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Stall & Parallel Operation

Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
CONTENT

Stall & Parallel Operation

1. Definition of Stall
2. Requirements for Parallel Operation

3. Operation of Parallel Fans

4. Stall-free Fans & VSD

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall, Stall Definition
Stall means:
status of non-uniform flows,
two air flows at one pressure value,
Typical Axial Fan Curve, Single Operation:

Stall area:
forbidden
for operation. Operation range

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall, Stall Definition

Stall means,
status of non-uniform flow,
two air flows at one pressure value,
Typical Axial Fan Curve (2 Fans Parallel Operation)

Stall area:
forbidden
for operation. Operation range

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall
Stall means,
status of non-uniform flow,
two air flows at one pressure value,
Typical Axial Fan Curve (4 Fans Parallel Operation)

The more fans run in parallel


the larger the stall area
Stall area: the smaller the operation range
forbidden The STALL zone for axial fans in parallel
for operation. Operation range often is much larger than expected !

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall

Disturbance causes the air flow


to separate from one or more of
the blades.

This blocks the air flow through


the corresponding blade cell.

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall

Summary
Curve of curve of
Max. allowed system resistance
one fan two fans
without any saftey margin

Several fan suppliers


do not show or do not
know in detail the
STALL area of their fan
curves

Stall area of pd-line


one fan Stall area of
two fans Always ask for fan
(summary curves starting at 0m/s!
curve)

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall

Possible Consequences:
- rupture of air stream lines at blade edge
- high vibrations with low amplitude at blade
- damage of bearings
- fatigue break of impeller

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Definition of Stall

Reasons:
Turbulent inlet or outlet flow at the fan
System resistance too high because of unexpected aerodynamic
behaviour (wrong system design)
Short-term pressure pulses
(due to Piston Effect of by-passing trains)

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Piston Effect

Axial Fans
(none stall-free)

Stall operation likely for none stall-free fans due to piston effect of by-passing
trains (Metro/Railway application)
Piston effect

stall ! +610Pa
- 610Pa

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Piston Effect

Axial Fans Stall operation likely for none


(none stall-free) stall-free fans due to piston
effect of by-passing trains
(Metro/Railway application)

Piston effect
stall ! - 610Pa
+610Pa

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Detection of stall

Stall detection probe by WITT&SOHN

Stall detection is done by a Petermann probe


in combination with a pressure sensor

Probe located radially in the area of blade tip


- +
During normal (stable) operation the probe
detects a negative or no pressure
difference.

Stall is detected if the pressure difference


exceeds a predefined value

NOTE: A stall detection probe does not eliminate


the stall area of the fan. It only detects
that the fan is not running in a stable area.
Operation of fans in such conditions shall be
avoided!

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
CONTENT

Stall & Parallel Operation

1. Definition of Stall

2. Requirements for Parallel Operation

3. Operation of Parallel Fans

4. Stall-free Fans & VSD

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Requirements for Parallel Operation

For System:
High volume flow
(Qdesign > Qsingle fan)
Moderate pressure drop
Restricted space
Heat resistance
Reversibility (up to 100%)
Cost-effective solution
Robust design

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Requirements for Parallel Operation

For Fan Maker:


None stall-free fan curve
with shown stall area
Cumulative fan curve of parallel fans

INFO:

Most fan makers do not know/ show the


STALL area characteristic of their fans!
(stall control impossible)

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Requirements for Parallel Operation

For Fan Maker:


None stall-free fan curve
with shown stall area
Cumulative fan curve of parallel fans

or

Stall-free fan curve

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
CONTENT

Stall & Parallel Operation

1. Definition of Stall

2. Requirements for Parallel Operation

3. Operation of Parallel Fans


4. Stall-free Fans & VSD

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Installation:
Keep distance between fans to prevent disturbance and interference of
fans

Bad Good

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Installation:
Connect to plenum with separation walls
Ensure symmetric openings
Use shut-off dampers at one side

Bad Good
asymmetric
opening
symmetric
openings
short circuit
separation
of flow
wall

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Installation - Samples:

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Parallel Fan Operation


I. Start in cascade (DOL, weak supply net)
synchronize fan start with opening of damper
1. ensure all dampers are initially closed
2. start-up 1st fan
3. wait for signals
1st fan: full speed and 1st damper: open
4. start-up next fan (step 2. to 4.)
stop procedure with any notice of failure
But:

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Problem:
Switch on an additional fan might lead to
Asymmetry of individual air flow
Moving of duty point of remaining fans into stall area
Uncontrollable pulsing of system
System performance problems
Fan damage

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Parallel Fan Operation


II. Start in parallel (DOL, strong supply net)
synchronize fan start with opening of damper
1. ensure all dampers are initially closed
2. start-up all fans simultaneously
3. wait for signals
all fans: full speed and all dampers: open
stop procedure with any notice of failure
But difficult to achieve
Requires strong supply net

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Operation of Parallel Fans

Parallel Fan Operation


III. Start-up in parallel (VSD)
synchronize fan start with opening of damper
1. ensure all dampers are initially closed
2. start-up all fans simultaneously:
use 1st VSD as master, others as slave
(AOmaster: actual speed AIslave: speed set point)
3. wait for signals
all fans: full speed and all dampers: open
stop procedure with any notice of failure
But expensive

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
CONTENT

Stall & Parallel Operation

1. Definition of Stall

2. Requirements for Parallel Operation

3. Operation of Parallel Fans

4. Stall-free Fans & VSD

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Stall-free Fans & VSD

Stall-free fans by WITT&SOHN :


1. Fans with truly STALL-free fan curve

No limitation during parallel duty


(trouble free)
Max. stability against pressure pulses

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Stall-free Fans & VSD

Stall-free fans by WITT&SOHN : Anti-Stall Device


2. Fans with Anti-Stall Device and
quasi STALL-free fan curve

Still limitation during parallel duty:


Anti-stall device reduces effect of stall,
but continuous operation in stabilized area
not recommended

High stability against pressure pulses


Parallel operation
(trouble-free)
Provides a significant higher level of
reliability of the ventilation system

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Stall-free Fans & VSD

Stall-free fans by WITT&SOHN :


3. Fans with STALL-free fan curve and VSD
Multiple duty points achievable with one blade angle

Constantly high efficiencies

No complex pitch-in-motion impellers


required

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14
Summary

Axial flow fans should not be operated in STALL or in the stabilized STALL area
Piston effects have to be taken into account
Stall can be detected by a Petermann probe
Parallel duty is restricting the operation range of fans with none stall-free
characteristics
For parallel duty it is required to know the characteristic of the stall area
The plant layout should be symmetrically designed
Fan isolation dampers have to be installed for parallel duty
With stall free fans curves parallel duty is no problem anymore

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Witt&Sohn AG Oct-14