IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Partition based Hierarchical Virtual Button Interaction Method for
Wearable Augmented Reality
Loriya Mayank D1 Prof. J.S.Dhobi2
P.G. Student 2Associate Professor
Department of Computer Engineering
Government Engineering College, Sec-28 Gandhinagar (India)
Abstract— In this paper we present a novel object interaction Virtual buttons are defined rectangular region on an image
method for mobile augmented reality and wearable target which can trigger an event when occluded in a camera
augmented reality. Proposed method based on “virtual view provided by Vuforia. Hyejin kim et al. [1] give dynamic
button”.” Virtual button” is name given by vuforia sdk and hierarchical virtual button based interaction method for
these buttons placed on the target frame. Therefore we can precise pointing and high frame ratio but the number of
provide precise and accurate object interaction on image virtual button still more in that method so its require more
target in maximum frame per second. This method uses computing power. We augment Image target with virtual
image target tracker to make occlusion based object information to allow virtual button base interaction. In this
interaction button in wearable AR system and Mobile AR. paper Partition base virtual buttons arranged on image target
We introduced the partition based hierarchical virtual button shown in figure 1. In first layer we can see the detected
method which get more precise, accurate and faster image target. Put four primary virtual button on detected
interaction with augmented object. image target. We can point at a specific location across the
Key words: Mobile AR, Object Interaction, Hand image target with any object that’s mean movable object
Interaction, Virtual Button, Occlusion-Based Interaction must be point on any primary virtual button. Primary virtual
button area is vast so we can split them individually (pointed
I. INTRODUCTION primary virtual button) in secondary virtual buttons for more
In modern time, with recent advances in AR especially precise and accurate interaction. Those secondary virtual
mobile applications use image target tracker are growing for buttons partition (must be in same size) by 1:4 ratio to their
utilizing. To continue in this way, applications require more parent virtual button area. This is secondary virtual buttons
interaction interface like object interaction and hand situated on third layer. Those individual Secondary virtual
interaction for more user attraction. Some difficulty to apply button split to four child virtual buttons by same partition
object interaction due to limitation of computational ratio (1:4) for more precise and accurate pointing. Same
resources in mobile device, Touch screen is also use for partitioning procedure continue for more precise interaction.
interact with content but in case of wearable AR and See the figure and we can say that
binocular mobile AR it is not useful. Lee et al.[2] give A= union of {0, 1, 2, 3}
various type of visible marker for occlusion based Here whole area of image target is A and virtual
interaction in tangible AR which can detect occlusions of button (primary virtual button) are 0,1,2,3
tracked markers. Main advantage of this method is required In layer 2 we can point a particular are in image
less computational power than bare hand tracking and give target so there are four option for pointing by object.
similar result. Suppose we choose the virtual button no 2 than virtual
In this paper, we give a new partition based button split in four secondary virtual buttons, we call them
hierarchical virtual button method for wearable AR pointing 20,21,22,23 so here for virtual button no2
interfaces. Our goal is make precise and accurate pointing P2= {0, 1, 20, 21, 22, 23, 3}
according to degree of proximity to an image target and Same thing for other primary virtual button.
handle virtual content. This method provide interactive When we want more precise location in any
frame rates for lightweight pointing. secondary virtual button so we can apply same splitting base
algorithm. Advantage of this method we can use minimum
II. PARTITION BASED HIERARCHICAL VIRTUAL BUTTON virtual button and get high accuracy. If we use more virtual
buttons then require, more time for scanning and it reduce
the frame rate.
Steps of proposed method
1) Step1: Find image target and track by camera view
2) Step2: Using object interaction to interact with
content by occlusion detection.
3) Step3: Select the primary virtual button on image
target by object and interact with content
4) Step4: Split pointed parent virtual button (step3) to
secondary virtual button using partition base
5) Step5: Select secondary virtual button on image
target and interact with content. step 4 will be
Fig. 1: 3D structure of proposed partition method using continue for more precise interaction but this time
virtual buttons split pointed secondary virtual button.

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Partition based Hierarchical Virtual Button Interaction Method for Wearable Augmented Reality
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/222)

6) Step6: moving hand change the location on image Web Sites
target than repeat step 3 to step 5. [4] Qualcomm.Vuforia.http:www.qualcomm.com/products/
We evaluated the performance of “virtual button based
interaction” by frame rate. We implemented our method on
Asus Zenfone 5 smartphone and utilized Vuforia Unity
Extension as an image tracker to run experiments on an
image target.
A. Speed and Accuracy Improvement:
In proposed method we only partitioning pointed virtual
button so we can reduce the number of virtual button and
give high frame rate than dynamic hierarchical virtual
button interaction method and give same accuracy because
we can partition and split virtual button as per user
requirement so in proposed method provide high accuracy.
1) Frame rate ratio
Dynamic hierarchical Proposed virtual
Layer virtual button base button base
interaction method interaction method
2nd layer 3rd layer 3rd layer
Fps layer
19-28 12-18 30-40 18-25
Table 1: Frame Rate ratio

Our method partition base hierarchical virtual button based
object interaction for wearable AR work for any object
interaction. If we want only hand interaction so we should
work on improve fingertip algorithm and also work on
fingertip button detection algorithm.

This research was supported in part by the Government
Engineering College-Gandhinagar (INDIA). I would like to
express my heartfelt thanks to my respected guide, prof.
J.S.Dhobi for providing me with needed support and
guidance to undertake this research and pursue it to
completion with utmost sincerity. I would also like to thank
my honorable head of department prof. M.B.Chaudhary and
all faculty members for their invaluable help and input.

[1] Hyejin Kim,Elisabeth AdeliaWidjojo and Jae-In
Hwang. “Dynamic Hierarchical Virtual Button-based
Hand Interaction for Wearable AR”. In IEEE virtual
Reality conference 2015 23-27 march,Arles,France.
[2] G.A.Lee, M.Billinghurshurst, and G.J.Kim. “Occlusion
base interaction method for tangible augmented reality
environment”. In proceedings of the 2004 ACM
SIGGRAPH International Conference on Virtual
Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry,
VRCAI ’04, pages 419-426, New York,NY,USA,
[3] T.Lee and T.Hollerer.Hybrid feature “tracking and user
interaction for markerless augmented reality”.In Virtual
Reality Conference,2008.VR’08.IEEE,pages 145-152.

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