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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel

Gaurang A. Parmar 1 Ishankumar Upadhyay 2 Mitul M. Makwana 3 1,2 PG Student, 3 Associate Professor 1,2,3 L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad

AbstractReactor or pressure vessel is the core equipment in processing of petroleum products, working in high temperature and high pressure environment. In vertical reactor skirt is main supporting structure and it is taking all dead and thermal load of reaction. Skirt is attached to reactor by its standard attachment method like matching of center line and outer diameter. In this paper reactor is taken of stainless steel material and thermal analysis is done for this two attachment method by without hot box and with provision of hot box. From FEA result it is shows that with provision of hot box leads to less thermal gradient which is help in generation of less thermal stress at joint and center line attachment method should be used to improve life of joint. Key words: Skirt, Stainless Steel Vessel

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN

Fig. 1: Various attachment method of Skirt to Head

I. INTRODUCTION
I.
INTRODUCTION

Reactors are the heaviest parts of equipment in petrochemical industries, working in high temperature and high pressure environment. Reactor with high temperature may have a lot of problems in safe supporting. In such severe operation condition, there are not only mechanical stress but also a certain high thermal stress existing. Skirt support zone of reactor is one of key parts of the equipment. It is supporting vessel with resistance of equipment dead loads, wind load, seismic load and thermal load. Skirt is mainly attached by welding with head (Dished end) by its standard various attachment method like center line to center line attachment method and outer diameter to outer diameter matching as shown in fig. 1 [1]. As the skirt is circumferential fillet welded to head this excessive temperature cause high thermal gradient because in rector high catalyst fluid with high temperature where welded joint is mostly at room temperature. This high temperature difference cause high thermal stress which leads to cracking at welds and failure of reactor. To reduce the thermal gradient an air pocket is provided between the skirt and head which is named as hot box as shown in fig. 2. It is transfer heat by radiation property of material and keep low thermal gradient of skirt which is results in low thermal stress generation.

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN

Fig. 2: Junction without hot box and with hot box

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN

II.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Apart from pressure applied to inner side of vessel the temperature is also effect on stress generation in skirt. For a given skirt thickness and temperature gradient, the mechanical gradient and stress are directly proportional to the diameter of the vessel [2]. Consequently, temperature gradients which are satisfactory for small diameter vessels should be reduced for larger once by increasing the thickness and length of the insulation on the skirt. Increasing the skirt thickness for a given vessel temperature and length and thickness of insulation reduces the maximum temperature gradient, but with the greater thickness the

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Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/224)

stress remains about the same. Because the thicker skirt is stiffer, cracking at discontinuities in the junction weld is more likely to occur [2]. This temperature gradient can be reduced by provision of hot box because it transfer heat by radiation property of material. Hot box can provide a smooth temperature distribution around the weld line, thereby excessive thermal expansion and thermal stresses will be reduced. Thus without any complicated procedures and with the simple, not expensive but accurate design, expensive and dangerous failures in pressure vessels could be controlled

[3].

Masaaki Oka et al. is observed that switching temperatures affect the thermal fatigue life of the junction, where in shorter injection times result in shorter thermal fatigue lives [4]. It is shows that to increase the life of reactor switching of temperature should be less because higher the switching temperature cause higher temperature gradient which result in higher thermal stress.

III.

REACTOR MATERIAL AND DIMENSIONAL

DATA Design Pressure = 1.1 MPa Design Temperature = 450 °C Insulation (Mineral wool) = 300 mm THK Fireproofing (fiber glass) = 70 mm THK Material for construction = SA 240 grade 316. Modulus of Elasticity = 166600 MPa Yield Strength = 205 MPa

Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol.

Fig. 3: modeling of reactor Analysis is done using ANSYS 15.0. As shown in fig. 4 meshing is done by using solid 90 element with 20 nodes brick element and having temperature degree of freedom at each node. In boundary condition at inside of head design temperature (430 °C) is applied, also Convection film coefficient between insulation and fireproofing and ambient air is considered as 10 W/m 2 ºC and for hot box case Emissivity value of metal and insulation surfaces inside hotbox are considered as 0.9 and 0.8 respectively.

Reactor Dimension, Shell Thickness = 25 mm Shell Length = 1000 mm. Inside Diameter of shell/head
Reactor Dimension,
Shell Thickness = 25 mm
Shell Length = 1000 mm.
Inside Diameter of shell/head = 3200 mm
Ellipsoidal (2:1) dished end thickness = 25 mm
Skirt Thickness = 15 mm
Skirt diameter
= 3215 mm
Skirt Length = 4200 mm
IV.
THERMAL ANALYSIS

As shown in fig. 3 rector is modeled with above calculated data. For the comparison purpose vessel is taken with for different case which include center line matching without hotbox and with hotbox, outer diameter matching without hotbox and with hotbox.

Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol.
Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol.

Fig. 4: Meshing and Boundary Condition Thermal analysis of skirt to dished end junction for four case has been done as shown in fig. 5 & 6. Also variation of temperature with length of skirt (from top of downward direction of skirt) is shown in fig. 7 and 8 with cases of without hot box and with hot box.

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Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/224)

Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol.

Fig. 5: Thermal analysis of rector without hot box

Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol.
Fig. 6: Thermal analysis of rector with hot box From graph of temperature vs. length it
Fig. 6: Thermal analysis of rector with hot box
From graph of temperature vs. length it is clear that
by providing hot box at the skirt to dished end junction leads
to eliminate sudden temperature drop. Because of that
minimum value of temperature gradient will get which
results in less generation of thermal stress.
The variation of temperature in with hot box is
exponentially compare to the linear variation in the case of
without hot box. Graph of case with hotbox indicate that
provision of hot box is economical.
Fig. 8: Variation of Temperature with length of skirt for
without hotbox and with hotbox of Outer diameter matching
V.
CONCLUSION
Thermal Analysis of Different Attachment of Skirt to Dished End Joint of Stainless Steel Vessel (IJSRD/Vol.

As discussed in reactor or vessel skirt to dished end joint can considered as critical because of excessive thermal gradient. By providing hot box at junction gives low thermal gradient compare to the without hot box. Also it can be observed that from two attachment method of skirt to dished end joint center line matching is most suitable because of it can take more radiation heat transfer compare to the outer diameter matching. Graph is indicating clearly that temperature at 100 mm from top of skirt is 9.2 % is higher than joint without hot box for center line matching and for outer diameter matching the value is 8.9 %. So the center line attachment method should be used to reduce thermal gradient. Which leads to higher life of joint.

REFERENCE

[1] Dennis R. Moss, Michael Basic, Pressure vessel Design Manual, 4th Ed; Elsevier, 2013, pp. 186. [2] D. J. BERGMAN, Temperature Gradients in Skirt Supports of Hot Vessels, Journal of Engineering for Industry, ASME, pp. 219-223, 1963. [3] Hossein Shokouhmand, Manoochehr Bozorgmehrian, Conjugated Heat Transfer in Skirt Hot Box in Pressure Vessels, Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ASME, pp. 1-11, 2006. [4] Masaaki Oka, Himsar Ambarita, Masashi Daimaruya Hiroyuki 0Fujiki, Study on the Effects of Switching Temperature on the Thermal Fatigue Life of the Shell to Skirt Junction of Coke Drum, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, ASME, Vol. 133, pp. 1-11, 2011.

Fig. 7: Variation of Temperature with length of skirt for without hotbox and with hotbox of center line matching

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