Organizations
IALA International Association of Lighthouse IMO International Maritime Organization
Authorities NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
IRO International Hydrographic Organization RN Royal Navy

Radio
OF direction finding RT radio telephony
HF high frequency UHF ultra high frequency
LF low frequency VHF very high frequency
MF medium frequency WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
Navtex Navigational Telex System

Rescue and distress


AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centn
System MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon SAR Search and Rescue
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System

Tides
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide MHWS Mean High Water Springs
HW High Water MLHW Mean Lower High Water
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
LW Low Water MLW Mean Low Water
MHHW Mean Higher High Water MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
MHW Mean High Water MSL Mean Sea Level
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps

Times
ETA estimated time of arrival UT Universal Time
ETD estimated time of departure UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time

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ABBREVIATIONS

Units and Miscellaneous

C degrees Celsius km kilometre(s)


dwt deadweight tonnage kn knot(s)
feu forty foot equivalent unit kw kilowatt(s)
fm fathom(s) m metre( s)
it foot(feet} mb millibar( s)
g/cm3 gram per cubic centimetre MHz megahertz
GRP glass reinforced plastic mm millimetre( s)
grt gross register tonnage MW megawatt(s) Ie
gt gross tonnage No number
hp horse power nrt nett register tonnage
hPa hectopascal teu twenty foot equivalent unit
kHz kilohertz

Vessels and cargo ..


HMS Her (His) Majesty's Ship POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship RMS Royal Mail Ship
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas Ro-Ro Roll-on, Roll-off
LOA Length overall SS Steamship
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
MV Motor Vessel VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
MY Motor Yacht

R
..

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